The Real Reason the Lyme Disease Vaccine Had No Shot

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With the potential for causing a variety of lingering symptoms ranging from lethargy to nervous system damage, Lyme disease has become a perennial concern for people venturing outdoors in the summer months. Carried by deer ticks, the Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria can challenge our immune systems and prove frustrating to treat. About 30,000 cases are reported to the CDC each year, although the total cases of unreported transmissions could be ten times that number.

So why don’t we have a vaccine for it? We did. And it disappeared.

According to Vox, the spread of Lyme cases in the 1990s compelled pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline to research and develop a vaccine called LYMErix that attacked the outer protein present in the bacteria. It did so by becoming proactively aggressive, killing off the bacteria while it was still in the body of the attached and feeding tick. More than 1.5 million people were given the vaccine before 2000. Clinical trials demonstrated up to a 90 percent success rate.

While that kind of efficacy and protection would be welcome today, at the time doctors weren’t quite certain what kind of demographic they should be recommending the vaccine to: There was less information about regional areas of tick concentrations than there is now. The vaccine also required three doses in the span of a year, making it slightly inconvenient; some health insurers resisted the $50 cost for each injection.

Those issues were surmountable over time. But some members of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) panel that had approved the vaccine voiced concern that LYMErix might potentially attack healthy proteins in the body. This autoimmune reaction was never demonstrated in trials, but the theory made consumers wary when it was publicized in the media, and some of those treated complained of arthritis symptoms. Coupled with increasing scrutiny and apprehension over vaccines in general, LYMErix failed to become a staple of vaccination schedules. Sales dropped and GlaxoSmithKline stopped production. With the patent having expired, it’s not likely drug companies will be interested in resurrecting it, only to face additional bad press. Alternative vaccines are being considered, but could take years before coming to market.

In the absence of an effective vaccine, the best way to ward off Lyme remains prevention. If you’re going to be in wooded areas where the ticks tend to congregate, wearing light-colored clothing will help you spot the small nymphs. Insect repellent is important, and examining your body—particularly behind the ears and armpits—for ticks after being outside is also a must. If you find one, remove it with a pair of tweezers.

For more information about Lyme disease, check out our 15 Useful Facts.

[h/t Vox]

A Low-Carb Diet Could Shorten Your Lifespan

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The Atkins, Paleo, and Keto diets may have different gimmicks, but they all share a common message: Carbs are bad and meat is good. Yet a new analysis reported by New Scientist suggests that anyone who buys into this belief may later come to regret it. According to the paper, published in The Lancet Public Health, people who eat a moderate amount of carbs actually live longer than those who avoid them.

For their study, researchers analyzed data previously collected from 15,400 participants in the U.S. They found that people who received about 50 to 55 percent of their calories from carbohydrates had the longest lifespans, roughly four years longer than those who got 30 percent or less of their energy from carbs.

This doesn't necessarily mean that the key to a healthy diet is to stock your pantry with pasta and croissants. The study also showed that people who got up to 70 percent or more of their energy from carbs died one year earlier on average than subjects in the 50 to 55 percent group. A closer examination at the eating of habits of people who ate fewer carbs revealed another layer to the phenomenon: When people avoided carbohydrates in favor of meat, their chances of early death rose, but the opposite was true for people who replaced carb-heavy foods with plant-based fats and proteins, such as nuts, beans, and vegetables.

These numbers point to something dietitians have long been aware of: Eating a diet that's based around animal products isn't ideal. Getting more of your protein from plant-based sources, on the other hand, can lower your blood pressure and reduce your risks of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and certain cancers. Nonetheless, fad diets that forbid people from eating carbs while letting them eat as much steak as they want are still popular because they're an easy way to lose weight in a short amount of time. But as the research shows, the short-term results are rarely worth the long-term effects on your health.

[h/t New Scientist]

Ocean Explorer Jean-Michel Cousteau's Tips for Dealing With Seasickness

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Jean-Michel Cousteau—son of the iconic documentary filmmaker and conservationist Jacques Cousteau—claims to have never experienced seasickness himself. The 80-year-old explorer attributes his luck to the amount of time he's spent on boats filming nature documentaries, exploring marine environments, and raising awareness about conservation issues. So what advice does he have when his shipmates start to look a little green around the gills? Thrillist recently reached out to him for an answer.

Cousteau has seen a fellow sailor succumb to the nausea-inducing rocking of a ship many times. When this happens, he says the best thing to do is avoid the bow, or the front of the ship, but resist the urge to hide out below deck—away from any views of the ocean. Motion sickness occurs when the information sensed by our inner ear doesn't match up with what we see in front of us: In the case of sea travel, this could mean you feel the floor of the boat shifting beneath you while the wall of the galley appears to stay still.

Rather than forcing yourself to forget where you are, Cousteau says the most effective approach is to embrace your enemy. Look out at the water and try to appreciate the sights. Staring intently at the horizon will also help re-balance what you're seeing with what you're sensing. Soon you won't be focusing on that queasy feeling in your stomach. “Suddenly, instead of not feeling well, they’re distracted by our profound connection to the oceans," Cousteau told Thrillist.

And if all else fails and your boat is nowhere near dry land, Cousteau suggests a very Cousteau-esque solution: Slip on your scuba gear and get in the water. Of course, that may not be an option depending on what type of voyage you're on. If that's the case, you may want to consider these more conventional motion sickness remedies.

[h/t Thrillist]

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