Time-Restricted Eating: The One Simple Trick That Might Help You Lose Weight

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You’ve likely heard personal trainers or nutritionists say it’s important to eat breakfast right when you wake up to jump-start your metabolism and begin the day with your engine revving. But a new diet trend called time-restricted eating, which is basically a form of fasting in which you refrain from eating for several hours of the day, flips that thinking on its head: On this plan, you could be awake for several hours before you eat anything.

It might sound counter to conventional dieting advice (not to mention difficult to stick to), but research has found it can be an effective way to stay slim—even if you don’t restrict what you’re eating. Read on for more about the science behind this craze and whether it might be a good meal strategy for you.

THE BASICS

To follow a time-restricted diet (which is also known as intermittent fasting), you can continue eating the same foods you normally do, you just only eat them during a certain number of hours of the day. You start by restricting all eating to an 11- or 12-hour period—so, if you have breakfast at 8 a.m., you’ll have to set forks down by 7 or 8 p.m. You’re allowed to drink water, coffee, or tea (with no milk or sugar) during the fasting periods between bedtime and in the a.m., but you have to steer clear of ingesting anything else.

If you want to give it a shot, it’s a good idea to start slowly, advises Jaclyn Jacobsen, a nutritionist with the Vitamin Shoppe. Begin by fasting for about 12 hours of the day (including the time you sleep). Once you get used to it and it feels fairly easy, try dialing it back even further, allowing yourself to eat only 10 or maybe even eight hours of the day. “Theoretically, the longer you fast, the more fat you are burning for energy in the absence of glucose,” Jacobsen says.

THE BENEFITS

A few animal-based studies suggest that time restriction might be all that’s necessary to help you slim down. Recent research published in the journal Cell Metabolism, for instance, found that this rule can help you maintain a healthy weight—even if you cheat on the weekends. And the study also found that it didn’t matter what you eat: If you eat it during a small window of the day, you’ll still be slimmer than if you eat it at all hours.

In addition to helping you maintain a healthy weight, restrictive eating might also help you have less inflammation and lower your risk of diabetes, heart disease, and other chronic illnesses. Longer fasting periods and less eating in the evening may lower inflammation and risk of breast cancer as well, according to a study published in PLoS One.

It makes your body burn fat more efficiently, too, says Jacobsen: “When glucose is absent, the body will break down fat stores into free fatty acids for energy. This use of free fatty acids enhance fat burning as you are using stored fat for fuel.” And though it may seem contradictory, time-restriction can actually make you less hungry—by normalizing your body’s level of ghrelin (the "hunger hormone"). “Fasting helps the regulation of this hormone so we feel hungry only when we actually need to eat,” Jacobsen says.

And this is where the trainer's advice to "jump-start" your metabolism by eating breakfast takes a beating: “Much research has shown that your metabolic rate actually increases when fasting, so you burn calories more efficiently when you do start eating,” Jacobsen says. Your metabolic function won’t decrease significantly, she says, unless you go at least three full days without eating.

THE DRAWBACKS

Cutting back on the hours you’re allowed to eat might not come naturally. Some people will adapt easily and get used to eating during a small window of time after just a few days, according to Jacobsen, while others will take up to a month to fully adjust. And you might never feel fully acclimated.

Another big drawback: It might not get you the slim-down results you want. “Some individuals, especially women, are very sensitive to any type of hormonal changes in the body, so fasting may offer no additional benefit when compared to eating a whole-foods diet,” she says.

THE VERDICT

You’ll likely see better weight-loss results and feel better if you make healthier food choices in general, Jacobson says; whether you’re doing time-restricted eating or not, she recommends a diet consisting of about 80 percent whole foods (like vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein) and letting yourself indulge in treats 20 percent of the time.

So intermittent fasting might be worth a shot, but keep in mind that skipping midnight snacks or early-morning coffee with cream might not necessarily be ideal for you. “There is no ‘one size fits all’ when it comes to this concept or any other health-related concept,” Jacobsen says. “Nutrition is so individual, so what works for one group of people, may not work for others. It’s all trial and error.”

What Is the Difference Between Heat Exhaustion and Heatstroke

YuriS/iStock via Getty Images
YuriS/iStock via Getty Images

When temperatures begin to climb, many of us can find ourselves growing physically uncomfortable. Indoors or out, warm weather can make us lethargic, sweaty, and nostalgic for winter. There are differences, though, between heat exhaustion—a precursor to more serious symptoms—and heatstroke. So what are they? And how can you treat them?

Heat exhaustion happens when the body begins to overheat as a result of exposure to excessive temperatures or high humidity. (Humidity affects the body's ability to cool off, because sweat cannot evaporate as easily in humid weather.) Sufferers may sweat profusely, feel lightheaded or dizzy, and have a weak or rapid pulse. Skin may become cool and moist. Nausea and headache are also common. With heat exhaustion, it’s necessary to move to a cooler place and drink plenty of fluids, though medical attention is not often required.

If those steps aren't taken, though, heatstroke can set in. This is much more serious and involves the body reaching a dangerous core temperature of 104°F or higher. People experiencing heatstroke may appear disoriented or confused, with flushed skin and rapid breathing. They may also lose consciousness. While heat exhaustion can be treated and monitored at home until symptoms resolve, heatstroke is a medical emergency that requires prompt attention by a health professional. Until help arrives, heatstroke should be treated with cool cloths or a bath, but sufferers should not be given anything to drink.

Although young children and those over the age of 65 are most susceptible to heat-related health issues, anyone can find themselves having a reaction to warm temperatures. If you’re outside, it’s best to drink plenty of fluids, wear light-fitting clothing, and avoid being out in the afternoons when it’s warmest. Because sunburn can compromise the body’s ability to cool itself, wearing sunscreen is also a good idea.

While it’s not always possible to avoid hot or humid weather, monitoring your body for symptoms and returning to a cool space out of the sun when necessary is the best way to stay healthy. If you have older relatives who live alone, it’s also a good idea to check on them when temperatures rise to make sure they’re doing well.

[h/t WWMT]

The Long Stride of Tony Little, Infomercial Titan

Mike Coppola, Getty Images for MTV
Mike Coppola, Getty Images for MTV

Tony Little didn’t see it coming. It was 1983, and the aspiring bodybuilder and future Gazelle pitchman was living in Tampa Bay, Florida, winding down his training for the Mr. America competition that was coming up in just six weeks. While driving to the gym, Little stopped at a red light and waited. Suddenly, a school bus materialized on his left, plowing into Little's vehicle and crumpling his driver’s side door.

Dazed and running on adrenaline, Little got out and sprinted over to find the bus was full of children. After seeing that none of the kids were seriously hurt, he promptly passed out. When Little later awoke, he was in the hospital, where he was handed a laundry list of the injuries he had sustained. There were two herniated discs, a cracked vertebrae, a torn rotator cuff, and a dislocated knee. He struggled to maintain his physique in the weight room and made only a perfunctory appearance at that year's Mr. America competition. Little's dreams of becoming a professional bodybuilder had been derailed courtesy of an errant school bus, whose driver had been drunk.

Though it took some time, Little eventually overcame the setback, pivoting from his original goal of being a champion bodybuilder to becoming one of the most recognizable pitchmen in the history of televised advertising. Before he did that, however, he would have to recover from another car accident.

 

For someone so devoted to physical achievement, Little was constantly being undercut by obstacles. During a high school football game, Little—who was a star player on his team in Ohio—ended up tearing the cartilage in his knee after he collided with future NFL player Rob Lytle. From that point on, Little's knee popped out of place whenever he stepped onto the field or went to gym class.

Tony Little is photographed at the premiere of Vh1's 'Celebrity Paranormal Project' in Hollywood, California in 2006
John M. Heller, Getty Images

In There’s Always a Way, his 2009 autobiography, Little wrote about how that injury—and the loss of a potential athletic scholarship—caused him to act out. A friend of his stole a Firebird and took Little for a joyride. When they were caught, Little took the blame; as he was under 18, Little figured he would get by with a slap on the wrist, while his older friend might be tried and convicted of a serious crime as an adult. According to Little, the judge gave him a pass on the condition that he relocate to Tampa Bay, where he could live with his uncle and put some distance between himself and the negative influences in his life. Little agreed.

Because of his previous injury, Little was unable to play football after making the move to Florida; instead, he devoted himself to his new high school’s weight room, where a bad knee was not nearly as limiting. After graduating, he pursued bodybuilding, earning the titles of Junior Mr. America and Mr. Florida. Little envisioned a future where he would be a fitness personality, selling his own line of supplements when he wasn't competing professionally.

The school bus changed all that. Little, who was now unable to train at the level such serious competition required, retreated to his condo, where he said he relied on painkillers to numb the physical and emotional pain of the accident. More misfortune followed: Little accidentally sat in a pool of chemicals at a friend’s manufacturing plant, suffering burns. He also had a bout with meningitis.

While Little was convalescing from this string of ailments and accidents, he saw Jane Fonda on television, trumpeting her line of workout videos. Little was intrigued: Maybe he didn’t need to have bodybuilding credentials to reach a wider audience. Maybe his enthusiastic approach to motivating people would be enough.

By now it was the mid-1980s, and a very good time to get into televised pitching. In 1984, President Ronald Reagan signed the Cable Communications Policy Act, which deregulated paid airtime for cable networks. Herbalife was the first to sign up, airing an infomercial for their line of nutritional products. Soon, stations were broadcasting all kinds of paid programs. Exercise advice and equipment pitches were abundant, a kind of throwback to department stores that used to feature product demonstrations. It was not enough to read about a Soloflex, which used resistance bands to strengthen muscles. It was better to see it in action.

Now that he was back in shape, Little was ready to make his mark. He was told by his local cable access channel that he could buy 15 half-hours of airtime for $5500. To raise the money, Little started a cleaning service for gyms and health clubs. After airing installments of an exercise program, he was picked up by the Home Shopping Network (HSN). Little made his HSN debut in 1987. With his energetic pitch and trademark ponytail, he sold 400 workout videos in four hours.

 

Little was on the home-shopping and infomercial circuit for years before landing his breakthrough project. In 1996, the Ohio-based company Fitness Quest was preparing to launch their Gazelle, an elliptical trainer that could raise the heart rate without any impact on joints. People used their hands and feet to move in a long stride that felt effortless.

Little felt he would be the perfect spokesperson for the Gazelle and entered into an arrangement with Bob Schnabel, the company's president. The night before the infomercial was scheduled to shoot, Little was driving when he got into another serious car accident that required 200 stitches in his face. Little called Schnabel to break the news, and was told he’d have to be replaced.

Tony Little demonstrates a Gazelle during an MTV upfront presentation in New York in 2016
Mike Coppola, Getty Images for MTV

Undaunted, Little flew from Florida to Ohio to speak to Schnabel in person. By insisting that he could make the story inspirational (and that he could cover up his injuries with make-up), Little managed to convince Schnabel to proceed with the infomercial as planned. The Gazelle ended up with $1.5 billion in revenue, with Little’s other ventures—Cheeks sandals, bison meat, and a therapeutic pillow—bringing the total sales of his endorsed products to more than $3 billion. Little later reprised his Gazelle pitch for a Geico commercial, which also served as a stealth ad for the machine—which is still on the market.

While pitching wound up being relatively low-impact, it was not completely without problems. Little once said that the accumulation of appearances—more than 10,000 in all—has done some damage to his neck because of constantly having to swivel his head between the camera and the model demonstrating his product.

Those appearances have made Little synonymous with the machine. In 2013, the Smithsonian's National Zoo wondered what to name their new baby gazelle. The answer: Little Tony.

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