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25 Trailblazing Female Firsts

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Gender discrimination has been an unwelcome fact of life for centuries, with women at various times having to fight for the right to do something as simple as owning a credit card or serving on a jury. While the ignorance of lawmakers and society at large has been a perpetual obstacle, there are plenty of women who navigated sexism and made their mark on history. Take a look at 25 who refused to be defined by their gender.

1. MARIE OWENS // FIRST AMERICAN FEMALE POLICE OFFICER

When her husband, Thomas, died of typhoid in 1888, Marie Owens needed to support her five children: She got a job enforcing child labor laws, first with the Chicago Department of Health and then the city's police department. Proudly sporting a police star and powers of arrest, Detective Sergeant Owens spent her career uncovering illegal child hires and promoting educational resources among employers. She was so successful that her tenure lasted well beyond a later official mandate that effectively stopped the hiring of women. (It was later rescinded.) When she died in 1927 at age 70, she had logged more than 32 years on the force.

2. VALENTINA TERESHKOVA // FIRST WOMAN IN SPACE

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During the Cold War, the Soviet Union and the United States were jockeying for position in the uncharted territories of space travel. Aboard the Vostok 6 in 1963, cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova made history for Russia by becoming the first woman to orbit the earth. (To allow the U.S. those honors, argued General Kamanin, would "hurt the patriotic feelings of Soviet women.") Tereshkova took pictures of the planet and the moon, and logged reports of the physical effects of spaceflight. (She also had a brush with disaster when she discovered that her craft was programmed to ascend but not descend, a fault that was quickly fixed.) Her trip remains the only solo female excursion into orbit, although it might not have been the most hygienic: Tereshkova forgot to pack her toothbrush.

3. SALLY PRIESAND // FIRST AMERICAN ORDAINED FEMALE RABBI

When Sally Priesand was a teenager in Cleveland, Ohio in the 1950s and 1960s, it was virtually unheard of for a female to occupy any of the religious roles traditionally held by men. Undeterred, she enrolled in rabbinic school after a stint at the University of Cincinnati. When she began applying at synagogues, she found that the idea of a woman rabbi was almost incomprehensible to her interviewers. Despite the lack of opportunities, she was fully ordained in 1972 and spoke out valiantly for equality in the faith through her retirement in 2006.

4. KATHRYN BIGELOW // FIRST FEMALE BEST DIRECTOR OSCAR WINNER

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Since the first ceremony in 1929, the Academy Awards passed their Best Director statuette to a male every single year—and through 2010, only four females had even been nominated for the honor. But the streak ended that year when Kathryn Bigelow beat out frontrunner (and former husband) James Cameron for her work on The Hurt Locker, an intense Iraqi war drama. Her nomination and win helped shine a light on the disparity in the film business, though these statistics are still true today—no woman has been nominated since Bigelow's historic win. According to The New York Times, 93 percent of the top 250 films of 2009 were directed by men; unfortunately, in 2016, the number of women directors for top 250 films was still at just 7 percent [PDF].

5. JUNKO TABEI // FIRST WOMAN TO SUMMIT MT. EVEREST

Circa 1975. Getty

At just 5 feet tall and 92 pounds, Junko Tabei co-led a group of 15 women to the summit of Mt. Everest in 1975, becoming the first female ever to reach the peak. Tabei’s effort came after she organized an all-female climbing club after graduating college, encountering resistance from men who believed the treacherous journey was unfit for women. She would eventually ascend the highest summit on every continent.

6. ARLENE PIEPER // FIRST WOMAN TO FINISH A MARATHON

Pieper took on the Pikes Peak marathon in 1959 as a personal challenge and to advertise her and her husband's gym. She chose Pikes Peak because the Boston Marathon wouldn’t allow females to enter the race. Pieper finished in just over nine hours but wasn’t informed she was the first woman to finish a marathon until 2009.

7. SARAH BREEDLOVE // FIRST FEMALE SELF-MADE MILLIONAIRE

Breedlove driving a car. Public domain via Wikimedia Commons

Inheritances are nice but can prove to be little indication of one’s entrepreneurial spirit. When Sarah Breedlove made her fortune, she knew it had come solely as the result of her work ethic. Born to former slaves in 1867, Breedlove was widowed at age 20 and spent years scraping to get by. At the turn of the century, she began advertising a hair-growth tonic she claimed had regrown her own lost locks, and around the same time she met Charles J. Walker, who would become her third husband. The business was so fertile that her salespeople sometimes made up to $15 a day in an era when white blue-collar workers could expect $11 a week. Breedlove—who became best known by her company name, Madam C.J. Walker—died in 1919, regarded as America's first self-made female millionaire.

8. ALASKA P. DAVIDSON // FIRST FEMALE FBI SPECIAL AGENT

Before chauvinistic J. Edgar Hoover took hold of the proto-FBI in 1924, the bureau appointed "refined" Alaska Davidson to the title of special agent. Davidson’s primary focus was on what might now be considered human trafficking: transporting women across state lines for lurid purposes. Davidson was 54 when she started, defying ageism as well as gender inequality.

9. NELLIE TAYLOE ROSS // FIRST WOMAN ELECTED GOVERNOR

From 1925 to 1927, Nellie Tayloe Ross was the sitting governor of Wyoming. While her status as the first female to hold that office is laudable, it came at a steep price: Ross was appointed to run for the seat after her husband, Governor William Bradford Ross, died before his re-election. It was believed Wyoming would be hospitable to a female governor, and history bore that out: Wyoming was the first state to grant women the right to vote, in 1869. Ross was later director of the U.S. Mint from 1933 to 1953.

10. SUSAN B. ANTHONY // FIRST WOMAN ON AN AMERICAN COIN

A devoted proponent of women’s rights, Susan B. Anthony fought for decades so women could own property and enjoy other basic rights men took for granted. To celebrate her achievements, in 1979 the U.S. Treasury put Anthony’s likeness on one dollar coins, marking the first time an actual woman had been featured on non-commemorative U.S. currency. Previously, only Lady Liberty had been bestowed the honor.

11. LIBBY RIDDLES // FIRST FEMALE IDITAROD WINNER

Mushing dogs across 1150 miles of Alaskan landscape is never for the weak of heart, which is why winners of the Iditarod dog sled competition are hailed as formidable competitors. In 1985, Libby Riddles became the first woman to cross the finish line ahead of the pack (she'd also raced in 1980 and 1981). Braving a terrific storm near the end of the line, Riddles took first in just over 18 days of trekking.

12. NANCY LIEBERMAN // FIRST FEMALE NBA COACH

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Before her current role as assistant coach for the Sacramento Kings, Lieberman won a silver medal at the 1976 Olympic Games. That team experience eventually led to coaching positions that culminated in a 2009 post for the Texas Legends NBA developmental league (or, D-League)—the job that made Lieberman the first female head coach of any NBA-affiliated team.

13. KRYSTYNA CHOJNOWSKA-LISKIEWICZ // FIRST WOMAN TO SAIL AROUND THE WORLD SOLO

A native of Poland, Chojnowska-Liskiewicz met her husband through a shared love of the water. But after studying sailing and buying a yacht, the amateur sea captain decided to make a solo venture of her ambition to sail around the world. Launching her journey from the Canary Islands in February 1976, it took her just over two years to land in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.

14. AMELIA EARHART // FIRST WOMAN TO FLY SOLO ACROSS THE ATLANTIC OCEAN

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With no way of knowing she’d become one of the most influential women of the 20th century, all Amelia Earhart had when she made the first female solo flight across the Atlantic was ambition. Earhart had previously been a passenger on the flight in 1928, causing her to feel like "a sack of potatoes." Dissatisfied with the passive experience, she made the trip solo in 1932, opening the door for future generations of female aviators to take control of the burgeoning aviation industry.

15. MARGARET ABBOTT // FIRST AMERICAN FIRST-PLACE FEMALE OLYMPIAN

In 1900, 22-year-old Abbott took first place in the Paris Olympics golf competition. Her secret? Practical dress. Other female entrants wore skirts and high heels: Abbott showed up for business, earning a porcelain bowl for her efforts. (There weren’t any gold medals to hand out that early in the Games’ history, and Abbott also wasn't aware it was an actual Olympic event—she went onto the green thinking it was a regular competition, and it was only after she died that it was realized that the golf game counted as that year's Olympics.)

16. MO'NE DAVIS // FIRST FEMALE TO PITCH A LITTLE LEAGUE WORLD SERIES SHUTOUT

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In 2014, the then 13-year-old Davis made Little League history by becoming the first female to ever pitch a winning shutout game in the county's adolescent World Series tournament. The predominantly male competition had seen only three female pitchers make it to the World Series before, but only Davis pitched a shutout. She later donated her jersey to the National Baseball Hall of Fame.

17. MARGARET BRENT // FIRST WOMAN TO DEMAND A VOTE IN THE AMERICAN COLONIES

In 1648, it was unheard of for any woman to stand before any official assembly and ask—let alone demand—a right to vote. But that’s exactly what Margaret Brent did in the Maryland Assembly that year. Brent, a prominent landowner of the time, spoke out frequently about being represented in official matters in the state’s assembly. While she didn’t succeed, her prowess in handling property like cattle helped keep the colony intact during politically tumultuous times.

18. OPHA MAY JOHNSON // FIRST FEMALE MARINE

From 1775 to 1918, the United States Marine Corps refused to admit any women. When the rule was relaxed, Opha May Johnson was the first to enlist [PDF]. Johnson signed up as a reserve clerk at the age of 40, a trailblazing decision that eventually led to females occupying roles as commanders and generals.

19. EMELINE ROBERTS JONES // FIRST FEMALE DENTIST IN THE U.S.

Excising teeth was a man’s vocation until Emeline Roberts Jones began to think otherwise. The Connecticut native began working on patients officially in 1855, after disclosing to her dentist husband that she had been secretly extracting and filling teeth. After his death, Jones traveled with a portable dental chair in and around Connecticut and Rhode Island to provide for her family. In 1914, the National Dental Association made her an honorary member.

20. GENEVIEVE R. CLINE // FIRST FEMALE FEDERAL COURT JUDGE

In 1928, President Calvin Coolidge appointed the U.S. Treasury’s appraiser of merchandise at the port of Cleveland to be the first female judge to sit on a federal court. Cline sat on the U.S. Customs Court for 25 years, paving the way for future female jurists like Florence Allen and Burnita Shelton Matthews.

21. DIANE CRUMP // FIRST FEMALE KENTUCKY DERBY JOCKEY

Horse racing was never hospitable to female jockeys, preferring compact males to drive the thoroughbreds to victory. Diane Crump was escorted by security through throngs of admirers—and some naysayers—en route to mounting her horse for her first professional race in 1968. Despite chants of "go back to the kitchen," Crump persevered, and two weeks later she won her first professional race on her way to the Kentucky Derby in 1970.

22. ARETHA FRANKLIN // FIRST FEMALE INDUCTEE INTO THE ROCK 'N' ROLL HALL OF FAME

Born in 1942, Franklin’s soulful performances over the decades led to her becoming the first woman to be inducted to the Rock 'n' Roll Hall of Fame, in 1987 (inductions had started the previous year, and 16 men were included at the time). She would later be joined by artists like the Supremes and LaVern Baker, although the Hall of Fame still skews predominantly male.

23. ROBIN HERMAN // FIRST FEMALE REPORTER IN LOCKER ROOMS

In the 1970s, it was unthinkable that a female reporter could—or would even want to—be granted access to the testosterone-fueled locker rooms of pro sports teams. In addition to not being taken seriously in a male-dominated field, there was a belief that the often-naked athletes made for an inappropriate atmosphere for mixing genders. Robin Herman broke that ceiling in 1975: As the NHL reporter for The New York Times, she convinced the two coaches at the NHL All-Star Game to allow her in the back. Women would continue to fight for such access—one even sued to be allowed in locker rooms during the World Series—but Herman has remained a touchstone for equality in sports journalism.

24/25. BARBARA BUTTRICK AND JOANNE HAGEN // FIRST TELEVISED FEMALE BOXERS

Boxing and television went hand-in-glove during the medium’s early years, providing an intimate view of pugilism to a nation that embraced prizefighting. In 1954, female fighters Barbara Buttrick and Joanne Hagen made history by becoming the first two women to strap on gloves for TV cameras. Hagen, the U.S. Women’s Boxing Champion, defeated Buttrick in an eight-round decision. "She’s a real battler," Hagen said of her opponent, "and I’m only sorry we both couldn’t have won."

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The Origins of 5 International Food Staples

Food is more than fuel. Cuisine and culture are so thoroughly intertwined that many people automatically equate tomatoes with Italy and potatoes with Ireland. Yet a thousand years ago those dietary staples were unheard of in Europe. How did they get to be so ubiquitous there—and beyond?

1. TOMATOES

For years, the wonderful fruit that’s now synonymous with Italy was mostly ignored there. Native to South America and likely cultivated in Central America, tomatoes were introduced to Italy by Spanish explorers during the 1500s. Shortly thereafter, widespread misconceptions about the newcomers took root. In part due to their watery complexion, it was inaccurately thought that eating tomatoes could cause severe digestive problems. Before the 18th century, the plants were mainly cultivated for ornamental purposes. Tomato-based sauce recipes wouldn’t start appearing in present-day Italy until 1692 (although even those recipes were more like a salsa or relish than a sauce). Over the next 150 years, tomato products slowly spread throughout the peninsula, thanks in no small part to the agreeable Mediterranean climate. By 1773, some cooks had taken to stuffing tomatoes with rice or veal. In Naples, the fruits were sometimes chopped up and placed onto flatbread—the beginnings of modern pizza. But what turned the humble tomato into a national icon was the canning industry. Within Italy’s borders, this business took off in a big way during the mid-to-late 19th century. Because tomatoes do well stored inside metal containers, canning companies dramatically drove up the demand. The popularity of canned tomatoes was later solidified by immigrants who came to the United States from Italy during the early 20th century: Longing for Mediterranean ingredients, transplanted families created a huge market for Italian-grown tomatoes in the US.

2. CURRY

Bowl of chicken curry with a spoon in it

An international favorite, curry is beloved in both India and the British Isles, not to mention the United States. And it turns out humans may have been enjoying the stuff for a very, very long time. The word “curry” was coined by European colonists and is something of an umbrella term. In Tamil, a language primarily found in India and Sri Lanka, “kari” means “sauce.” When Europeans started traveling to India, the term was eventually modified into “curry,” which came to designate any number of spicy foods with South or Southeast Asian origins. Nonetheless, a great number of curry dishes share two popular components: turmeric and ginger. In 2012, traces of both were discovered inside residue caked onto pots and human teeth at a 4500-year-old archaeological site in northern India. And where there’s curry, there’s usually garlic: A carbonized clove of this plant was also spotted nearby. “We don’t know they were putting all of them together in a dish, but we know that they were eating them at least individually,” Steve Weber, one of the archaeologists who helped make this astonishing find, told The Columbian. He and his colleagues have tentatively described their discovery as "proto-curry."

3. THE BAGUETTE

Several baguettes

A quintessential Gallic food, baguettes are adored throughout France, where residents gobble up an estimated 10 billion every year. The name of the iconic bread ultimately comes from the Latin word for stick, baculum, and references its long, slender form. How the baguette got that signature shape is a mystery. One popular yarn credits Napoleon Bonaparte: Supposedly, the military leader asked French bakers to devise a new type of skinny bread loaf that could be comfortably tucked into his soldiers’ pockets. Another origin story involves the Paris metro, built in the 19th century by a team of around 3500 workers who were apparently sometimes prone to violence during meal times. It’s been theorized that the metro foremen tried to de-escalate the situation by introducing bread that could be broken into pieces by hand—thereby eliminating the need for laborers to carry knives. Alas, neither story is supported by much in the way of historical evidence. Still, it’s clear that lengthy bread is nothing new in France: Six-foot loaves were a common sight in the mid-1800s. The baguette as we know it today, however, didn’t spring into existence until the early 20th century. The modern loaf is noted for its crispy golden crust and white, puffy center—both traits made possible by the advent of steam-based ovens, which first arrived on France’s culinary scene in the 1920s.

4. POTATOES

Bowl of red, white, and black potatoes on wooden table

Historical records show that potatoes reached Ireland by the year 1600. Nobody knows who first introduced them; the list of potential candidates includes everyone from Sir Walter Raleigh to the Spanish Armada. Regardless, Ireland turned out to be a perfect habitat for the tubers, which hail from the misty slopes of the Andes Mountains in South America. Half a world away, Ireland’s rich soils and rainy climate provided similar conditions—and potatoes thrived there. They also became indispensable. For millennia, the Irish diet had mainly consisted of dairy products, pig meats, and grains, none of which were easy for poor farmers to raise. Potatoes, on the other hand, were inexpensive, easy to grow, required fairly little space, and yielded an abundance of filling carbs. Soon enough, the average Irish peasant was subsisting almost entirely on potatoes, and the magical plant is credited with almost single-handedly triggering an Irish population boom. In 1590, only around 1 million people lived on the island; by 1840, that number had skyrocketed to 8.2 million. Unfortunately, this near-total reliance on potatoes would have dire consequences for the Irish people. In 1845, a disease caused by fungus-like organisms killed off somewhere between one-third and one-half of the country’s potatoes. Roughly a million people died as a result, and almost twice as many left Ireland in a desperate mass exodus. Yet potatoes remained a cornerstone of the Irish diet after the famine ended; in 1899, one magazine reported that citizens were eating an average of four pounds’ worth of them every day. Expatriates also brought their love of potatoes with them to other countries, including the U.S. But by then, the Yanks had already developed a taste for the crop: The oldest record of a permanent potato patch on American soil dates back to 1719. That year, a group of farmers—most likely Scots-Irish immigrants—planted one in the vicinity of modern-day Derry, New Hampshire. From these humble origins, the potato steadily rose in popularity, and by 1796, American cookbooks were praising its “universal use, profit, and easy acquirement.”

5. CORN

Corn growing in a field

In the 1930s, geneticist George W. Beadle exposed a vital clue about how corn—also known as maize—came into existence. A future Nobel Prize winner, Beadle demonstrated that the chromosomes found in everyday corn bear a striking resemblance to those of a Mexican grass called teosinte. At first glance, teosinte may not look very corn-like. Although it does have kernels, these are few in number and encased in tough shells that can easily chip a human tooth. Nonetheless, years of work allowed Beadle to prove beyond a shadow of a doubt that corn was descended from teosinte. Today, genetic and archaeological data suggests that humans began the slow process of converting this grass into corn around 8700 years ago in southwestern Mexico. If you're wondering why early farmers showed any interest in cultivating teosinte to begin with, while the plant is fairly unappetizing in its natural state, it does have a few key attributes. One of these is the ability to produce popcorn: If held over an open fire, the kernels will “pop” just as our favorite movie theater treat does today. It might have been this very quality that inspired ancient horticulturalists to tinker around with teosinte—and eventually turn it into corn

BONUS: TEA

Person sitting cross-legged holding a cup of green tea

The United Kingdom’s ongoing love affair with this hot drink began somewhat recently. Tea—which is probably of Chinese origin—didn’t appear in Britain until the 1600s. Initially, the beverage was seen as an exotic curiosity with possible health benefits. Shipping costs and tariffs put a hefty price tag on tea, rendering it quite inaccessible to the lower classes. Even within England’s most affluent circles, tea didn’t really catch on until King Charles II married Princess Catherine of Braganza. By the time they tied the knot in 1662, tea-drinking was an established pastime among the elite in her native Portugal. Once Catherine was crowned Queen, tea became all the rage in her husband’s royal court. From there, its popularity slowly grew over several centuries and eventually transcended socioeconomic class. At present, the average Brit drinks an estimated three and a half cups of tea every day.

All photos courtesy of iStock.

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12 Pieces of 100-Year-Old Advice for Dealing With Your In-Laws
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The familial friction between in-laws has been a subject for family counselors, folklorists, comedians, and greeting card writers for generations—and getting along with in-laws isn't getting any easier. Here are some pieces of "old tyme" advice—some solid, some dubious, some just plain ridiculous—about making nice with your new family.

1. ALWAYS VOTE THE SAME WAY AS YOUR FATHER-IN-LAW (EVEN IF YOU DISAGREE).

It's never too soon to start sowing the seeds for harmony with potential in-laws. An 1896 issue of one Alabama newspaper offered some advice to men who were courting, and alongside tips like “Don’t tell her you’re wealthy. She may wonder why you are not more liberal,” it gave some advice for dealing with prospective in-laws: “Always vote the same ticket her father does,” the paper advised, and “Don’t give your prospective father-in-law any advice unless he asks for it.”

2. MAKE AN EFFORT TO BE ATTRACTIVE TO YOUR MOTHER-IN-LAW.

According to an 1886 issue of Switchmen’s Journal, “A greybeard once remarked that it would save half the family squabbles of a generation if young wives would bestow a modicum of the pains they once took to please their lovers in trying to be attractive to their mothers-in-law.”

3. KEEP YOUR OPINIONS TO YOURSELF.

In 1901, a Wisconsin newspaper published an article criticizing the 19th century trend of criticizing mothers-in-law (a "trend" which continues through to today):

“There has been a foolish fashion in vogue in the century just closed which shuts out all sympathy for mothers-in-law. The world is never weary of listening to the praises of mothers ... Can it be that a person who is capable of so much heroic unselfishness will do nothing worthy of gratitude for those who are dearest and nearest to her own children?”

Still, the piece closed with some advice for the women it was defending: “The wise mother-in-law gives advice sparingly and tries to help without seeming to help. She leaves the daughter to settle her own problems. She is the ever-blessed grandmother of the German fairy tales, ready to knit in the corner and tell folk stories to the grandchildren.”

4. IF RECEIVING ADVICE, JUST LISTEN AND SMILE. EVEN IF IT PAINS YOU.

Have an in-law who can't stop advising you on what to do? According to an 1859 issue of The American Freemason, you'll just have to grin and bear it: “If the daughter-in-law has any right feeling, she will always listen patiently, and be grateful and yielding to the utmost of her power.”

Advice columnist Dorothy Dix seemed to believe that it would be wise to heed an in-law's advice at least some of the time. Near the end of World War II, Dix received a letter from a mother-in-law asking what to do with her daughter-in-law, who had constantly shunned her advice and now wanted to move in with her. Dix wrote back, “Many a daughter-in-law who has ignored her husband’s mother is sending out an SOS call for help in these servantless days,” and advised the mother-in-law against agreeing to the arrangement.

5. STAY OUT OF THE KITCHEN. AND CLOSETS. AND CUPBOARDS.

An 1881 article titled "Concerning the Interference of the Father-in-Law and Mother-in-Law in Domestic Affairs," which appeared in the Rural New Yorker, had a great deal of advice for the father-in-law:

“He will please to keep out of the kitchen just as much as he possibly can. He will not poke his nose into closets or cupboards, parley with the domestics, investigate the condition of the swill barrel, the ash barrel, the coal bin, worry himself about the kerosene or gas bills, or make purchases of provisions for the family under the pretence that he can buy more cheaply than the mistress of the house; let him do none of these things unless especially commissioned so to do by the mistress of the house.”

The article further advises that if a father-in-law "thinks that the daughter-in-law or son-in-law is wasteful, improvident or a bad manager, the best thing for him to do, decidedly, is to keep his thought to himself, for in all probability things are better managed and better taken care of by the second generation than they were by the first. And even if they are not, it is far better to pass the matter over in silence than to comment upon the same, and thereby engender bad feelings.”

6. NEVER COHABITATE.

While there is frequent discussion about how to achieve happiness with the in-laws in advice columns and magazines, rarely does this advice come from a judge. In 1914, after a young couple was married, they quickly ran into issues. “The wife said she was driven from the house by her mother-in-law,” a newspaper reported, “and the husband said he was afraid to live with his wife’s people because of the threatening attitude of her father on the day of the wedding.” It got so bad that the husband was brought up on charges of desertion. But Judge Strauss gave the couple some advice:

“[Your parents] must exercise no influence over you now except a peaceful influence. You must establish a home of your own. Even two rooms will be a start and lay up a store of happiness for you.”

According to the paper, they agreed to go off and rent a few rooms.

Dix agreed that living with in-laws was asking for trouble. In 1919, she wrote that, “In all good truth there is no other danger to a home greater than having a mother-in-law in it.”

7. COURT YOUR MOTHER-IN-LAW.

The year 1914 wasn’t the first time a judge handed down advice regarding a mother-in-law from the bench. According to The New York Times, in 1899 Magistrate Olmsted suggested to a husband that “you should have courted your mother-in-law and then you would not have any trouble ... I courted my mother-in-law and my home life is very, very happy.”

8. THINK OF YOUR IN-LAWS AS YOUR "IN LOVES."

Don't think of your in-laws as in-laws; think of them as your family. In 1894, an article in The Ladies’ Home Journal proclaimed, “I will not call her your mother-in-law. I like to think that she is your mother in love. She is your husband’s mother, and therefore yours, for his people have become your people.”

Helen Marshall North, writing in The Home-Maker: An Illustrated Monthly Magazine four years earlier, agreed: “No man, young or old, who smartly and in public, jests about his mother-in-law, can lay the slightest claim to good breeding. In the first place, if he has proper affection for his wife, that affection includes, to some extent at least, the mother who gave her birth ... the man of fine thought and gentle breeding sees his own mother in the new mother, and treats her with the same deference, and, if necessary, with the same forbearance which he gladly yields his own.”

9. BE THANKFUL YOU HAVE A MOTHER-IN-LAW ... OR DON'T.

Historical advice columns had two very different views on this: A 1901 Raleigh newspaper proclaimed, “Adam’s [of Adam and Eve] troubles may have been due to the fact that he had no mother-in-law to give advice,” while an earlier Yuma paper declared, “Our own Washington had no mother-in-law, hence America is a free nation.”

10. DON'T BE PICKY WHEN IT COMES TO CHOOSING A WIFE; CHOOSE A MOTHER-IN-LAW INSTEAD.

By today's standards, the advice from an 1868 article in The Round Table is incredibly sexist and offensive. Claiming that "one wife is, after all, pretty much the same as another," and that "the majority of women are married at an age when their characters are still mobile and plastic, and can be shaped in the mould of their husband's will," the magazine advised, “Don’t waste any time in the selection of the particular victim who is to be shackled to you in your desolate march from the pleasant places of bachelorhood into the hopeless Siberia of matrimony ... In other words ... never mind about choosing a wife; the main thing is to choose a proper mother-in-law,” because "who ever dreamt of moulding a mother-in-law? That terrible, mysterious power behind the throne, the domestic Sphynx, the Gorgon of the household, the awful presence which every husband shudders when he names?"

11. KEEP THINGS IN PERSPECTIVE.

As an 1894 Good Housekeeping article reminded readers:

“Young man! your wife’s mother, your redoubtable mother-in-law, is as good as your wife is and as good as your mother is; and who is your precious wife's mother-in-law? And you, venerable mother-in-law, may perhaps profitably bear in mind that the husband your daughter has chosen with your sanction is not a worse man naturally than your husband who used to dislike your mother as much as your daughter’s husband dislikes you, or as much as you once disliked your husband’s mother.”

12. IF ALL ELSE FAILS, MARRY AN ORPHAN.

If all else fails, The Round Table noted that “there is one rule which will be found in all cases absolutely certain and satisfactory, and that is to marry an orphan; though even then a grandmother-in-law might turn up sufficiently vigorous to make a formidable substitute.”

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