Do Olympians Have to Pay Tax on Their Medals?

JUNG YEON-JE, AFP/Getty Images
JUNG YEON-JE, AFP/Getty Images

An athlete can train for his or her entire life for an opportunity to compete in the Olympic Games, but victory is never assured. The only guarantee? If you do win, your state government is going to want a piece of the action.

In the United States, medal winners are no different from lotto prize recipients or someone who hits a jackpot in Vegas. The prize is considered income, and income gets taxed. The federal government used to take a chunk of the cash, up until President Barack Obama abolished the so-called "victory tax" in 2016. That leaves only state taxes.

But it’s not really the actual medal that has to be reported—it’s the money awarded by the United States Olympic Committee.

In recognition of representing the United States with a victory, the USOC gifts gold medalists with $37,500; $22,500 for silver; and $15,000 for bronze. That’s the amount that gets earmarked for review as income, with the rate depending on the sum of the athlete’s total earnings.

A good accountant can probably find a way to deduct training expenses, reducing an athlete’s net income. On a state by state basis, athletes might also benefit from politicians lobbying to strike the winnings from being tax-eligible. In Pennsylvania, for example, Rep. Marty Flynn (D) has introduced a bill excluding Olympians and Paralympic athletes from taxation. Until then, anyone from PA who takes home gold will have to set aside about $1100 for the state.

It could be worse. For the 2016 Summer Games, Britain—which placed second in the number of medals won overall—didn't pay its athletes a cent.

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What Causes Red Tides?

William West/AFP/Getty Images
William West/AFP/Getty Images

Every once in a while, the ocean turns the color of blood and scores of dead fish rise to the surface. The phenomenon might look like a biblical plague, but the source is far more mundane. It's just algae.

Red tides occur when there’s a sudden population boom among specific kinds of algae, which in enormous quantities become visible to the naked eye. They occur all over the world. In the Gulf of Mexico, the culprit behind red tides washing onto coastlines from Texas to Florida is usually a type of microscopic algae called Karenia brevis. It produces toxic chemicals that can cause symptoms ranging from sneezing and eye irritation to disorientation, vomiting, and breathing difficulties. It's often fatal for fish, shellfish, turtles, and other wildlife.

The water appears red because of the particular depth at which the algae live. Light waves don’t penetrate seawater evenly, and certain wavelengths travel farther than others. The algae that cause red tides grow at depths that absorb green and blue frequencies of light and reflect red ones.

Not all algal blooms are red; some are blue, green, brown, or even purple. Nor do all algae harm humans or animals. Why and how certain species of algae multiply like crazy and wipe out entire swaths of marine life is still a scientific mystery.

The worst red tide on record occurred in 1946, when a mass of algae stretching for 150 miles along the Florida coastline killed more than 50 million fish, along with hundreds of dolphins and sea turtles. Tourists shied away from the beaches as the bodies of dead sea creatures washed ashore. Smaller incidents are more common, but just as costly. In the past decade alone, fishing and tourism industries in the United States have had an estimated $1 billion in losses due to red tides—and the cost is expected to rise.

Editor's note: This story, which originally ran in 2015, was updated in August 2018.

Why Do So Many Diners Look Like Train Cars?

iStock
iStock

No matter how many fine dining options you may have in your area, there’s something about sitting down in a diner that can’t be matched. Their menus are models of American comfort food, from meatloaf to patty melts. The coffee cups are bottomless. There’s usually a toothpick dispensary at the register.

Many diners across the country have one additional identifying trait: They’re shaped like a train car, a sleek and narrow compartment that looks like it belongs on a set of tracks. When and why did this style choice become synonymous with diners?

In a piece for Atlas Obscura, Anne Ewbank shed some light on the practice. The early 20th century saw a rise in entrepreneurs who were interested in meeting the need for casual dining establishments for people hurrying to or from work. Their ambitions had evolved from the lunch wagons of the late 1800s, which provided shelter from weather by putting up awnings or letting people sit inside on stools.

City ordinances, however, made such operations a little tricky: Many food wagons needed to be permanent fixtures in order to avoid the narrow operating hours mandated by communities. Rather than hire a contractor or lease an existing commercial space, people opted to order prefabricated, mobile carts that could be shipped to their location by rail or towed by truck. These dining cars became known as “diners.”

Like the pop-up locations of today, the diners could appear virtually overnight. Most were delivered in one piece; others were modular, requiring minimal assembly, and could offer a greater variety of styles and seating capacities. For small business owners, their affordability and convenience made it possible to strike out on their own. Some manufacturers even offered to repair fixtures by having the diner shipped back to the factory.

The look became so intertwined with fast-dining that some owners recycled old train cars to capture the aesthetic. Today, even diners built from scratch often mimic the narrow, elongated shape so familiar to patrons—a design now borne out of choice rather than necessity. It's a curious bit of history, and one worth pondering the next time you grab a toothpick.

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