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Fred Morley/Fox Photos/Getty Images
Fred Morley/Fox Photos/Getty Images

The Men Who Invented Fun: A History of Wham-O

Fred Morley/Fox Photos/Getty Images
Fred Morley/Fox Photos/Getty Images

After selling more than 100 million Hula Hoops in 16 months, Arthur “Spud” Melin and Rich Knerr took a look at their books.

They were flat broke.

The Hula had been nothing less than an international sensation, hypnotizing adults and children into rhythmically twisting just to keep a plastic ring from falling to the floor. It was inexplicable. (It was also 1958, before the advent of more sophisticated distractions.) Kids, with their resistant vertebrae, had an easier go of it than some adults, who suffered hernias and slipped discs. Even in the face of abdominal injury, no one could resist the Hoop.  

But as quickly as it started, it was over. Wham-O, Melin and Knerr’s California-based amusements company, had set up so many factories and rolled out so many Hulas that the surplus of inventory robbed them of profits. Millions of rings sat in piles like gargantuan wrist bracelets. The company ended 1958 with losses of $10,000.

Melin and Knerr shrugged. There would be other fads, trends, and ideas. Wham-O took a fair share of wild swings in the marketplace. And when the novelty products missed—like the "Mr. Hootie" egg rake, meant to help users pluck out bits of egg shell from a cracked egg—at least Melin and Knerr managed to amuse themselves. But when the products hit, it made up for the lean years.

In an era dominated by toymakers who had been around for decades, Wham-O innovated or acquired revolutionary ideas: the Frisbee, Slip ‘N Slide, Super Ball, Silly String, and dozens of novelty items, all bearing their unique brand aesthetic. Melin and Knerr were boyhood friends, mugging for cameras and dreaming up ideas—like a mink button that could cover a woman’s navel—too ridiculous for larger companies to ever consider. Anyone, anywhere, could submit an idea to them and potentially get a royalty deal.

Litigation, changing tastes, and corporate shrinkage would eventually undo Wham-O. But not before Melin and Knerr wound up radically reinventing the concept of having fun.

Melin and Knerr showed entrepreneurial spirit early on. Both born in 1925, Knerr made rubber band guns out of apple crates and peddled them at the age of 9; Melin caught and sold halibut door to door. When the two became interested in falconry in their early 20s, they crafted a slingshot to shoot food into the air to train their birds. A local barber suggested they sell the contraption. After buying a hand saw at Sears, they started churning out the weapons and selling them via magazine ads in 1948. 

As business partners, Melin and Knerr had an easy camaraderie. “Spud was the quiet, kind of brainy idea man and more introverted,” says Lori Knerr, Rich’s daughter. “Dad was the extrovert, a more sociable people person, so he was the one who did most interviews and the PR in the later years. They balanced and complemented each other.”

Wham-O was the comic book sound effect they assigned to their ball bearings hitting a target, and a good name for a company that specialized in launching projectiles: blowguns, throwing knives, and tomahawks followed. The adolescent appetite for dangerous weapons and sporting goods was so large that the two were soon grossing $100,000 in annual revenue.

But Melin and Knerr didn’t seem wired for conventional products. Their bowling set consisted of a ball and pins that were sold empty and filled with water to add weight (the innovation also helped reduce shipping costs to retailers); a Wham-O game of catch involved a Pluto Platter, the disc-shaped saucer later re-named Frisbee that some people thought ran along strings; a cap gun that shot peas and beans at pretend cowboys. “Greatest toy invention in years!” ad copy blared. Rare was the tag line that didn't abuse exclamation marks.

Unlike their contemporaries at Mattel or Hasbro, Melin and Knerr didn’t have to navigate a corporate obstacle course. If they liked an idea, it could be implemented immediately. Their research and development team consisted of their kids. Commercials were shot in their own backyards. More importantly, they were actually having as much fun as people thought they were. Knerr once had a baby elephant delivered to Melin’s wife, Suzy, after Melin went on an African safari without him. Before the elephant arrived, he sent a telegram posing as his partner: “Am sending live animal home, please feed it and take care of it until I get home. Love, Spud.”

“An hour later, she sees Dad and another man from work walking up her driveway,” Knerr says. “Then this fake delivery truck arrives, Suzy couldn't see what it was. They had her sign for it first. The elephant was unloaded and the delivery truck left. She didn't know what she was going to do with it.”

An hour later, Knerr had the elephant returned to the circus. In a testament to his marketing aptitude, the stunt was picked up by local press.

Wham-O was also enjoying the creative freedom that came from the plastic injection molding process, a relatively recent innovation in the wooden toy business. The technology allowed them to dream up all sorts of packaged nonsense.

“It was like a new medium,” says Tim Walsh, a Wham-O historian and author of The Wham-O Super Book. “You’d never see a company making both toys and weapons now. But they wanted to see what they could do with it.”

In 1957, Toltoys of Australia brought the concept of the Hula Hoop to Knerr and Melin. Retailers in the United States were skeptical, but the two sensed a hit. They began demonstrating the toy in parks and on television, and the fad quickly went viral. Tens of millions of hoops were snapped up, with Wham-O racing to meet demand.

But knock-off artists had smelled opportunity. With plastic molding so inexpensive, hoop hobbyists didn’t necessarily have any brand loyalty—particularly if the generic was cheaper. By Melin’s estimate, the fad started in January 1958 and ended that October.

Instead of counting a fortune, Wham-O was sitting on inventory they wouldn’t clear for years. Were it not for a chemist and a former World War II spy, things might have stopped being fun.

Ed Headrick looked over the leftover plastic from the Hula implosion and had an idea. Wham-O’s Pluto Platter, meant to capitalize on the 1950s obsession with space and flying saucers, had a wobbly motion to it. If Headrick firmed it up and added ridges to make it more aerodynamic, they might have something.

The Frisbee was reintroduced in the late 1950s, this time as an athletic endeavor. Headrick—a veteran who spied on Nazi movements during World War II—paid college kids to toss the disc on campuses. He was a good player in his own right, earning the nickname “Steady Ed” for his even throws. Frisbee grew so popular that associations and canine variations became commonplace; the Navy experimented on them to see if they could keep flares in the air longer. (They couldn’t.) Real devotees were dubbed “Frisbyterians.”

But Headrick wasn't the only mad scientist on staff. Wham-O had a second secret weapon in Norm Stingley, a chemist who brought them a highly volatile compound his company had been working on. The kinetic energy in the material was substantial: it could bounce over a two-story home.

Stingley and the company spent two years trying to create a manufacturing process that would result in a stable ball (prototypes were prone to exploding). Once perfected, the berserk Super Ball sold six million units in 1965 alone. Five dozen were ordered by the White House. The ball became so popular that football's biggest game, the Super Bowl, was a pun on it. 

Wham-O would never have seen that success if not for their open-door policy: Anyone could telegram, mail, or show up in person with a toy idea. If it was good, the company would license it and pay out a royalty. (Stingley got a penny per ball.) The Slip ‘N Slide, Hacky Sack, and several others were also third-party ideas.

See more: 12 Wacky Products from Wham-O You Have to See to Believe. 

That wouldn’t fly in today’s toy world. “Every toy company has a submission policy,” says Walsh, who also designs games. “Most won’t even look at an idea unless it comes through an agency. Everyone is just too litigious. But Spud and Rich knew good ideas were out there and were willing to listen.”

Headrick was in charge of sifting through ideas, of which one in a thousand might be viable enough to pursue. It was a little like excavating for toy gold, but the results were worthwhile: Slip ‘N Slide, invented by an upholsterer, became one of the company’s biggest perennial sellers. Left strictly to their own sensibilities, items like the Bowmatic bow-making machine and the Super Foam Machine probably wouldn't have kept the lights on. 

Wham-O also benefited from the relative economic sense of advertising nationally. With only network channels to choose from, the odds kids would see ads for the Super Ball were substantial. “They knew if they spent the money, they’d see a return on their investment,” Walsh says. “You’re never going to see a toy that costs a dollar on television again.” The success of the Super Ball and Frisbee largely made up for Wham-O’s misadventures with the Hula Hoop—which, contrary to belief, wound up being a steady seller over time.

(L to R) Rich Knerr, Fred Morrison, and Arthur Melin. Photo courtesy of Phil Kennedy.

By the end of the 1970s, Wham-O had settled into a strange sense of complacency. All the funny product names—Fling-a-Ring, Zip Zap, Water Weinie—had been exhausted. Increasingly, kids were turning less to outdoor play and more toward higher-priced electronic offerings, which meant bigger profit margins for companies. And for every Super Ball they successfully marketed, there were a dozen or more imitators shaving away at market share. Of their new releases, only Magic Window, which displayed psychedelic patterns in grains of sand, was a bonafide hit. 

“People were gravitating towards stuff like Simon and Pong,” Walsh says. “They were more of an old-school company. There was a sense they had passed their heyday.”

Melin and Knerr were also faced with an unfortunate consequence of people trying to have a little too much fun: the Slip 'N Slide, intended for children, proved catastrophic to adults and teens who were too large to use it properly. When lawsuits were brought over serious injuriesincluding one death and two broken necksthe company ceased production. 

The two never publicly commented on the injuries, but for a company that was built on levity, it had to be sobering. When Hasbro tried to buy Wham-O in 1982, Melin and Knerr were responsive. The deal fell apart: That same year, they wound up selling their fun factory for $12 million to Kransco, an outfit that would later market Big Wheels.

Knerr, Walsh says, had seller’s remorse right away. The two stayed on as consultants for several years, but it wasn’t the same. By 1994, when Mattel purchased Wham-O, the San Gabriel factory was down to a skeleton crew keeping up production of only a handful of products. There was no one like Melin or Knerr sitting over a drawing board and trying to come up with an outlandish product.

Today, Wham-O is owned by the Aguilar Group, a private investment company, and still markets their trademark products. Melin passed away in 2002; Knerr, in 2008.  

“It was difficult for dad to see his friend’s health decline,” Lori Knerr says. “They were buddies to the end.”

Knerr and Melin left behind a considerable legacy in the toy world. They had no corporate ego, willing and happy to allow inventors like Springley and Morrison to pose with their creations. With some of their biggest successes selling for under a dollar, no one was priced out of enjoying them. They thrived in a time kids functioned outside, with hits like the Frisbee prompting people to break a sweat.

Most of all, the two were able to get away with something rare in the cutthroat world of toys: they had fun.

“I once asked Rich Knerr about stuff like the Mr. Hootie egg rake,” Walsh says. “They just did it because they thought it was funny.”

Indeed, throughout their careers Melin and Knerr refused to become corporate suits, forever hunting for things that made them smile. One bowling ball-sized promotional Super Ball wreaked havoc in an Australian hotel, putting a hole in the wall before accidentally falling out a window, bouncing 15 stories, and then crashing into a sports car parked on the street below.

They showed little regret. After all, the ball was unharmed. 

Read more: 12 Wacky Products from Wham-O You Have to See to Believe.  

Additional Sources: The WHAM-O Super Book.

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Can You Guess the Secret Word in This Brain Teaser?
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iStock

On his YouTube channel Mind Your Decisions, Presh Talwalkar shares logic puzzles dealing with geometry, statistics, and algebra. The puzzle below from the former Stanford math and economics student features no numbers, but that doesn’t mean it's easy to figure out.

To solve the brain teaser, you need to guess the secret word based on a few clues. Here’s the set-up: A teacher is leading a class and Albert, Bernard, and Cheryl are his students. He writes the words "cat," "dog," "has," "max," "dim," and "tag" on the board. He distributes one sheet of paper to each of his three students, with each piece containing a different letter from one of the words. He then tells them that together their letters spell one of the words on the board. The students only know their letter, they don’t know anyone else's.

The teacher asks Albert if he knows the secret word. Albert says yes, he does know it. Next, the teacher asks Bernard. After some hesitation, he replies that yes, he knows the secret word as well. Finally, the teacher asks Cheryl if she knows what the word is. She thinks for a moment and says that yes she does. Albert, Bernard, and Cheryl have successfully guessed the secret word. Do you know what it is based on their answers?

Figuring out the word without knowing any of its letters may seem difficult, but it’s not impossible. If you don’t know where to start, think about Albert’s answer and use the process of elimination to rule out some of the letters and words written on the board. Keep in mind that Bernard could only come to his conclusion from Albert’s answer, and Cheryl from Bernard’s.

Still lost? If you haven’t gotten to the bottom of it yet, the correct answer is "dog." When Albert answers that he knows what the right word is based on one letter, you can use that information to narrow down his possible letters to one of the six that are never repeated on the board: c, o, h, s, x, and i. And when Bernard says that he knows too, you can deduce that his list of potential letters is limited to t, g, h, or s. That leaves "cat," "dog," and "has" as the three remaining options. Cheryl’s answer confirms that she has the letter d, which means the secret word is "dog."

If you’re looking for a more detailed walkthrough of the puzzle-solving process, check out the video from Presh Talwalkar below.

[h/t Mind Your Decisions]

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Revisit Your Favorite '90s Screensaver With This Free Game
Cahoots Malone
Cahoots Malone

In the '90s, a significant amount of computing power was devoted to generating endless brick mazes on Windows 95. The screensaver has since become iconic, and now nostalgic Microsoft fans can relive it in a whole new way. As Motherboard reports, the animation has been re-imagined into a video game called Screensaver Subterfuge.

Instead of watching passively as your computer weaves through the maze, you’re leading the journey this time around. You play as a kid hacker who’s been charged with retrieving sensitive data hidden in the screensaver of Windows 95 before devious infomancers can get to it first. The gameplay is pretty simple: Use the arrow keys to navigate the halls and press Q and click the mouse to change their design. Finding a giant smiley face takes you to level two, and finding the briefcase icon ends the game. There are also lots of giant rats in this version of the screensaver.

Screensaver Subterfuge was designed by Cahoots Malone as part of the PROCJAM 2017 generative software showcase. You can download it for free for Windows, macOS, and Linux from his website, or if playing a game sounds like too much work, you can always watch videos of the old screensaver on a loop.

[h/t Motherboard]

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