How Bird Poop Nearly Destroyed California's Power Grid

The proud eagle, noble symbol of freedom. But when you gotta go, you gotta go. Image courtesy of IStock.

In 1923, Southern California Edison had a problem. After having tapped into hydroelectric dams in the Sierra Nevada to serve their power-hungry Los Angeles customers with 220,000 volts, the company began receiving reports of short circuits and resulting power interruptions.

Finding the source of the issue would be no easy feat: The cables connecting the dams to the city stretched for 241 miles—at the time, the world’s longest—and the problem could be anywhere along the way.

Edison employees huddled for a solution, speculating on everything from lightning storms to spider webs holding moisture. Months passed with no plausible reason for the outages. A planned upgrade was in danger of being canceled. Big Creek, the site of the dams, had done everything it could to rearrange nature to suit its needs: forests were altered, clouds seeded. Everything seemed to be in order.

Eventually, an explanation was within sight: one worker noticed an eagle surveying the land from the top of a transmission tower. The majestic creature took off, soaring into the sky—and leaving a less-than-majestic trail of poop in its wake.

This bird had plenty of friends. It turned out that flocks of birds producing "voluminous streams of bird excrement" were to blame for the power outages.

Etienne Benson, P.h.D., a University of Pennsylvania professor, recently examined this fecal mystery in a paper [PDF] for the Environmental Humanities journal. Drawing upon the work of engineer Harold Michener and the power company's archives, Benson discovered accounts of the poo conducting electricity from the wires, overloading capacity, and creating flashovers, which diverted power to the steel towers and into the ground. The feces didn’t even need to touch the wires to pass along electricity. And because the energy essentially destroyed the droppings, the birds left no evidence of their dastardly doo doo. It was the perfect crime.

Once Edison determined the problem was excrement, they had to find a way to address it. Fortunately, among Edison’s employees tasked with a solution was the engineer Michener, who also happened to be an amateur ornithologist. The company first installed relays that took some of the load off areas that were used for avian toilet trips, then installed bird guards to prevent vulnerable areas.

The birds, however, would not be so easily dissuaded. They just moved to the next closest perch; because of wind, their poop had a reach farther than Edison had anticipated. Unable to deter the birds from landing, the company next installed excrement pans to catch the feces before it landed on the power line. When that didn’t prove entirely successful, three-inch iron “teeth” were placed on crossbeams, making landing a painful proposition for the birds.

The combination of poop-catch pans and unwelcoming spikes finally brought down the number of flashovers—and killed all the other competing theories for the cause of the problems. As Benson writes: “That is, it was not some mysterious and spectacular new electrical phenomena, as yet undiscovered by scientists, that was to blame for the flashovers, but rather something far more mundane: bird [poop].”

[h/t Science Daily]

Why Can Parrots Talk and Other Birds Can't?

If you've ever seen a pirate movie (or had the privilege of listening to this avian-fronted metal band), you're aware that parrots have the gift of human-sounding gab. Their brains—not their beaks—might be behind the birds' ability to produce mock-human voices, the Sci Show's latest video explains below.

While parrots do have articulate tongues, they also appear to be hardwired to mimic other species, and to create new vocalizations. The only other birds that are capable of vocal learning are hummingbirds and songbirds. While examining the brains of these avians, researchers noted that their brains contain clusters of neurons, which they've dubbed song nuclei. Since other birds don't possess song nuclei, they think that these structures probably play a key role in vocal learning.

Parrots might be better at mimicry than hummingbirds and songbirds thanks to a variation in these neurons: a special shell layer that surrounds each one. Birds with larger shell regions appear to be better at imitating other creatures, although it's still unclear why.

Learn more about parrot speech below (after you're done jamming out to Hatebeak).

Extinct Penguin Species Was the Size of an Adult Human

A penguin that waddled across the ice 60 million years ago would have dwarfed the king and emperor penguins of today, according to the Associated Press. As indicated by fossils recently uncovered in New Zealand, the extinct species measured 5 feet 10 inches while swimming, surpassing the height of an average adult man.

The discovery, which the authors say is the most complete skeleton of a penguin this size to date, is laid out in a study recently published in Nature Communications. When standing on land, the penguin would have measured 5 feet 3 inches, still a foot taller than today’s largest penguins at their maximum height. Researchers estimated its weight to have been about 223 pounds.

Kumimanu biceae, a name that comes from Maori words for “monster" and "bird” and the name of one researcher's mother, last walked the Earth between 56 million and 60 million years ago. That puts it among the earliest ancient penguins, which began appearing shortly after large aquatic reptiles—along with the dinosaurs—went extinct, leaving room for flightless carnivorous birds to enter the sea.

The prehistoric penguin was a giant, even compared to other penguin species of the age, but it may not have been the biggest penguin to ever live. A few years ago, paleontologists discovered 40-million-year-old fossils they claimed belonged to a penguin that was 6 feet 5 inches long from beak to tail. But that estimate was based on just a couple bones, so its actual size may have varied.

[h/t AP]


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