What Color Is a Tennis Ball? The Answer Is Complicated—And Depends on Who You Ask

iStock.com/jujeecmu
iStock.com/jujeecmu

While there’s always some subjectivity in visual perception, some colors are supposed to be constant. Oranges are always orange. Fire trucks are always red. Tennis balls are always yellow.

Or maybe they’re always green.

In The Atlantic, Marina Koren explored the controversial debate over where the ubiquitous felt ball seen on courts or shooting out of serving machines falls on the color spectrum. After discovering that her colleagues perceived the ball different ways—either yellow or green—she attempted to understand why and if there was a definitive answer lurking in those ball cans.

By rule of tennis law—specifically, the International Tennis Federation, or ITF—a tennis ball should be yellow in color. The edict was handed down in 1972, after television viewers had trouble following the movement of white balls. Manufacturers like Gamma Sports also identify their product as yellow—in Gamma’s case, optic yellow.

So why do some people perceive the balls as green? For one thing, a yellow hue presented by itself can be hard for some people to describe. Yellow is easy to identify when contrasted with other colors—think paint swatches—but harder for people to articulate when there’s nothing to compare it to. Second, people tend to make color corrections based on lighting conditions. Some may discount warm colors like gold or cool colors like blue, changing how they perceive and interpret the color spectrum. If they discount cool colors, the ball might appear to be yellow. If they discount warm colors, green.

It’s possible that people who are active in the evenings under artificial light are more likely to discount warm colors, while people active in the daytime and under natural light would discard cool colors, further altering their perceptions.

Objectively, a tennis ball is yellow. But whether it appears that way to you depends on how you see the world.

[h/t The Atlantic]

Philadelphia Phillies File Lawsuit to Prevent Phanatic From Cheering for Other Teams

Hunter Martin/Stringer/Getty Images
Hunter Martin/Stringer/Getty Images

Even people who don't follow baseball would likely recognize the mascot of Philadelphia's baseball team. The Phillie Phanatic—a furry, green, bird-like creature who's been entertaining Phillies fans for decades—consistently ranks among the most popular mascots in the MLB. Now, NPR reports that the Philadelphia Phillies have filed a lawsuit against the character's creators to stop the Phanatic from becoming a free agent.

In the 1970s, the mascots for the Phillies were the fairly forgettable 18th-century siblings Philadelphia Phil and Philadelphia Phyllis. Looking for a change, the baseball team commissioned the New York design firm Harrison and Erickson—whose previous credits included Muppets and the Montreal Expos' Youppi!—to craft a new character to personify Phillies fans. The energetic, passionate, frequently misbehaved Phillie Phantic debuted at Veterans Stadium in April 1978.

More than 40 years later, creators Wayde Harrison and Bonnie Erickson (the puppet designer behind Miss Piggy and Statler and Waldorf) are threatening to make the Phanatic a free agent that cheers for teams other than the Phillies, according to a lawsuit filed by the Philadelphia baseball team. The team claims it paid the design firm $200,000 by the end of 1980, and that a separate licensing deal was struck in 1984 when terms were renegotiated for $215,000. That 1984 agreement, the lawsuit alleges, gave the Phillies the rights to the Phillie Phanatic in perpetuity.

Harrison and Erickson allegedly disagree. According to the lawsuit, the creators sent the Phillies a notice saying they would forbid the team from using the Phanatic's likeness past June 15, 2020 unless a new licensing deal was agreed upon. They also apparently threatened to shop the mascot around to other teams.

This isn't the first time the Phillie Phanatic has been involved in legal trouble. In 2010, the Phanatic was working a private gig when he decided to surprise a woman by tossing her into a pool. She sued, targeting several men known to wear the costume at the time because she didn't know who had been behind the mask.

[h/t NPR]

The Red Sox’s Historic 19-3 Win Over the Yankees Saw Boston's Highest Run Total in Their 117-Year Rivalry

Adam Glanzman / Getty Images
Adam Glanzman / Getty Images

Although the New York Yankees and the Boston Red Sox have faced each other in more than 2200 games over the course of their 117-year rivalry, the score from Thursday night's game proves that there’s still plenty of history yet to be made between the two iconic ball clubs in 2019.

Earlier this season, the teams took part in MLB’s first-ever series in London, with the Yankees winning both games. Though the June 29-30 series produced a staggering 50 combined runs between the teams—setting a two-game record for the rivalry in the process—a more lopsided bit of history happened last night when the Sox bludgeoned the Bronx Bombers 19-3 at Fenway Park.

If you’re into baseball trivia, that’s the most runs the Red Sox have ever scored against the Yankees in a single game, with seven coming in the first inning alone (which also tied a 1989 first-inning record against New York). That 16-run difference is also tied for the highest margin of victory over the Yankees in a game—the Sox previously beat the Yanks 17-1 two times in 2005.

New York made even more dubious history last night: The 12 earned runs given up by starting pitcher Masahiro Tanaka was the most against the Sox since the stat was officially recognized back in 1913. (Earned runs is a stat that counts runs given up by a pitcher without the help of an error by a fielder.)

Even all those runs still slightly trail behind the Yankees's high-water mark for the rivalry: Back in 2000, New York went into Fenway and beat the Sox 22-1. The two teams have 11 more games against each other before the start of the playoffs, so there is still plenty of time to break even more records. 

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