Bug Bombs May Be More Dangerous to You Than the Cockroaches You Want to Kill

iStock.com/BarnabyChambers
iStock.com/BarnabyChambers

The resilience of German cockroaches is no myth. Their diet consists of basically anything, from actual food to flakes of skin and wallpaper. They’re small enough to squeeze out of sight. They can produce up to 400 offspring in a single year. And they laugh at bug bombs for houses.

According to a new study, bug bombs are not only ineffective at killing German cockroaches; they’re probably more dangerous to other occupants of the residence. Namely, you.

The study, conducted by North Carolina State University entomologist Zachary DeVries and published in BMC Public Health, recently shed some light on the issue. DeVries and his team solicited the participation of 30 residential homes with documented cockroach infestations and used gel bait traps in 10 of them. For the rest, researchers used total release foggers, also known as a bug bombs, that release airborne pesticides affecting a bug's nervous system. To assess the efficacy of each, cockroaches were captured and kept near the site of the treatment to maximize the chances of the bugs receiving exposure to them.

Within a month, the gel bait traps reduced German cockroach populations in treated homes by two-thirds or more. Homes treated with bug bombs had no discernible effect on the roaches. Some sites actually saw an increase in the bugs.

German cockroaches have a sturdy constitution when it comes to poison. The bug bombs, researchers noted, are no guarantee of providing a toxic plume even if it reaches the roach. And even that can prove difficult, since the bombs can’t spread through all areas of the house where the bugs might be found. Gel bait traps entice the cockroaches to enter by offering a sweet smell. Consumption of the poison or entrapment results in mass cockroach expiration.

Aside from being a waste of money, bug bombs carry a secondary threat of being toxic to humans. The release of chemicals into a living space can be irritating for some, with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention documenting several cases related to exposure. Sometimes, people overestimate the number of bombs needed, saturating their indoor living space with breathable chemicals. They can also leave residue on surfaces like kitchen counters.

Ultimately, gel bait traps are a reasonable solution for mild infestations. If your problem is so severe you’re considering bombing your house with chemicals, it’s probably best to call a professional instead.

[h/t Gizmodo]

Is There An International Standard Governing Scientific Naming Conventions?

iStock/Grafissimo
iStock/Grafissimo

Jelle Zijlstra:

There are lots of different systems of scientific names with different conventions or rules governing them: chemicals, genes, stars, archeological cultures, and so on. But the one I'm familiar with is the naming system for animals.

The modern naming system for animals derives from the works of the 18th-century Swedish naturalist Carl von Linné (Latinized to Carolus Linnaeus). Linnaeus introduced the system of binominal nomenclature, where animals have names composed of two parts, like Homo sapiens. Linnaeus wrote in Latin and most his names were of Latin origin, although a few were derived from Greek, like Rhinoceros for rhinos, or from other languages, like Sus babyrussa for the babirusa (from Malay).

Other people also started using Linnaeus's system, and a system of rules was developed and eventually codified into what is now called the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). In this case, therefore, there is indeed an international standard governing naming conventions. However, it does not put very strict requirements on the derivation of names: they are merely required to be in the Latin alphabet.

In practice a lot of well-known scientific names are derived from Greek. This is especially true for genus names: Tyrannosaurus, Macropus (kangaroos), Drosophila (fruit flies), Caenorhabditis (nematode worms), Peromyscus (deermice), and so on. Species names are more likely to be derived from Latin (e.g., T. rex, C. elegans, P. maniculatus, but Drosophila melanogaster is Greek again).

One interesting pattern I've noticed in mammals is that even when Linnaeus named the first genus in a group by a Latin name, usually most later names for related genera use Greek roots instead. For example, Linnaeus gave the name Mus to mice, and that is still the genus name for the house mouse, but most related genera use compounds of the Greek-derived root -mys (from μῦς), which also means "mouse." Similarly, bats for Linnaeus were Vespertilio, but there are many more compounds of the Greek root -nycteris (νυκτερίς); pigs are Sus, but compounds usually use Greek -choerus (χοῖρος) or -hys/-hyus (ὗς); weasels are Mustela but compounds usually use -gale or -galea (γαλέη); horses are Equus but compounds use -hippus (ἵππος).

This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.

An Ice Age Wolf Head Was Found Perfectly Preserved in Siberian Permafrost

iStock/stevegeer
iStock/stevegeer

Don’t lose your head in Siberia, or it may be found preserved thousands of years later.

A group of mammoth tusk hunters in eastern Siberia recently found an Ice Age wolf’s head—minus its body—in the region’s permafrost. Almost perfectly preserved thanks to tens of thousands of years in ice, researchers dated the specimen to the Pleistocene Epoch—a period between 1.8 million and 11,700 years ago characterized by the Ice Age. The head measures just under 16 inches long, The Siberian Times reports, which is roughly the same size as a modern gray wolf’s.

Believed to be between 2 to 4 years old around the time of its death, the wolf was found with its fur, teeth, and soft tissue still intact. Scientists said the region’s permafrost, a layer of ground that remains permanently frozen, preserved the head like a steak in a freezer. Researchers have scanned the head with a CT scanner to reveal more of its anatomy for further study.

Tori Herridge, an evolutionary biologist at London’s Natural History Museum, witnessed the head’s discovery in August 2018. She performed carbon dating on the tissue and tweeted that it was about 32,000 years old.

The announcement of the discovery was made in early June to coincide with the opening of a new museum exhibit, "The Mammoth," at Tokyo’s Miraikan National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation. The exhibit features more than 40 Pleistocene specimens—including a frozen horse and a mammoth's trunk—all in mint condition, thanks to the permafrost’s effects. (It's unclear if the wolf's head is included in the show.)

While it’s great to have a zoo’s worth of prehistoric beasts on display, scientists said the number of animals emerging from permafrost is increasing for all the wrong reasons. Albert Protopopov, director of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Sakha, told CNN that the warming climate is slowly but surely thawing the permafrost. The higher the temperature, the likelier that more prehistoric specimens will be found.

And with average temperatures rising around the world, we may find more long-extinct creatures rising from the ice.

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER