The Psychological Reason Kids Love Elmo

Gail Oskin, Getty Images for Children's Hospital Boston
Gail Oskin, Getty Images for Children's Hospital Boston

In 2012, researchers at Cornell University prepared a test for 200 children aged 8 to 11. They were presented with the option of having a cookie or an apple as a snack during a school lunch period. Most children chose the cookie.

Then, researchers conducted a second trial. They offered the same cookie or apple, but this time the apple came affixed with a sticker featuring Elmo from Sesame Street.

Kids in the first group chose apples at a rate of 20 percent. Kids seeing an apple with the sticker picked the apple at a rate of 40 percent. The mere presence of Elmo encouraged children to choose the healthier food option at double the rate of the unstickered fruit.

It’s clear that Elmo—the red-furred, hyper, inquisitive Muppet—strikes a chord with kids. Youngsters tend to stop what they’re doing when he appears on the screen, gripped in a kind of hypnosis. Tickle Me Elmo was one of the toy industry’s biggest success stories, causing long lines when it debuted in 1996. Its appeal wasn’t lost on adults, either, with the vibrating toy soothing the famously stoic Bryant Gumbel during a Today show segment on holiday gifts.

But for children under the age of 4, there’s quite a bit more working in Elmo’s favor than simply being cute. In many ways, he was engineered to resonate with this target audience, and child behavioral experts think they know why.

Elmo wears a tuxedo during a public appearance
Peter Kramer, Getty Images

Visually, Elmo presents as a very atypical presence on camera. He’s virtually the only red Muppet in the show’s cast of characters, which is relevant because young children tend to see bright colors like red more vibrantly at a young age than muted colors. (Brown, for example, tends to bore babies.)

Once Elmo has captured a kid's attention, he manages to keep it by speaking in a unique cadence that some child psychologists have dubbed “parentese,” a gentle vocal rhythm that kids associate with the authority, warmth, and calming effect of their guardians. By speaking in the third person (“Elmo likes you!”), the character also becomes relatable: Young children tend to conceptualize themselves in that manner as they learn their way around language.

"His speech style is 'mother-ese,'" Dr. Lauren Gardner, administrative director of the Autism Center at Johns Hopkins All Children’s Hospital, told CafeMom in 2018. “The high-pitched voice, dragged-out vowel sounds, and exaggerated inflection is how most children are spoken to by caregivers in our culture.”

Initially, Elmo didn’t have much to say. When the character made his first appearance on Sesame Street in 1985, he was not the giggling, slightly mischievous Muppet that was fleshed out later. At first, producers at Sesame Workshop knew simply that he would share many of the same traits as the toddlers watching him on television. He would be open-minded, curious about the world around him, and generally upbeat. By mimicking many of their attributes, he would capture their attention.

"[Elmo is] just like toddlers who are in an exploratory stage of life,” Dr. Tovah Klein, director of the Center for Toddler Development at Barnard College, told Slate in 2013. Both kids and Elmo are “like little scientists, trying out and exploring what is around them, delighting in it.”

For some kids, Elmo speaks to them. For others, he speaks for them. Either way, he’s far more likely to keep a child’s attention than most children’s show characters, relatable in virtually all ways. Except for the fur.

Harry Potter Fans Are Waiting 10 Hours or More to Ride Hagrid’s Roller Coaster

Universal Orlando
Universal Orlando

Muggles will do anything to be a part of the Wizarding World of Harry Potter.

Universal Orlando opened up its newest ride this week at its version of Hogsmeade, the village that surrounds Hogwarts castle. Hagrid's Magical Creatures Motorbike Adventure takes wannabe wizards and witches on a twisting, high-speed flight through the mystical Forbidden Forest.

Diehard fans began waiting overnight outside the park in anticipation of the ride, and it looks like just about everyone had the same idea. At 8:30 a.m. on opening day, the line was already eight hours long, and quickly stretched to 10 hours long by 10:30 a.m., CNN reports.

The line is worth the wait for many fans of the franchise. As Potterheads already know, Rubeus Hagrid, beloved friend of Harry Potter and the gang, has a special affinity for mysterious creatures. So who better to see the beasts of the forest with than the half-giant?

Participants on the ride can choose to sit in Hagrid’s sidecar or in the driver’s seat. The winding track includes appearances by some of our favorite wizards, like Arthur Weasley, and creatures benevolent and otherwise, such as Cornish pixies, massive spiders, and the three-headed dog, Fluffy.

Fans aren’t the only ones wanting to experience the ride. Some of the stars of the film series had a little reunion in Orlando this week to celebrate the opening, including Rupert Grint (Ron Weasley), Tom Felton (Draco Malfoy) and Evanna Lynch (Luna Lovegood).

Unlike the fans, however, they have magic (fame) to keep them from having to wait in 10-hour lines.

Happy riding, Potterheads!

[h/t CNN]

Chernobyl Creator Craig Mazin Urges Visitors to Treat the Exclusion Zone With Respect

Sean Gallup/Getty Images
Sean Gallup/Getty Images

Following the success of the HBO miniseries Chernobyl, one tour company reported that bookings to the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone located in Ukraine rose 35 percent. Now, series creator Craig Mazin is imploring the new wave of tourists to be respectful when snapping selfies at Chernobyl, Gizmodo reports.

A 2500-square-kilometer exclusion zone was established around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant shortly after its reactor exploded in 1986 and flooded the area with harmful radiation. The abandoned towns are still too radioactive for people to live there safely, but they have been deemed safe to visit temporarily with the supervision of a guide.

Chernobyl has supported a dark tourism industry for years, but thanks to the miniseries, photographs taken there are gaining new levels of attention online. News of influencers posing for irreverent selfies at the site of the nuclear disaster quickly went viral. Mazin tweeted:

Regardless of why people are visiting the site, being respectful in the presence of tragedy is always a good idea. It's also smart to resist leaving a tour group to snap the perfect selfie in some abandoned building: Tour companies warn that breaking rules and wandering off approved paths can lead to dangerous radiation exposure.

[h/t Gizmodo]

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