The Psychological Reason Kids Love Elmo

Gail Oskin, Getty Images for Children's Hospital Boston
Gail Oskin, Getty Images for Children's Hospital Boston

In 2012, researchers at Cornell University prepared a test for 200 children aged 8 to 11. They were presented with the option of having a cookie or an apple as a snack during a school lunch period. Most children chose the cookie.

Then, researchers conducted a second trial. They offered the same cookie or apple, but this time the apple came affixed with a sticker featuring Elmo from Sesame Street.

Kids in the first group chose apples at a rate of 20 percent. Kids seeing an apple with the sticker picked the apple at a rate of 40 percent. The mere presence of Elmo encouraged children to choose the healthier food option at double the rate of the unstickered fruit.

It’s clear that Elmo—the red-furred, hyper, inquisitive Muppet—strikes a chord with kids. Youngsters tend to stop what they’re doing when he appears on the screen, gripped in a kind of hypnosis. Tickle Me Elmo was one of the toy industry’s biggest success stories, causing long lines when it debuted in 1996. Its appeal wasn’t lost on adults, either, with the vibrating toy soothing the famously stoic Bryant Gumbel during a Today show segment on holiday gifts.

But for children under the age of 4, there’s quite a bit more working in Elmo’s favor than simply being cute. In many ways, he was engineered to resonate with this target audience, and child behavioral experts think they know why.

Elmo wears a tuxedo during a public appearance
Peter Kramer, Getty Images

Visually, Elmo presents as a very atypical presence on camera. He’s virtually the only red Muppet in the show’s cast of characters, which is relevant because young children tend to see bright colors like red more vibrantly at a young age than muted colors. (Brown, for example, tends to bore babies.)

Once Elmo has captured a kid's attention, he manages to keep it by speaking in a unique cadence that some child psychologists have dubbed “parentese,” a gentle vocal rhythm that kids associate with the authority, warmth, and calming effect of their guardians. By speaking in the third person (“Elmo likes you!”), the character also becomes relatable: Young children tend to conceptualize themselves in that manner as they learn their way around language.

"His speech style is 'mother-ese,'" Dr. Lauren Gardner, administrative director of the Autism Center at Johns Hopkins All Children’s Hospital, told CafeMom in 2018. “The high-pitched voice, dragged-out vowel sounds, and exaggerated inflection is how most children are spoken to by caregivers in our culture.”

Initially, Elmo didn’t have much to say. When the character made his first appearance on Sesame Street in 1985, he was not the giggling, slightly mischievous Muppet that was fleshed out later. At first, producers at Sesame Workshop knew simply that he would share many of the same traits as the toddlers watching him on television. He would be open-minded, curious about the world around him, and generally upbeat. By mimicking many of their attributes, he would capture their attention.

"[Elmo is] just like toddlers who are in an exploratory stage of life,” Dr. Tovah Klein, director of the Center for Toddler Development at Barnard College, told Slate in 2013. Both kids and Elmo are “like little scientists, trying out and exploring what is around them, delighting in it.”

For some kids, Elmo speaks to them. For others, he speaks for them. Either way, he’s far more likely to keep a child’s attention than most children’s show characters, relatable in virtually all ways. Except for the fur.

Netflix's Stranger Things Season 3 Video Is Full of Easter Eggs You Might Have Missed

Joe Keery, Maya Hawke, Priah Ferguson, and Gaten Matarazzo in Stranger Things.
Joe Keery, Maya Hawke, Priah Ferguson, and Gaten Matarazzo in Stranger Things.
Netflix

Stranger Things's third season was full of many surprising twists and turns, not to mention some awkward teen romances. While the gruesome Mind Flayer and the evil Russians were no doubt terrifying, the show kept its sweet touch of nostalgia due mainly to the fact that the Hawkins gang is now smack-dab in the middle of the 1980s.

It doesn’t take a keen eye to see many of the series's '80s references, particularly in the latest season. With scenes taking place at the new mall, references from the decade—including Hot Dog on a Stick, Sam Goody, and Back to the Future—are all part of the setting. However, creators Ross and Matt Duffer wanted to pay true homage to the decade, and thus left Easter eggs throughout the season that you likely missed.

Luckily for us, as BGR reports, Netflix has just released a video explaining the hidden references (with the New Coke debate, Mrs. Wheeler’s erotica novel, and Hopper’s Tom Selleck-inspired Hawaiian shirt among some of our favorites).

Check out the full video above and see what you missed!

[h/t BGR]

Disney's Lady and the Tramp Remake Will Star a Mixed-Breed Rescue Dog Named Monte

Disney
Disney

Following the success of The Lion King, Lady and the Tramp will be the next classic Disney movie to be revamped in 2019. And while most of Disney's live-action remakes boast star-studded casts, the lead in this upcoming film is totally unknown. That's because Monte, a mixed-breed dog from Phoenix, Arizona, spent his pre-Hollywood days living in animal shelters.

As AZ Central reports, Monte will make his film debut as Tramp when Lady and the Tramp releases alongside the launch of Disney+, the company's upcoming streaming service, on November 12. In the original 1955 animated movie, Tramp was portrayed as a mutt who lived on the streets, so instead of looking for a purebred dog to portray the character, producers stayed faithful to the source material.

Monte lived in a New Mexico animal shelter before transferring to HALO Animal Rescue in Phoenix. When the filmmakers went there in search of a star for their movie, he instantly won them over. Like Tramp, Monte is a mixed-breed dog, but the shelter doesn't know exactly what his background is, other than being part terrier. Despite his scrappy appearance, Monte is very well-behaved. He knows how to sit, walk on a leash, and he's friendly with everyone he meets, according to the shelter.

The Lady and the Tramp crew adopted Monte in April 2018, and earlier this month, Disney released the first promotional image of him for the film. It features Monte snuggling up with his co-star, Rose, who plays Lady. True to the original, Lady is portrayed by a purebred cocker spaniel. Though you likely don't recognize the dogs on the poster, you may have heard of the voice actors who will bring them to life: Justin Theroux is playing Tramp and Tessa Thompson is Lady.

[h/t AZ Central]

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER