Kevork Djansezian, Getty Images
Kevork Djansezian, Getty Images

Why Do Awards Shows Have a Red Carpet?

Kevork Djansezian, Getty Images
Kevork Djansezian, Getty Images

For the world premiere of the action-adventure film Robin Hood on October 18, 1922, Egyptian Theater owner Sid Grauman decided he would embellish the spectacle of seeing stars like Douglas Fairbanks arrive by having them walk on a red carpet. Grauman had workers unfurl the carpet outside the theater on Hollywood Boulevard in Los Angeles. It wasn’t just the first time a premiere had used such an adornment—it was the first movie premiere, period.

Grauman probably didn’t realize it at the time, but his selection of color would be imitated at other premieres before being adopted by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 1961. At that year’s Oscars ceremony, attendees walked a red carpet to arrive at the auditorium, a parade of glamour and social status that might be the closest thing the United States has to a royal class. When the arrivals started airing on television in 1964—and the carpet’s color was telecast for the first time for those owning a color set in 1966—red carpets and Hollywood became intertwined.

Workers unroll the red carpet at the 2017 Academy Awards
Kevork Djansezian, Getty Images

If Grauman inspired the Academy, who or what inspired Grauman? According to cultural historian Amy Anderson, he was following in the footsteps of those who considered a red carpet synonymous with wealth, power, and status. In 458 BCE, the play Agamemnon portrayed a king invited to walk a “crimson path” by his calculating wife tired of her husband’s violent ways. In the 15th century, the Aztecs and Mayans considered scarlet-colored carpeting to be a symbol of prosperity, with the dye (made from the cochineal insect) considered a rare and valuable commodity. Like an expensive car or watch, a red carpet implies luxury.

Of more recent history for Grauman was the use of a red carpet for the New York Central Railroad in the early 1900s. Passengers were guided by the path and used it to navigate toward their boarding entrances. He may have even heard that President James Monroe was reportedly invited to walk a red carpet when he got off a riverboat in Georgetown, South Carolina in 1821.

The tradition has become more elaborate than ever. At the annual Academy Awards ceremony, carpet vendors Signature Systems Group will unroll 50,000 square feet of carpet, working a total of 900 man-hours to make sure the 900-foot-long, 33-foot-wide path is ready to be walked upon by the cast of Blade Runner 2049.

Those within a few feet of it might realize the iconic red carpet is not actually red: Signature representatives say it’s more of a burgundy.

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What’s the Difference Between Prison and Jail?
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Many people use the terms jail and prison interchangeably, and while both terms refer to areas where people are held, there's a substantial difference between the two methods of incarceration. Where a person who is accused of a crime is held, and for how long, is a factor in determining the difference between the two—and whether a person is held in a jail or a prison is largely determined by the severity of the crime they have committed.

A jail (or, for our British friends, a gaol) refers to a small, temporary holding facility—run by local governments and supervised by county sheriff departments—that is designed to detain recently arrested people who have committed a minor offense or misdemeanor. A person can also be held in jail for an extended period of time if the sentence for their offense is less than a year. There are currently 3163 local jail facilities in the United States.

A jail is different from the similarly temporary “lockup”—sort of like “pre-jail”—which is located in local police departments and holds offenders unable to post bail, people arrested for public drunkenness who are kept until they are sober, or, most importantly, offenders waiting to be processed into the jail system.

A prison, on the other hand, is usually a large state- or federal-run facility meant to house people convicted of a serious crime or felony, and whose sentences for those crimes surpass 365 days. A prison could also be called a “penitentiary,” among other names.

To be put in a state prison, a person must be convicted of breaking a state law. To be put in a federal prison, a person must be convicted of breaking federal law. Basic amenities in a prison are more extensive than in a jail because, obviously, an inmate is likely to spend more than a year of his or her life confined inside a prison. As of 2012, there were 4575 operating prisons in the U.S.—the most in the world. The country with the second highest number of operating prisons is Russia, which has just 1029 facilities.

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What Do Morticians Do With the Blood They Take Out of Dead Bodies?
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Zoe-Anne Barcellos:

The blood goes down the sink drain, into the sewer system.

I am not a mortician, but I work for a medical examiner/coroner. During an autopsy, most blood is drained from the decedent. This is not on purpose, but a result of gravity. Later a mortician may or may not embalm, depending on the wishes of the family.

Autopsies are done on a table that has a drain at one end; this drain is placed over a sink—a regular sink, with a garbage disposal in it. The blood and bodily fluids just drain down the table, into the sink, and down the drain. This goes into the sewer, like every other sink and toilet, and (usually) goes to a water treatment plant.

You may be thinking that this is biohazardous waste and needs to be treated differently. [If] we can’t put oil, or chemicals (like formalin) down the drains due to regulations, why is blood not treated similarly? I would assume because it is effectively handled by the water treatment plants. If it wasn’t, I am sure the regulations would be changed.

Now any items that are soiled with blood—those cannot be thrown away in the regular trash. Most clothing worn by the decedent is either retained for evidence or released with the decedent to the funeral home—even if they were bloody.

But any gauze, medical tubing, papers, etc. that have blood or bodily fluids on them must be thrown away into a biohazardous trash. These are lined with bright red trash liners, and these are placed in a specially marked box and taped closed. These boxes are stacked up in the garage until they are picked up by a specialty garbage company. I am not sure, but I am pretty sure they are incinerated.

Additionally anything sharp or pointy—like needles, scalpels, etc.—must go into a rigid “sharps” container. When they are 2/3 full we just toss these into one of the biotrash containers.

The biotrash is treated differently, as, if it went to a landfill, then the blood (and therefore the bloodborne pathogens like Hepatitis and HIV) could be exposed to people or animals. Rain could wash it into untreated water systems.

This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.

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