CLOSE
Getty Images
Getty Images

14 Finer Points of the U.S. Flag Code

Getty Images
Getty Images

Tom Pennington/

The National Flag Code was adopted on June 14, 1923, by the National Flag Conference. The representatives from the U.S. Army and Navy and more than 60 other organizations in attendance were charged with examining the rules and procedures of flag display—developed separately by the Army and Navy—and deciding which of those would come together to form a common flag code for everyone. The code (with some edits since its original 1923 version) was adopted as law in 1942.

You know a thing or two about the flag code: no burning, no wearing the flag (except the crucial flag lapel pins, of course – “…the lapel flag pin being a replica, should be worn on the left lapel near the heart”), and no using the flag for advertising. But have you ever actually read the code in its entirety?  Here are some quotes, rules and procedures from the flag code that you might not be familiar with.

1. Sorry, south-paws. During the playing of the National Anthem, you must remove your hat using your right hand.

2. You may be aware that the American flag is only supposed to be displayed from sunrise to sunset, but the code-writers left room for some interpretation: "when a patriotic effect is desired, the flag may be displayed twenty-four hours a day if properly illuminated during hours of darkness.” When is flying a flag not patriotic in effect?

3. “How ought the flag to be hoisted?” you ask. Well, the “Manner of hoisting” section of the code clearly explains: “The flag should be hoisted briskly and lowered ceremoniously.”

4. In the “Particular days of display” section, the code indicates that the flag should be displayed on “all days” but “especially” on particular holidays, including Independence Day, Memorial Day and Thanksgiving, among others. All days are equal, but some are more equal than others.

5.The flag should not be draped over the hood, top, sides, or back of a vehicle or of a railroad train or a boat.

6. When the flag is displayed over the middle of the street, it should be suspended vertically with the union to the north in an east and west street or to the east in a north and south street.

7. When you fly a flag at half-staff, you have to first hoist the flag to the peak before lowering it to half-staff. Then, when you lower it for the day, you have to first raise it to its peak again.

8. The flag is to be flown at half-staff for 30 days after the death of the president or former president of the United States. It is to be flown at a half-staff for ten days after the death of a vice president (as well as the secretary of state, speaker of the house, and a chief justice or former chief justice of the Supreme Court) but it is only flown at half-staff from the day of death until the day of interment for former vice presidents.

9. Don’t even think about festooning Old Glory.

10. And if you’re thinking of using the flag as a receptacle, take note: “The flag should never be used as a receptacle for receiving, holding, carrying, or delivering anything.”

11. “It should not be embroidered on such articles as cushions or handkerchiefs and the like, printed or otherwise impressed on paper napkins or boxes or anything that is designed for temporary use and discard.”

Oops?

12. Per the code, the flag is to be considered a living thing.

13. “The flag, when it is in such condition that it is no longer a fitting emblem for display, should be destroyed in a dignified way, preferably by burning.

14. And, interestingly, “On the admission of a new State into the Union one star shall be added to the union of the flag; and such addition shall take effect on the fourth day of July then next succeeding such admission.”

Happy Fourth of July!

nextArticle.image_alt|e
iStock
arrow
quiz
Begins and Ends: European Cities
iStock
iStock
nextArticle.image_alt|e
Penn Vet Working Dog Center
arrow
Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
New Program Trains Dogs to Sniff Out Art Smugglers
Penn Vet Working Dog Center
Penn Vet Working Dog Center

Soon, the dogs you see sniffing out contraband at airports may not be searching for drugs or smuggled Spanish ham. They might be looking for stolen treasures.

K-9 Artifact Finders, a new collaboration between New Hampshire-based cultural heritage law firm Red Arch and the University of Pennsylvania, is training dogs to root out stolen antiquities looted from archaeological sites and museums. The dogs would be stopping them at borders before the items can be sold elsewhere on the black market.

The illegal antiquities trade nets more than $3 billion per year around the world, and trafficking hits countries dealing with ongoing conflict, like Syria and Iraq today, particularly hard. By one estimate, around half a million artifacts were stolen from museums and archaeological sites throughout Iraq between 2003 and 2005 alone. (Famously, the craft-supply chain Hobby Lobby was fined $3 million in 2017 for buying thousands of ancient artifacts looted from Iraq.) In Syria, the Islamic State has been known to loot and sell ancient artifacts including statues, jewelry, and art to fund its operations.

But the problem spans across the world. Between 2007 and 2016, U.S. Customs and Border Control discovered more than 7800 cultural artifacts in the U.S. looted from 30 different countries.

A yellow Lab sniffs a metal cage designed to train dogs on scent detection.
Penn Vet Working Dog Center

K-9 Artifact Finders is the brainchild of Rick St. Hilaire, the executive director of Red Arch. His non-profit firm researches cultural heritage property law and preservation policy, including studying archaeological site looting and antiquities trafficking. Back in 2015, St. Hilaire was reading an article about a working dog trained to sniff out electronics that was able to find USB drives, SD cards, and other data storage devices. He wondered, if dogs could be trained to identify the scents of inorganic materials that make up electronics, could they be trained to sniff out ancient pottery?

To find out, St. Hilaire tells Mental Floss, he contacted the Penn Vet Working Dog Center, a research and training center for detection dogs. In December 2017, Red Arch, the Working Dog Center, and the Penn Museum (which is providing the artifacts to train the dogs) launched K-9 Artifact Finders, and in late January 2018, the five dogs selected for the project began their training, starting with learning the distinct smell of ancient pottery.

“Our theory is, it is a porous material that’s going to have a lot more odor than, say, a metal,” says Cindy Otto, the executive director of the Penn Vet Working Dog Center and the project’s principal investigator.

As you might imagine, museum curators may not be keen on exposing fragile ancient materials to four Labrador retrievers and a German shepherd, and the Working Dog Center didn’t want to take any risks with the Penn Museum’s priceless artifacts. So instead of letting the dogs have free rein to sniff the materials themselves, the project is using cotton balls. The researchers seal the artifacts (broken shards of Syrian pottery) in airtight bags with a cotton ball for 72 hours, then ask the dogs to find the cotton balls in the lab. They’re being trained to disregard the smell of the cotton ball itself, the smell of the bag it was stored in, and ideally, the smell of modern-day pottery, eventually being able to zero in on the smell that distinguishes ancient pottery specifically.

A dog looks out over the metal "pinhweel" training mechanism.
Penn Vet Working Dog Center

“The dogs are responding well,” Otto tells Mental Floss, explaining that the training program is at the stage of "exposing them to the odor and having them recognize it.”

The dogs involved in the project were chosen for their calm-but-curious demeanors and sensitive noses (one also works as a drug-detection dog when she’s not training on pottery). They had to be motivated enough to want to hunt down the cotton balls, but not aggressive or easily distracted.

Right now, the dogs train three days a week, and will continue to work on their pottery-detection skills for the first stage of the project, which the researchers expect will last for the next nine months. Depending on how the first phase of the training goes, the researchers hope to be able to then take the dogs out into the field to see if they can find the odor of ancient pottery in real-life situations, like in suitcases, rather than in a laboratory setting. Eventually, they also hope to train the dogs on other types of objects, and perhaps even pinpoint the chemical signatures that make artifacts smell distinct.

Pottery-sniffing dogs won’t be showing up at airport customs or on shipping docks soon, but one day, they could be as common as drug-sniffing canines. If dogs can detect low blood sugar or find a tiny USB drive hidden in a house, surely they can figure out if you’re smuggling a sculpture made thousands of years ago in your suitcase.

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios