10 Things We Learned About Kim Jong-Un From His Classmates

NICHOLAS YEO/AFP/Getty Images
NICHOLAS YEO/AFP/Getty Images

North Korean dictator Kim Jong-un is one of the great agitators in modern political culture. Known for being temperamental—he is said to have executed his uncle for plotting a coup—and unpredictable, Kim has helped give his country the reputation of being a wild card that can capture the attention of the world’s superpowers.

Like any powerful leader, Kim was once just a bright young man with homework. At the behest of his father, former supreme leader Kim Jong-il, Kim was schooled in a Swiss boarding school between 1998 and 2000, and the media has often turned to his former classmates to uncover details about his teenage personality. No one has yet discovered his doodled-on yearbook or a prom photo, but his peers did have some other insights. Here’s what we know about Kim Jong-un’s formative years.

1. HE LOVED HIS AIR JORDANS.

Young Kim probably never dreamed he would one day be hanging out with former Chicago Bull Dennis Rodman, but it must have been some kind of life goal: The 17-year-old was obsessed with basketball in general and the Bulls in particular, devoting an entire room in his apartment to memorabilia. Kim also spent time penciling sketches of Michael Jordan and was said to favor Air Jordans both on and off the court.

2. HE HAD AN ALIAS.

Not wishing to be identified as the son of Korean leader Kim Jong-Il, Kim registered with the Swiss school Liebefeld Steinhölzli Schule under the name Pak Un. He claimed to be the son of a North Korean embassy employee in Bern, the capital of Switzerland. Both teachers and students alike noticed that Kim’s parents never showed up for school functions.

3. HE LIKED ACTION MOVIES.

In 2009, friends of Kim’s related to The Washington Post that Kim was slightly socially awkward, particularly around girls; when he wasn't watching basketball, he was usually watching action movies and using his Sony PlayStation. Kim played combat games and reportedly enjoyed the filmography of Jackie Chan.

4. HE HAD AN ENTOURAGE.

Kim’s presence was unique in the Swiss school for his entourage: At any point, a small number of Koreans appeared to be acting as servants, bodyguards, or assistants for Kim. Two employees would videotape his basketball games. Friends thought it was “strange” but wrote it off as “a Korean thing.”

5. HE OVER-SHARED.

Despite the lengths his family went to keep his real name a secret, Kim couldn’t always help but share that his father was the leader of North Korea. According to classmate Joao Micaelo, Kim once announced his heritage during a conversation with him. Micaelo thought Kim was lying. “Normally the children of people like this, they don’t go to a normal school,” Micaelo told CNN in 2010.

6. HE WOULD NOT TOLERATE COLD SPAGHETTI.

Friend Micaelo often visited Kim at his apartment, which was located at the Korean Embassy’s headquarters. While he noted that Kim was typically a little reserved, he didn’t see any flash of anger until the Embassy’s chefs served the two of them lukewarm pasta one evening. “He spoke to the servants in a manner that was quite sharp,” Micaelo told The Telegraph in 2010. “I was surprised because it was not how he normally was.”

7. HE FAVORED TRACK SUITS.

Like Tony Soprano and his father before him, Kim tended to dress for comfort, not presentation. His wardrobe apparently consisted heavily of Nike track suits, which he wore to class.

8. HE WASN’T THE SMARTEST KID IN CLASS.

Although Kim was two years older than most of his classmates because he wasn’t as proficient in German, he still struggled to keep up academically. In 2012, The Telegraph reported that Kim missed 75 days during his first year of school and 105 days his second, flunking natural sciences and getting minimum passing grades in most other subjects.

9. HE GORGED HIMSELF ON SWISS CHEESE.

Prone to bragging about how much he can eat and drink, Kim may have developed an appetite for gastronomic excess during school. He was reportedly so fond of Swiss cheese that he later deployed his personal chefs to a French culinary school to try and replicate the medium-hard Emmental he had enjoyed while he was a student. Kim is said to have gained 90 pounds from 2012 to 2016, though it's unknown how much of this was a result of his cheese intake.

10. HE TOTALLY VANISHED.

Kim still had a partial school year to finish out when he abruptly disappeared in 2000. He offered no forwarding address nor any indication that he might be leaving. “We thought he was ill or something and would soon be back,” former classmate Nikola Kovacevic told The Washington Post. “I hope he is a good dictator, but dictators are usually not that good.”

All images courtesy of Getty Images. This post originally appeared in 2017.

7 Terrifying Historical Remedies for Migraine Headaches

George Marks/Getty Images
George Marks/Getty Images

Migraines are more than just splitting headaches. Migraine symptoms, which affect about one in seven people worldwide, can include throbbing pain on one side of the head, nausea, sensitivity to light and sound, and visual disturbances called auras. Today, several classes of drugs are prescribed to either prevent migraine headaches from happening or halt them once they’ve started. But in previous centuries, migraine treatments weren’t so convenient—or effective.

1. Bloodletting

Whether by scalpel or by leeches, bloodletting was the most common remedy for migraine headaches (and many other ailments) before the advent of modern medicine. Throughout most of history, Western physicians subscribed to the humoral theory, in which human health was governed by four fluids (humors) that must be kept in balance. Sickness was explained as an imbalance of humors, and bloodletting was thought to rebalance the system. The methods varied, though. In the case of migraine headaches, the Greek physician Aretaeus suggested sticking a barbed goose feather up the unfortunate patient’s nose and prodding around until blood flowed.

Even as late as the 18th century, bloodletting was still believed to help migraines. Swiss physician Samuel Auguste Tissot, who was the first to describe migraines as a discrete medical condition in the 1770s, recommended bleeding, better hygiene and diet, and drugs including infusions of orange leaves and valerian.

2. Garlic

The 11th-century physician Abu al-Qasim suggested sticking a clove of garlic into the migraine headache sufferer’s temple. He offered a handy recipe:

“Take a garlic; peel and cut at both extremities. Make an incision with a large scalpel in the temple and keep under the skin a cavity wide enough to introduce the garlic and to conceal it completely. Apply compresses and tighten, let it remain about 15 hours, then remove the device. Extract the garlic, leave the wound for two or three days, then apply cotton soaked in butter until it suppurates.”

Once the wound started oozing—which was considered a good sign—the physician would cauterize the incision with a hot iron. Cauterization was meant to prevent infection, although modern research has shown that it actually lowers the threshold for bacterial infections.

3. Cupping

Cupping—inverting hot glass vessels on the patients’ body—was thought to perform the same function as bloodletting. Prominent Dutch physician Nicolaes Tulp, depicted in Rembrandt’s 1632 painting The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, treated a migraine sufferer by cupping. She soon recovered.

A substance called cantharidin, a potent blistering agent secreted by the Meloidae family of beetles, was also applied as part of the cupping and blistering process to draw out bad humors. Unfortunately, if the cantharidin was left on too long, it could be absorbed into the body and cause painful urination, gastrointestinal and renal dysfunction, and organ failure. (Perhaps unrelatedly, cantharidin was also used as an aphrodisiac.)

4. Trepanation

One of the oldest types of surgery, trepanation is the practice of cutting away part of the cranium and exposing brain tissue to treat injuries or chronic conditions like migraine headaches. The 16th-century Dutch physician Petrus Forestus, who meticulously recorded the ailments and treatments of his patients, performed trepanation on a person with incurable migraines. In the brain tissue he found something he called a “black worm.” According to a 2010 study by neurologist Peter J. Koehler, the mass may have been a chronic subdural hematoma—a collection of blood between the surface of the brain and its outermost covering—and a possible cause of the patient’s agony.

5. Dead Moles

Ali ibn Isa al-Kahhal, the leading ophthalmologist of the medieval Muslim world, described more than 130 eye diseases and treatments in his groundbreaking monograph Tadhkirat al-kaḥḥālīn (The Notebook of the Oculists). While his descriptions of ocular anatomy were sound, he also touched on remedies for headaches, and here his prescriptions seem more suspect. To treat migraines, he suggested tying a dead mole to one’s head.

6. Electric Fish

Long before scientists fully understood the principles of electricity, ancient doctors recommended it as a remedy for migraines. Scribonius Largus, the court physician for the Roman emperor Claudius, saw that the torpedo fish—also known as the electric ray, native to the Mediterranean Sea among other areas—had the power to shock anyone who touched it. Largus and other doctors prescribed the shocks as cures for headache, gout, and prolapsed anus.

In the mid-18th century, a Dutch journal reported that the electric eel, found in South America, emitted even stronger shocks than the Mediterranean fish and were used for head pain. One observer wrote that headache sufferers “put one of their hands on their head and the other on the fish, and thereby will be helped immediately, without exception.”

7. Mud Foot-Baths

Compared to expired rodents, warm foot-baths must have sounded positively decadent to those afflicted with extreme pain. Nineteenth-century physicians suggested that migraine sufferers take the waters at Marienbad (now Mariánské Lázně) and Karlsbad (now Karlovy Vary), two spa towns in what is now the Czech Republic. While the mineral waters were useful for alleviating congestive headaches, mud foot-baths were believed to draw blood toward the feet and away from the head, calming the nervous system. “The foot-bath ought not to be taken too hot, and the feet should be rubbed one over the other while washing the mud off, and afterwards with a coarse towel. A brisk walk may be used to keep up the circulation,” suggested Prussian Army physician Apollinaris Victor Jagielski, M.D. in 1873.

Who Stole My Cheese? Archivists Are Cataloging 200 Years of Criminal Records From the Isle of Ely

Internet Archive Book Images via Flickr, Wikimedia Commons
Internet Archive Book Images via Flickr, Wikimedia Commons

And you thought your parents were strict. In 16th century England, the same courts that tried murderers were also tasked with getting to the bottom of cheese thefts.

As The Guardian reports, archivists from the University of Cambridge have begun cataloging close to 270 court documents from the Isle of Ely, a historic region of England known for its magnificent, gothic-style cathedral as well as being the home of Oliver Cromwell for more than a decade (Cromwell was appointed governor of the isle in 1643).

Some of the documents, which are dated from 1557 to 1775, relate to matters that may seem macabre—or even ridiculous—in the modern world. But they offer a keen insight into the area's past. "This project enables us to hear the voices of people from all backgrounds ... long dead and forgotten, and for whom there is no other surviving record," archivist Sian Collins told The Guardian.

One such person was yeoman John Webbe, who was charged with defamation by one William Tyler after Tyler's wife, Joan, overheard Webbe tell someone that: "Tyler thy husband is a knave, a rascall & a thief for he stole my goodes thefyshely [thievishly] in the night."

Then there was poor William Sturns, whose only crime was a hunger that led him to steal three cheeses; ultimately, he was deemed not guilty. "Unfortunately we don’t know what type of cheese it was," Collins told Atlas Obscura. "But cheesemaking was fairly common in the area at the time."

Not all of Ely's court cases were about backtalk and dairy products, though. The university’s website details how in 1577, Margaret Cotte was accused of using witchcraft to kill Martha Johnson, the daughter of a local blacksmith. Margaret was eventually found not guilty, which is part of what makes this project so important.

"Martha and Margaret may not appear in any other records," Collins said. "This is all we know about them."

[h/t The Guardian]

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