The Healing Power of the Cat Purr

Good news for cat lovers! Snuggling up to your furry companion can actually be good for you. Because their purr vibrations are in the 20 to 140 Hz range, they can have therapeutic effects. Designer Gemma Busquets compiled all the benefits in this fun infographic. 

[h/t: DailyInfographic.com]

9 Not-So-Pesky Facts About Termites

iStock.com/Thithawat_s
iStock.com/Thithawat_s

Termites get a lot of hate for chewing through buildings, but the little creatures are far more interesting—and ecologically valuable—than we often give them credit for. Unless, of course, you’re Lisa Margonelli, the author of Underbug: An Obsessive Tale of Termites and Terminology, a new book that explores their amazing world. Here are nine facts about the highly social—and occasionally pesky—insects that we learned from the book.

1. THERE ARE FAR MORE TERMITES THAN PEOPLE ON EARTH.

Termite queens live up to 25 years, and can lay somewhere around 30,000 eggs a day. As a result, a single mound can be home to millions of individuals at a time. While the numbers vary from study to study, scientists estimate that the biomass of all the termites in the world is at least as great as that of humans.

2. MOST TERMITES AREN’T PESTS.

Of the 2800 named termite species in the world, the majority have no interest in eating your house. Only 28 species are known to chow down on buildings and infrastructure. Most are actually very beneficial to their ecosystems, clearing dead wood, aerating the soil with their intricate tunnel systems, and enhancing plant growth. Researchers have found that contrary to being pests, networks of termite mounds can help make dry environments like savannas more resilient to climate change because of the way termite mounds store nutrients and moisture, among other benefits.

3. TERMITES ARE GOOD FOR CROPS.

Termites can help make soil more fertile. In one study, researchers in Australia found that fields that were home to ants and termites produced 36 percent more wheat, without fertilizer, compared to non-termite fields. Why? Termites help fertilize the soil naturally—their poop, which they use to plaster their tunnels, is full of nitrogen. Their intricate system of underground tunnels also helps rainfall penetrate the soil more deeply, which reduces the amount of moisture that evaporates from the dirt and makes it more likely that the water can be taken up by plants.

4. TERMITES HAVE VERY SPECIFIC ROLES IN THEIR COLONY.

Each termite colony has a queen and king termite (or several), plus workers and soldiers. This caste system, controlled by pheromones produced by the reigning queen, determines not just what different termites do in the colony but how they look. Queens and kings develop wings that, when they’re sexually mature, they use to fly away from their original nest to reproduce and start their own colony. Once they land at the site of their new colony, queens and kings snap off these wings, since they’ll spend the rest of their lives underground. Queens are also physically much larger than other castes: The largest type of termite, an African species called Macrotermes bellicosus, produces queens up to 4 inches long.

Unlike their royal counterparts, most workers and soldiers don’t have either eyes or wings. Worker termites, which are responsible for foraging, building tunnels, and feeding the other castes in the nest, are significantly smaller than queens. M. bellicosus workers, for instance, measure around 0.14 inches. Soldier termites are slightly bigger than workers, with large, sharp mandibles designed to slice up ants and other enemies that might invade the nest.

5. TERMITES ARE ONE OF THE FASTEST ANIMALS IN THE WORLD.

Apologies to cheetahs, but termites hold the record for world’s fastest animal movement. Panamanian termites can clap their mandibles shut at 157 miles per hour. (Compare that to the cheetah’s run, which tops out at about 76 miles per hour.) This quick action allows tiny termite soldiers in narrow tunnels to kill invaders with a single bite.

6. TERMITES ARE SKILLED ARCHITECTS.

In Namibia, quarter-inch-long termites of the genus Macrotermes can move 364 pounds of dirt and 3300 pounds of water each year total in the course of building their 17-foot-tall mounds. Relative to their size, that’s the equivalent of humans building the 163 floors of Dubai’s Burj Khalifa, no cranes required. And that’s not even the tallest termite mound around—some can be up to 30 feet high. More impressively, termites cooperate to build these structures without any sort of centralized plan. Engineers are now trying to replicate this decentralized swarm intelligence to build robots that could erect buildings in a similar fashion.

7. TERMITES BUILD THEIR OWN AIR CONDITIONING.

Some termites have developed an incredibly efficient method of climate control in the form of tall, above-ground mounds that sit above their nests. Organized around a central chimney, the structures essentially act as giant lungs, "breathing" air in and out as the temperature outside changes in relation to the temperature inside. Thanks to these convection cycles, termites keep underground temperatures in their nest between roughly 84°F and 90°F.

8. TERMITES ARE FARMERS.

Humans aren’t the only ones cultivating crops. Termites farm, too. They’ve been doing it for more than 25 million years, compared to humans’ 23,000 years. Some species of termite have evolved a symbiotic relationship with Termitomyces fungi, growing fungus in underground gardens for food. When they fly off to create a new colony, termite queens bring along fungus spores from their parent colony to seed the garden that will feed their new nest. Foraging termite workers go out and eat plant material that they can’t fully digest on their own, then deposit their feces on the fungus for it to feed on. They can then eat the fungus. They may also be able to eat some of the plant material after the fungus has sufficiently broken it down. The mutually beneficial relationship has led some scientists to suggest that the fungus, which is much larger in both size and energy production than the termites, could in fact be the one in control of the relationship, potentially releasing chemical pheromones that lead the termites to build the mound they live in together.

9. TERMITES ARE MICROBIAL GOLD MINES.

As scientists begin to understand the huge role that micobiomes play in both the human body and the rest of the world, termites provide a fascinating case study. About 90 percent of the organisms in termite guts aren’t found anywhere else on Earth. In their hindgut alone, they host as many as 1400 species of bacteria. These microbes are so efficient at converting the cellulose-rich wood and dead grass that termites eat into energy, scientists want to harness them to make biofuel from plants.

Want to learn more about termites? Get yourself a copy of Underbug on Amazon for $18.

How the Los Angeles Zoo Protects Its Animals During Wildfires and Other Emergencies

iStock.com/Kirkikis
iStock.com/Kirkikis

It’s hard enough to evacuate a family of three when disaster strikes, let alone large groups of frightened animals. However, many zoos have detailed emergency plans in place, and the Los Angeles Zoo—home to more than 1400 animals—is no exception. As Smithsonian reports, the zoo had to evacuate some of its birds and smaller primates last week when nearby Griffith Park caught fire, all while other wildfires continued to destroy large swathes of land around the state of California.

Firefighters spent over seven hours working to extinguish the blaze, which ignited in a hard-to-reach area of the park. Meanwhile, zoo staff herded lemurs and show birds into cages with other small animals in order to evacuate them. According to statements made by the zoo on social media, no animals were harmed by the smoke, and those animals have since returned to their regular habitats.

Fortunately, this incident was contained and no fire ever entered zoo grounds, but staff are prepared for worst-case scenarios. LA Zoo employees know which animals to evacuate and which ones to shelter in place during emergencies.

“Smaller, non-venomous reptiles and mammals that can be easily handled may be packed up for relocation,” a zoo spokesperson told Smithsonian. “Larger animals will be sheltered in place in their night quarters for a variety of reasons that ultimately depend on the specific animal and the situation.”

The Santa Barbara Zoo also has species-specific emergency plans in place. According to an NPR article from 2017, when a nearby wildfire raised alarm and prompted small-scale evacuations, the zoo reviewed its plans for protecting 500 animals from disaster. Zoo staff members said some animals—like two elderly elephants, 50 “fragile” flamingos, and giraffes that were too tall to fit under highway underpasses—would have to stay put. Other animals would be trapped, placed in crates, and transported to safer locations. Big cats would need to be tranquilized (by hand, not by dart gun) before being moved into steel evacuation crates.

A few animals were evacuated at the time, including two reindeer, a baby anteater, and hard-to-catch condors. Some animals are harder to trap than others, and Chinese alligators are surprisingly easy to round up. "They usually just throw a towel over her head so she can't see them and they just jump on her," Dr. Julie Barnes, director of Animal Care and Health at the Santa Barbara Zoo, told NPR last year.

In addition to these plans, zoos also have extinguishers and fire breaks placed strategically throughout the grounds, and many staff are trained in proper evacuation procedures.

[h/t Smithsonian]

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