10 Facts About High Blood Pressure

iStock.com/stockvisual
iStock.com/stockvisual

People with high blood pressure (hypertension) are at a greater risk for a host of medical issues, including heart failure and stroke. Despite the severe health threats it poses, high blood pressure often goes unnoticed or untreated by some who have it. From high blood pressure symptoms to what levels are considered normal, here are some facts about the condition.

1. High blood pressure symptoms are sometimes unnoticeable.

Blood pressure is a measurement of the force of blood moving through the circulatory system. High blood pressure, a condition in which blood is putting too much force on arteries and organs, is often called the “silent killer.” It contributes to hundreds of thousands of deaths each year, but only half of high blood pressure patients know they have it. In most cases, hypertension signs are difficult to detect, making it hard to diagnose and keep under control. Chest pain, dizziness, shortness of breath, and heart palpitations are some of the most common hypertension signs in people who do show symptoms.

2. Anxiety causes some of the same symptoms as high blood pressure.

When it comes to managing high blood pressure symptoms, mental health is as important as physical health. Anxiety can lead to sudden spikes in blood pressure, and spikes that occur often enough can inflict serious damage on the heart and blood vessels the same way chronic high blood pressures does. Stress and anxiety also make people vulnerable to the top risk factors associated with chronic hypertension, such as smoking, excessive drinking, and overeating.

3. A normal blood pressure range is lower than it used to be.

If you haven’t had your blood pressure measured in a couple years, it’s time for a check-up: In November 2017, the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association updated its normal blood pressure guidelines. The two components that make up blood pressure are systolic pressure—the pressure in blood vessels, represented by the top number in test results—and diastolic pressure, the pressure in the heart between beats represented by the bottom number. According to the old guidelines, the threshold for normal blood pressure was 140 systolic pressure and 90 diastolic pressure, or 140/90. The new guidelines lowered that marker to 130/80. Now that the normal blood pressure range has dropped, 14 percent more people could diagnosed with hypertension in the U.S.

4. "White-coat hypertension" is real.

Not every patient who exhibits hypertension signs in the doctor’s office has high blood pressure. “White-coat hypertension” occurs when patients get nervous in a medical setting, leading to a spike in blood pressure that doesn’t necessarily reflect their true health. But this type of hypertension should be taken seriously, even if it is a product of nerves. According to one study, people with white-coat hypertension have a greater chance of developing cardiovascular disease than those with normal blood pressure levels. This may be because people with white-coat hypertension are more prone to anxiety.

5. People with high blood pressure should consume less than one teaspoon of salt per day.

One of the worst things to eat if you have hypertension is food that’s high in salt. Sodium, which makes up 40 percent of table salt (sodium chloride), promotes water retention in the body. More water means more blood volume, which puts added pressure on the heart and blood vessels. Medical experts recommend consuming no more than 2300 milligrams of sodium per day, or just over 1 teaspoon of salt. If you have high blood pressure, the American Heart Association recommends an ideal limit at 1500 milligrams of sodium a day—equal to three-quarters of a teaspoon of salt.

6. Almost half of U.S. adults have high blood pressure ...

According to the American Heart Association, more than 100 million people in the U.S. have high blood pressure—that’s nearly half of American adults. The condition is so common that even if you don’t have it now, chances are you will develop it at some point in your life. The lifetime risk in the U.S. for hypertension in 90 percent.

7. ... and black Americans are most affected.

High blood pressure affects certain groups disproportionately. Black Americans are more likely to have high blood pressure than any other group in the country, and when they develop it, it’s usually more severe. Hypertension also affects black Americans earlier in life: Three in four black people in the U.S. will develop the condition by age 55. Health experts believe that the prevalence of high blood pressure is associated with the higher rates of obesity and diabetes among the black population.

8. A female hormone may protect against high blood pressure.

High blood pressure rates are pretty similar among men and women before middle age. But once women hit menopause, their chances of developing hypertension increase: 75 percent of postmenopausal in the U.S. have high blood pressure. This may have to do something with decreased levels of estrogen—a hormone that’s been shown to boost premenopausal women’s vascular health.

9. High blood pressure can be life-threatening ...

High blood pressure doesn’t kill people directly, but it can lead to some deadly complications. Hypertension adds potentially fatal stress to vital organs like the heart, kidneys, and brain. When you have high blood pressure, your risk of heart attack, stroke, chronic heart failure, kidney disease, and even blindness all significantly go up.

10. ... but improved with medications and healthy living.

The best way to reduce your blood pressure is to change your lifestyle. Smoking, drinking too much alcohol, and eating too much salty food all increase your risk of developing hypertension, and doctors recommend avoiding these risk factors to keep blood pressure levels under control. Regular exercise and certain medications, like diuretics (to get rid of excess water in the body) and ACE inhibitors (which block an enzyme that tightens blood vessels), can also lower blood pressure.

What Is the Difference Between Heat Exhaustion and Heatstroke

YuriS/iStock via Getty Images
YuriS/iStock via Getty Images

When temperatures begin to climb, many of us can find ourselves growing physically uncomfortable. Indoors or out, warm weather can make us lethargic, sweaty, and nostalgic for winter. There are differences, though, between heat exhaustion—a precursor to more serious symptoms—and heatstroke. So what are they? And how can you treat them?

Heat exhaustion happens when the body begins to overheat as a result of exposure to excessive temperatures or high humidity. (Humidity affects the body's ability to cool off, because sweat cannot evaporate as easily in humid weather.) Sufferers may sweat profusely, feel lightheaded or dizzy, and have a weak or rapid pulse. Skin may become cool and moist. Nausea and headache are also common. With heat exhaustion, it’s necessary to move to a cooler place and drink plenty of fluids, though medical attention is not often required.

If those steps aren't taken, though, heatstroke can set in. This is much more serious and involves the body reaching a dangerous core temperature of 104°F or higher. People experiencing heatstroke may appear disoriented or confused, with flushed skin and rapid breathing. They may also lose consciousness. While heat exhaustion can be treated and monitored at home until symptoms resolve, heatstroke is a medical emergency that requires prompt attention by a health professional. Until help arrives, heatstroke should be treated with cool cloths or a bath, but sufferers should not be given anything to drink.

Although young children and those over the age of 65 are most susceptible to heat-related health issues, anyone can find themselves having a reaction to warm temperatures. If you’re outside, it’s best to drink plenty of fluids, wear light-fitting clothing, and avoid being out in the afternoons when it’s warmest. Because sunburn can compromise the body’s ability to cool itself, wearing sunscreen is also a good idea.

While it’s not always possible to avoid hot or humid weather, monitoring your body for symptoms and returning to a cool space out of the sun when necessary is the best way to stay healthy. If you have older relatives who live alone, it’s also a good idea to check on them when temperatures rise to make sure they’re doing well.

[h/t WWMT]

The Long Stride of Tony Little, Infomercial Titan

Mike Coppola, Getty Images for MTV
Mike Coppola, Getty Images for MTV

Tony Little didn’t see it coming. It was 1983, and the aspiring bodybuilder and future Gazelle pitchman was living in Tampa Bay, Florida, winding down his training for the Mr. America competition that was coming up in just six weeks. While driving to the gym, Little stopped at a red light and waited. Suddenly, a school bus materialized on his left, plowing into Little's vehicle and crumpling his driver’s side door.

Dazed and running on adrenaline, Little got out and sprinted over to find the bus was full of children. After seeing that none of the kids were seriously hurt, he promptly passed out. When Little later awoke, he was in the hospital, where he was handed a laundry list of the injuries he had sustained. There were two herniated discs, a cracked vertebrae, a torn rotator cuff, and a dislocated knee. He struggled to maintain his physique in the weight room and made only a perfunctory appearance at that year's Mr. America competition. Little's dreams of becoming a professional bodybuilder had been derailed courtesy of an errant school bus, whose driver had been drunk.

Though it took some time, Little eventually overcame the setback, pivoting from his original goal of being a champion bodybuilder to becoming one of the most recognizable pitchmen in the history of televised advertising. Before he did that, however, he would have to recover from another car accident.

 

For someone so devoted to physical achievement, Little was constantly being undercut by obstacles. During a high school football game, Little—who was a star player on his team in Ohio—ended up tearing the cartilage in his knee after he collided with future NFL player Rob Lytle. From that point on, Little's knee popped out of place whenever he stepped onto the field or went to gym class.

Tony Little is photographed at the premiere of Vh1's 'Celebrity Paranormal Project' in Hollywood, California in 2006
John M. Heller, Getty Images

In There’s Always a Way, his 2009 autobiography, Little wrote about how that injury—and the loss of a potential athletic scholarship—caused him to act out. A friend of his stole a Firebird and took Little for a joyride. When they were caught, Little took the blame; as he was under 18, Little figured he would get by with a slap on the wrist, while his older friend might be tried and convicted of a serious crime as an adult. According to Little, the judge gave him a pass on the condition that he relocate to Tampa Bay, where he could live with his uncle and put some distance between himself and the negative influences in his life. Little agreed.

Because of his previous injury, Little was unable to play football after making the move to Florida; instead, he devoted himself to his new high school’s weight room, where a bad knee was not nearly as limiting. After graduating, he pursued bodybuilding, earning the titles of Junior Mr. America and Mr. Florida. Little envisioned a future where he would be a fitness personality, selling his own line of supplements when he wasn't competing professionally.

The school bus changed all that. Little, who was now unable to train at the level such serious competition required, retreated to his condo, where he said he relied on painkillers to numb the physical and emotional pain of the accident. More misfortune followed: Little accidentally sat in a pool of chemicals at a friend’s manufacturing plant, suffering burns. He also had a bout with meningitis.

While Little was convalescing from this string of ailments and accidents, he saw Jane Fonda on television, trumpeting her line of workout videos. Little was intrigued: Maybe he didn’t need to have bodybuilding credentials to reach a wider audience. Maybe his enthusiastic approach to motivating people would be enough.

By now it was the mid-1980s, and a very good time to get into televised pitching. In 1984, President Ronald Reagan signed the Cable Communications Policy Act, which deregulated paid airtime for cable networks. Herbalife was the first to sign up, airing an infomercial for their line of nutritional products. Soon, stations were broadcasting all kinds of paid programs. Exercise advice and equipment pitches were abundant, a kind of throwback to department stores that used to feature product demonstrations. It was not enough to read about a Soloflex, which used resistance bands to strengthen muscles. It was better to see it in action.

Now that he was back in shape, Little was ready to make his mark. He was told by his local cable access channel that he could buy 15 half-hours of airtime for $5500. To raise the money, Little started a cleaning service for gyms and health clubs. After airing installments of an exercise program, he was picked up by the Home Shopping Network (HSN). Little made his HSN debut in 1987. With his energetic pitch and trademark ponytail, he sold 400 workout videos in four hours.

 

Little was on the home-shopping and infomercial circuit for years before landing his breakthrough project. In 1996, the Ohio-based company Fitness Quest was preparing to launch their Gazelle, an elliptical trainer that could raise the heart rate without any impact on joints. People used their hands and feet to move in a long stride that felt effortless.

Little felt he would be the perfect spokesperson for the Gazelle and entered into an arrangement with Bob Schnabel, the company's president. The night before the infomercial was scheduled to shoot, Little was driving when he got into another serious car accident that required 200 stitches in his face. Little called Schnabel to break the news, and was told he’d have to be replaced.

Tony Little demonstrates a Gazelle during an MTV upfront presentation in New York in 2016
Mike Coppola, Getty Images for MTV

Undaunted, Little flew from Florida to Ohio to speak to Schnabel in person. By insisting that he could make the story inspirational (and that he could cover up his injuries with make-up), Little managed to convince Schnabel to proceed with the infomercial as planned. The Gazelle ended up with $1.5 billion in revenue, with Little’s other ventures—Cheeks sandals, bison meat, and a therapeutic pillow—bringing the total sales of his endorsed products to more than $3 billion. Little later reprised his Gazelle pitch for a Geico commercial, which also served as a stealth ad for the machine—which is still on the market.

While pitching wound up being relatively low-impact, it was not completely without problems. Little once said that the accumulation of appearances—more than 10,000 in all—has done some damage to his neck because of constantly having to swivel his head between the camera and the model demonstrating his product.

Those appearances have made Little synonymous with the machine. In 2013, the Smithsonian's National Zoo wondered what to name their new baby gazelle. The answer: Little Tony.

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