11 Gross Things That Could Be On Your Toothbrush

iStock
iStock

Before you brush today, consider this: Poop is just the beginning of what could possibly be hanging out on your toothbrush.

1. E. COLI

Guess what? If your bathroom has the sink and toilet in one room, and you flush with the lid open, there is fecal matter on everything within a 5 to 6 foot radius. Flushing aerosolizes your poop, depositing bacteria like Escherichia coli, or E. coli, directly onto your toothbrush—and brushing with an E. coli-loaded instrument could make you sick. “This bacteria is associated with gastrointestinal disease,” says Dr. Maria Geisinger, DDS, an assistant professor and periodontist at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Gastroenteritis, or infectious diarrhea, is one such illness. “In bathrooms with a toilet attached, [researchers] looked at toothbrushes in normal use between one and three months,” Geisinger says. “At the three-month mark, they found E. coli colonies. That’s a good reminder to replace your toothbrush every three months.”

Once E. coli and the other bacteria on this list form colonies, they’re a lot harder to kill because “they start to make an extracellular matrix, which protects them from antimicrobial medicines that you might use in the toothpaste, mouthwash, and even antibiotics,” Geisinger says. “One of the reasons you can’t just take an antibiotic and say ‘oh good, my dental disease is cured’ is because they’re actually in a biofilm.”

The colonies on your toothbrush are similar to the algae that grows at the bottom of the pool, according to Geisinger. “Your pool is full of water—you can’t just swish it around and get that algae off,” Geisinger says. “It’s got to be scrubbed off because it’s protected by this extracellular matrix. In fact, complex biofilms have a circulatory system. So they’re almost like a living organism, composed of all this different bacteria.”

So make sure to flush with the lid down, which will greatly decrease aerosolization, and, therefore, the literal crap on your toothbrush. Also, be sure to wash your hands after you use the restroom and before you brush to avoid transferring fecal matter to your toothbrush that way, Geisinger says, and change your toothbrush every three months.

2. STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

This bacteria typically lives in your respiratory tract and on your skin, and, under the right conditions, can be responsible for some pretty nasty stuff. “It’s often associated with [antibiotic resistant] MRSA infections or necrotizing fasciitis, which is flesh-eating bacteria,” Geisinger says. Necrotizing fasciitis occurs when bacteria enters the skin through an open wound, and, according to the CDC, most often affects people who have other health problems that might hinder their bodies’ efforts to fight infection. Thankfully, this condition very rare, but you still don’t want the stuff that could cause it on your toothbrush.

3. STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS

It makes sense that this bacteria would be on your toothbrush—it’s responsible for tooth decay. “But again, we’d like it not to be there,” Geisinger says. “You don’t want to take tooth decaying material from one area of your mouth and put it in another while you’re trying to do your due-diligence about removing deposits.”

Keeping bacteria and other nasty stuff to a minimum on your toothbrush could be as simple as what you buy. According to one study, “Toothbrushes with lighter or clear bristles retain up to 50 percent less bacteria than colored toothbrush bristles,” Geisinger says, potentially because clear toothbrush bristles have less porosity than colored ones. And instead of brushes with fancy perforated or rubber handles, opt for solid plastic handles which studies have shown “had less microbio load than larger or perforated or multi-surface handles [because there are] fewer nooks and crannies for the bacteria to hide in,” Geisinger says.

4. FOOD DEBRIS

That thing you had for dinner last night? Yeah, it’s probably still on your toothbrush the next morning … and now it’s food for the bacteria on there, too! (As are your poop particles. Yuck.) Avoid having unintentional leftovers and clear out bacteria by washing your brush before it goes in your mouth in potable tap water or antibacterial mouth rinse, Geisinger says.

5. AND 6. LACTOBACILLUS and PSEUDOMONAS

“These are two bacteria that have been associated with pneumonia type infections, particularly in hospital settings” where a patient is on a ventilator, Geisinger says. Though Lactobacillus is typically considered a “friendly” bacteria—it’s sometimes used to treat diarrhea and is present in foods and our own guts—it can also be linked to cavities and tooth decay. Pseudomonas can cause eye infections if you use contacts and don't clean them adequately.

Bacteria thrives on brushes that have frayed bristles, by the way, so Geisginer (and the American Dental Association) recommend replacing your toothbrush if the bristles are looking like they’ve seen better days—even if you haven’t hit the three-month mark yet.

7. HERPES SIMPLEX TYPE ONE

And now, a virus! “Herpes simplex type one used to be called oral herpes, but now almost 50 percent of genital lesions are also herpes simplex type one,” Geisinger says. “The viruses are different than bacteria because they come in little capsules, and they’re not technically alive—they need your cells to replicate. In a patient who has an active herpes outbreak, an oral cold sore, that virus can be retained on the toothbrush up to a week.”

Geisinger says she's not aware of any research into "the viability of the viruses on the toothbrushes," but says that transfer of a virus from one person to another by sharing toothbrushes is a possibility under the right circumstances. "HSV can be transmitted in saliva, so sharing toothbrushes during an oral herpes outbreak could lead to a higher risk transfer of viral particles and therefore disease," she says.

8. HPV

Another virus that can make a home on your toothbrush is Human papillomavirus, or HPV. “It’s linked to both cervical cancer and esophageal and oral cancers,” Geisinger says. “The interesting thing about HPV is that the presence of HPV in your mouth seems to decrease if you do a good job with toothbrushing.” And once again, if you share toothbrushes with someone who has HPV, you could be at risk for contracting it yourself. "Both viruses are transmissible in saliva," Geisinger says, "so viral transmission through shared toothbrushes is a possibility."

9. CANDIDA

This fungus is responsible for yeast infections and diaper rash. The most common species in the mouth is called Candida albicans, which causes oral thrush—basically, a yeast infection in your mouth. “[C. albincans] is linked to higher decay rates in kids,” Geisinger says. “In kids that have candida infections, about 15 percent have candida reservoirs on their toothbrush, and it can certainly be passed among siblings or other toothbrushes stored in the same area.” To keep candida from infecting multiple toothbrushes, make sure that the instruments are stored upright and away from each other.

10. MOISTURE

According to Geisinger, one of the worst things you have on your toothbrush is moisture because it encourages bacteria to grow. “There’s a precipitous drop in bacteria [on toothbrushes] after about 24 hours, and that’s really because the toothbrush dries out," she says. "So, if you can, having two toothbrushes is probably advantageous.” If you’re using a toothbrush just once every 24 hours, it will stay nice and dry, and bacterial loads will be low.

Another thing you shouldn’t do: Cover your toothbrush. “Even though it’s tempting because of the fecal matter from the toilet, covering toothbrushes or putting them in your medicine cabinet does not allow them to dry out,” Geisinger says. “Bacterial counts on those toothbrushes are considerably higher than on toothbrushes that are stored upright, separate, and allowed to dry completely.”

11. BLOOD

Up to 70 percent of adults in the United States have gingivitis, and about 47 percent of people over the age of 30 have destructive gum disease. "That means they have ulcerations or microscopic breaks in the tissue underneath the gum lines where they can’t see, which allows blood to get on the toothbrush,” Geisinger says. “It also allows a pathway for bacteria to get into the bloodstream. In patients with inflammation, bacteria in your bloodstream spike after things that would irritate those inflammations—including mastication, eating, toothbrushing, even a visit to your dentist to have a cleaning.” That’s how dental and oral bacteria end up in plaques that are associated with heart disease.

“The amount of bacteria in the bloodstream is actually proportional to how much inflammation and dental disease is present in the mouth,” Geisinger says. “Patients who are receiving regular dental care—that includes dental cleaning and exams—have improved levels of gingival inflammation, less blood in their saliva, and less blood on their toothbrush. So go see your dentist!”

This piece originally ran in 2016.

5 Holiday Foods That Are Dangerous to Pets

iStock/svetikd
iStock/svetikd

One of the best parts of the holiday season is the menu of indulgent food and drinks that comes along with it. But while you enjoy that cup of spiked hot cocoa, you’ve got to be careful your dog or cat doesn’t nab a lick. Here are five holiday treats that are dangerous for your pets, according to Vetstreet.

1. COFFEE

Any coffee lover will agree that there’s nothing quite like an after-dinner cup of joe on a cold night. But pups, kitties, and other pets will have to sit this tradition out. Caffeine can prompt seizures and abnormal heart rhythms in pets, and can sometimes be fatal. Other caffeinated drinks, such as soda or tea, should also be kept away from your four-legged family members.

2. BREAD DOUGH

We know the threat that bread dough poses to the appearance of our thighs, but it’s much more dangerous to our furry little friends. Holiday bakers have to be careful of unbaked bread dough as it can expand in animal stomachs if ingested. In some dogs, the stomach can twist and cut off the blood supply, in which case the pup would need emergency surgery.

3. CHOCOLATE

Cat and dog in Santa hats chowing down on plates of food
iStock/TatyanaGl

A little chocolate never hurt anybody, right? Wrong. The sweet treat can cause seizures and even be fatal to our pets. Darker chocolate, such as the baker’s chocolate we love to put in our holiday cookies, is more toxic to our pets than milk or white chocolate. The toxic ingredients include caffeine and theobromine, a chemical found in the cacao plant.

4. MACADAMIA NUTS

Macadamia nuts, which are a common ingredient in holiday cookies and often put out to munch on as an appetizer, can be toxic to dogs. While poisoning might not always be easy to detect in a pet, clinical warning signs include depression, weakness, vomiting, tremors, joint stiffness, and lack of coordination.

5. ALCOHOL

Think back to when you first started drinking and how much less alcohol it took to get you tipsy, because you likely weighed less than you do now. Well, your pet probably weighs a lot less than you did, even back then, meaning it takes much less alcohol to make them dangerously sick. Keep those wine glasses far out of reach of your pets in order to avoid any issues. Well, maybe not any issue: We can’t promise that this will stop you from getting embarrassingly drunk at a holiday party this year.

L’Oréal’s New Wearable Sensor Keeps Track of Your Daily UV Exposure

L'Oréal USA
L'Oréal USA

Anyone who has ever suffered a sunburn knows that too much exposure to UV radiation is bad for your skin. But in the moment, it can be hard to tell when you’ve gotten too much sun—especially during the winter, when you might not think you need sunscreen. (In reality, snow reflects up to 80 percent of the sun’s UV light, so you may end up getting hit with the same rays twice.) A new wearable sensor spotted by Wired aims to make understanding your sun exposure a whole lot easier.

L'Oréal’s new La Roche-Posay My Skin Track UV sensor pairs with a smartphone app to alert users when they’ve had high levels of UV exposure. Developed by L'Oréal’s Tech Incubator in collaboration with Northwestern University engineering professor John Rogers and Swiss designer Yves Béhar, the sensor measures UVA rays (which are associated with skin aging and skin cancer) and uses an algorithm to calculate UVB exposure (which is associated with sunburn and skin cancer).

The UV sensor
L'Oréal USA

At only half an inch tall and 1.3 inches long, the waterproof sensor is designed to be discreetly attached to your clothes, watchband, or sunglasses. The sensor's LED detector measures UV rays as sunlight passes through a small window in the device, then transfers the data to your phone via a near-field communication (the same technology in some hotel key cards). It stores the photons from the UV rays in a capacitor, eliminating the need for a battery.

Based on this data, the My Skin Track app can tell you how close you're getting to the maximum limit of UV exposure doctors recommend per day. It also provides updates about the air quality, pollen count, and humidity wherever you are at any given moment. Based on this information, as well as data about your specific skin type and skin tone, the app's Skin Advice feature will provide customized tips for keeping your skin healthy. It also recommends specific products—La Roche-Posay items can be bought directly through the app, should you desire.

The sensors are exclusively available through Apple stores. You can order one online for $59.95.

[h/t Wired]

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