11 Facts About Eczema

iStock.com/Anetlanda
iStock.com/Anetlanda

If you’ve ever had to deal with dry winter skin, you may think you know what eczema feels like. But anyone living with the chronic condition will tell you it’s much more than that. Rashes can rear their heads at any time of year, and eczema causes include irritants as mundane as food, clothes, and the weather. Symptoms range from mildly annoying to distracting enough to keep people from getting sleep and focusing on their work. Here are some more facts about eczema causes, symptoms, and treatments.

1. Eczema isn't just one condition.

Rather than describing one specific skin condition, eczema is used as a catch-all term for a group of related conditions. When people mention eczema, they’re often referring to atopic dermatitis: This is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by dry, itchy red patches that flare up across the body when the immune system overreacts to a trigger. There’s also contact dermatitis, which is when rashes are triggered by irritants coming in contact with the skin; nummular eczema, when rashes are coin-shaped; and stasis dermatitis, when fluid “weeps” out of weakened blood vessels in the skin. Eczema shouldn't be confused with psoriasis: While both are conditions that lead to dry, itchy skin, the latter is an autoimmune condition while the former is primarily caused by allergic reactions.

2. Eczema is sometimes limited to the hands.

Eczema doesn’t have to affect the entire body. Hand eczema comes with many of the same symptoms of regular dermatitis—including chapped skin, painful cracks, red patches, and itchy blisters—but is limited to the hands and forearms. Many people without eczema deal with dry hands, especially during the colder months, so it can be difficult to know when these symptoms are signs of a medical condition. If your itchy, irritated hands can’t be treated with moisturizer alone, ask a dermatologist if you may have hand eczema.

3. It's often genetic.

Your genetic background is a strong predictor of eczema. If both of your parents have it, there’s an 80 percent chance that you will develop it as well, according to the Eczema Association Australasia. A family history of asthma and hay fever is also linked to eczema.

4. Eczema can be debilitating.

A list of symptoms doesn’t begin to capture what the experience of living with eczema is like. The itching and discomfort that comes with it can be so intense that it keeps people up at night, leaving them exhausted and unable to function during the day. Symptoms may be so acute that they’re all the person thinks about, which can hinder their relationships and work life. Others may feel discouraged to go out in public because they’re self-conscious of how their skin looks.

5. It's not contagious.

No matter how much contact you have with someone with eczema, there’s no chance of you catching their skin condition. Despite this, many people will see someone scratching their eczema rashes and assume what they have is just as contagious as poison ivy or chicken pox. And because eczema often runs in families, it sometimes carries the illusion of “spreading” between people who live together.

6. Eczema can be triggered by your environment ...

There are a number of environmental factors that can trigger eczema symptoms. Changes in climate—either to cold, dry conditions or hot, humid ones—may be enough to provoke a flare-up. For many people, chemical irritants are the sources of their rashes. Cigarette smoke, perfumes, household cleaners, shampoos, and fabrics like wool and polyester have all been linked to eczema reactions. That doesn't mean that everyone with eczema needs to avoid these things: The condition affects everyone differently, and an irritant that causes one person’s flare-ups may have zero effect on someone else.

7. ... and stress level.

Even if someone with eczema takes great pains to avoid their environmental triggers, a hard day may be all it takes to make their skin break out. Many people with eczema report exacerbated symptoms when they're feeling stressed. According to the National Eczema Association, eczema sufferers are more likely to be diagnosed with anxiety and depression, creating a vicious cycle for patients who count stress as a trigger.

8. It's connected to allergies.

Eczema is often accompanied by an allergic condition, whether it’s asthma, hay fever, or allergies to food. Up to 80 percent of children with atopic dermatitis go on to develop asthma or hay fever. It’s unclear what the exact relationship between allergies and eczema is, but some medical experts believe that the weakened skin barrier associated with eczema makes it easier for allergens to enter the body, which can in turn impact the immune system over time. Allergens—like pollen, dust, pet dander, and mold— are also triggers for some people with eczema.

9. Scratching makes it worse.

When an eczema flare-up starts to itch, it can be impossible to think about anything else. But scratching a rash is the last thing people with this condition should do. Instead of relieving discomfort, scratching a dry patch of skin can irritate it even further. Sometimes eczema sufferers scratch their skin so much that it starts to bleed, opening the door for potential infections.

10. Eczema is more common in kids.

Eczema affects roughly 11 percent of U.S. children [PDF] and 7 percent of adults [PDF]. Most kids with eczema develop it within the first five years of life, with 65 percent percent of child eczema patients first showing symptoms as infants. Living with eczema can be taxing for both kids and parents—especially when kids can’t stop themselves from scratching their rashes—but fortunately, half of kids with the condition grow out of it by the time they reach their teen years.

11. It can't be cured—but it can be treated.

There’s no cure for eczema, but there are some treatments that can help keep aggressive symptoms under control. Above all, eczema patients should keep their skin clean and moisturized to prevent flare-ups. Doctors recommend taking regular showers with warm water (but not hot water, as that can dry skin even more), and applying moisturizer immediately after bathing. If regular moisturizer isn't enough to soothe skin, doctors may prescribe a topical ointment with steroids to reduce inflammation, and if that still isn't effective, systemic medications that fight inflammation throughout the whole body may help. Ultraviolet B therapy is another treatment option. A few times a week, patients stand in a UVB light box that mimics natural sunlight. This encourages vitamin D production and curbs skin's inflammatory response while calming itchiness at the same time.

What Is the Difference Between Heat Exhaustion and Heatstroke

YuriS/iStock via Getty Images
YuriS/iStock via Getty Images

When temperatures begin to climb, many of us can find ourselves growing physically uncomfortable. Indoors or out, warm weather can make us lethargic, sweaty, and nostalgic for winter. There are differences, though, between heat exhaustion—a precursor to more serious symptoms—and heatstroke. So what are they? And how can you treat them?

Heat exhaustion happens when the body begins to overheat as a result of exposure to excessive temperatures or high humidity. (Humidity affects the body's ability to cool off, because sweat cannot evaporate as easily in humid weather.) Sufferers may sweat profusely, feel lightheaded or dizzy, and have a weak or rapid pulse. Skin may become cool and moist. Nausea and headache are also common. With heat exhaustion, it’s necessary to move to a cooler place and drink plenty of fluids, though medical attention is not often required.

If those steps aren't taken, though, heatstroke can set in. This is much more serious and involves the body reaching a dangerous core temperature of 104°F or higher. People experiencing heatstroke may appear disoriented or confused, with flushed skin and rapid breathing. They may also lose consciousness. While heat exhaustion can be treated and monitored at home until symptoms resolve, heatstroke is a medical emergency that requires prompt attention by a health professional. Until help arrives, heatstroke should be treated with cool cloths or a bath, but sufferers should not be given anything to drink.

Although young children and those over the age of 65 are most susceptible to heat-related health issues, anyone can find themselves having a reaction to warm temperatures. If you’re outside, it’s best to drink plenty of fluids, wear light-fitting clothing, and avoid being out in the afternoons when it’s warmest. Because sunburn can compromise the body’s ability to cool itself, wearing sunscreen is also a good idea.

While it’s not always possible to avoid hot or humid weather, monitoring your body for symptoms and returning to a cool space out of the sun when necessary is the best way to stay healthy. If you have older relatives who live alone, it’s also a good idea to check on them when temperatures rise to make sure they’re doing well.

[h/t WWMT]

The Long Stride of Tony Little, Infomercial Titan

Mike Coppola, Getty Images for MTV
Mike Coppola, Getty Images for MTV

Tony Little didn’t see it coming. It was 1983, and the aspiring bodybuilder and future Gazelle pitchman was living in Tampa Bay, Florida, winding down his training for the Mr. America competition that was coming up in just six weeks. While driving to the gym, Little stopped at a red light and waited. Suddenly, a school bus materialized on his left, plowing into Little's vehicle and crumpling his driver’s side door.

Dazed and running on adrenaline, Little got out and sprinted over to find the bus was full of children. After seeing that none of the kids were seriously hurt, he promptly passed out. When Little later awoke, he was in the hospital, where he was handed a laundry list of the injuries he had sustained. There were two herniated discs, a cracked vertebrae, a torn rotator cuff, and a dislocated knee. He struggled to maintain his physique in the weight room and made only a perfunctory appearance at that year's Mr. America competition. Little's dreams of becoming a professional bodybuilder had been derailed courtesy of an errant school bus, whose driver had been drunk.

Though it took some time, Little eventually overcame the setback, pivoting from his original goal of being a champion bodybuilder to becoming one of the most recognizable pitchmen in the history of televised advertising. Before he did that, however, he would have to recover from another car accident.

 

For someone so devoted to physical achievement, Little was constantly being undercut by obstacles. During a high school football game, Little—who was a star player on his team in Ohio—ended up tearing the cartilage in his knee after he collided with future NFL player Rob Lytle. From that point on, Little's knee popped out of place whenever he stepped onto the field or went to gym class.

Tony Little is photographed at the premiere of Vh1's 'Celebrity Paranormal Project' in Hollywood, California in 2006
John M. Heller, Getty Images

In There’s Always a Way, his 2009 autobiography, Little wrote about how that injury—and the loss of a potential athletic scholarship—caused him to act out. A friend of his stole a Firebird and took Little for a joyride. When they were caught, Little took the blame; as he was under 18, Little figured he would get by with a slap on the wrist, while his older friend might be tried and convicted of a serious crime as an adult. According to Little, the judge gave him a pass on the condition that he relocate to Tampa Bay, where he could live with his uncle and put some distance between himself and the negative influences in his life. Little agreed.

Because of his previous injury, Little was unable to play football after making the move to Florida; instead, he devoted himself to his new high school’s weight room, where a bad knee was not nearly as limiting. After graduating, he pursued bodybuilding, earning the titles of Junior Mr. America and Mr. Florida. Little envisioned a future where he would be a fitness personality, selling his own line of supplements when he wasn't competing professionally.

The school bus changed all that. Little, who was now unable to train at the level such serious competition required, retreated to his condo, where he said he relied on painkillers to numb the physical and emotional pain of the accident. More misfortune followed: Little accidentally sat in a pool of chemicals at a friend’s manufacturing plant, suffering burns. He also had a bout with meningitis.

While Little was convalescing from this string of ailments and accidents, he saw Jane Fonda on television, trumpeting her line of workout videos. Little was intrigued: Maybe he didn’t need to have bodybuilding credentials to reach a wider audience. Maybe his enthusiastic approach to motivating people would be enough.

By now it was the mid-1980s, and a very good time to get into televised pitching. In 1984, President Ronald Reagan signed the Cable Communications Policy Act, which deregulated paid airtime for cable networks. Herbalife was the first to sign up, airing an infomercial for their line of nutritional products. Soon, stations were broadcasting all kinds of paid programs. Exercise advice and equipment pitches were abundant, a kind of throwback to department stores that used to feature product demonstrations. It was not enough to read about a Soloflex, which used resistance bands to strengthen muscles. It was better to see it in action.

Now that he was back in shape, Little was ready to make his mark. He was told by his local cable access channel that he could buy 15 half-hours of airtime for $5500. To raise the money, Little started a cleaning service for gyms and health clubs. After airing installments of an exercise program, he was picked up by the Home Shopping Network (HSN). Little made his HSN debut in 1987. With his energetic pitch and trademark ponytail, he sold 400 workout videos in four hours.

 

Little was on the home-shopping and infomercial circuit for years before landing his breakthrough project. In 1996, the Ohio-based company Fitness Quest was preparing to launch their Gazelle, an elliptical trainer that could raise the heart rate without any impact on joints. People used their hands and feet to move in a long stride that felt effortless.

Little felt he would be the perfect spokesperson for the Gazelle and entered into an arrangement with Bob Schnabel, the company's president. The night before the infomercial was scheduled to shoot, Little was driving when he got into another serious car accident that required 200 stitches in his face. Little called Schnabel to break the news, and was told he’d have to be replaced.

Tony Little demonstrates a Gazelle during an MTV upfront presentation in New York in 2016
Mike Coppola, Getty Images for MTV

Undaunted, Little flew from Florida to Ohio to speak to Schnabel in person. By insisting that he could make the story inspirational (and that he could cover up his injuries with make-up), Little managed to convince Schnabel to proceed with the infomercial as planned. The Gazelle ended up with $1.5 billion in revenue, with Little’s other ventures—Cheeks sandals, bison meat, and a therapeutic pillow—bringing the total sales of his endorsed products to more than $3 billion. Little later reprised his Gazelle pitch for a Geico commercial, which also served as a stealth ad for the machine—which is still on the market.

While pitching wound up being relatively low-impact, it was not completely without problems. Little once said that the accumulation of appearances—more than 10,000 in all—has done some damage to his neck because of constantly having to swivel his head between the camera and the model demonstrating his product.

Those appearances have made Little synonymous with the machine. In 2013, the Smithsonian's National Zoo wondered what to name their new baby gazelle. The answer: Little Tony.

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