Bees Across America Stopped Buzzing During Last Year's Total Solar Eclipse

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iStock.com/mafrmcfa

Most bees are diurnal creatures, meaning that they're active during daylight hours. After flying around all day, they start to slow down around dusk and return to their colonies at night to sleep.

Considering that daylight plays an important role in a bee's busy schedule, would a total solar eclipse thwart their plans? Would the bees think it's time to turn in for the night when the Moon passes in front of the Sun and blocks out its light? These are the questions researchers from the University of Missouri set out to answer when they tracked bee activity during the last total solar eclipse on August 21, 2017.

Their findings, published today in the Annals of the Entomological Society of America, yielded some surprises. Lead author Candace Galen said they expected to see bee activity gradually diminish as the sky darkened. "But we had not expected that the change would be so abrupt, that bees would continue flying up until totality [of the eclipse] and only then stop, completely," Galen said in a statement. "It was like 'lights out' at summer camp! That surprised us."

Of the 16 locations they tracked, only one bee was heard flying during the eclipse. This is one of the first studies to analyze how bees respond to a solar eclipse, and few studies like this have looked at similar behavior in other insects or animals. A 1991 study found that desert cicadas in Arizona stopped chirping for about 40 minutes during a partial solar eclipse. Another study from 1973 found that captive squirrels became restless and ran around far more during an eclipse, while other research showed that Blue bulls at a zoo in India altered their feeding and resting periods during a partial solar eclipse.

Before the latest bee study kicked off, researchers used tiny microphones and temperature sensors to track bee pollination by listening to them buzz about. That same method was applied to the solar eclipse experiment, and 16 monitoring stations were set up along the eclipse's path of totality in Oregon, Idaho, and Missouri. More than 400 scientists, citizens, and elementary school teachers and students assisted with the experiment.

The microphones were hung on flowers that bees had pollinated in semi-remote locations away from foot and vehicle traffic. After the eclipse, the recordings were sent off to Galen's lab, where researchers matched up flight activity with the different eclipse periods. In doing so, it was discovered that bees (mostly bumble and honey bees) kept flying during the partial-eclipse phases before and after the total eclipse. Practically no buzzing was recorded during the period of totality, save for one flight picked up by microphones.

Researchers also noticed that bees' flights were longer during those partial-eclipse phases, but they were likely slower flights as a result of the reduced light. They may have been returning to their hives, believing that it was time to rest, researchers suggested.

"The eclipse gave us an opportunity to ask whether the novel environmental context—mid-day, open skies—would alter the bees' behavioral response to dim light and darkness," Galen said. "As we found, complete darkness elicits the same behavior in bees, regardless of timing or context. And that's new information about bee cognition."

The next total solar eclipse in North America will take place on April 8, 2024, at which time Galen's team plans to do a second experiment. The researchers hope to improve their audio-analysis software to determine whether a bee is leaving or returning to its colony. That way, they'll be able to tell whether bees head home during a total eclipse.

How Did 6 Feet Become the Standard Grave Depth?

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iStock

It all started with the plague: The origins of “six feet under” come from a 1665 outbreak in England. As the disease swept the country, the mayor of London literally laid down the law about how to deal with the bodies to avoid further infections. Among his specifications—made in “Orders Conceived and Published by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of the City of London, Concerning the Infection of the Plague”—was that “all the graves shall be at least six feet deep.”

The law eventually fell out of favor both in England and its colonies. Modern American burial laws vary from state to state, though many states simply require a minimum of 18 inches of soil on top of the casket or burial vault (or two feet of soil if the body is not enclosed in anything). Given an 18-inch dirt buffer and the height of the average casket (which appears to be approximately 30 inches), a grave as shallow as four feet would be fine.

A typical modern burial involves a body pumped full of chemical preservatives sealed inside a sturdy metal casket, which is itself sealed inside a steel or cement burial vault. It’s less of a hospitable environment for microbes than the grave used to be. For untypical burials, though—where the body isn’t embalmed, a vault isn’t used, or the casket is wood instead of metal or is foregone entirely—even these less strict burial standards provide a measure of safety and comfort. Without any protection, and subjected to a few years of soil erosion, the bones of the dearly departed could inconveniently and unexpectedly surface or get too close to the living, scaring people and acting as disease vectors. The minimum depth helps keep the dead down where they belong.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

This article originally appeared in 2012.

One Good Reason Not to Hold in a Fart: It Could Leak Out of Your Mouth

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iStock/grinvalds

The next time you hold in a fart for fear of being heard by polite company, just remember this: It could leak out of your mouth instead of your butt. Writing on The Conversation, University of Newcastle nutrition and dietetics professor Clare Collins explains that pent-up gas can pass through your gut wall and get reabsorbed into your circulation. It's then released when you exhale, whether you like it or not.

“Holding on too long means the build up of intestinal gas will eventually escape via an uncontrollable fart,” Collins writes. In this case, the fart comes out of the wrong end. Talk about potty mouth.

A few brave scientists have investigated the phenomenon of flatulence. In one study, 10 healthy volunteers were fed half a can of baked beans in addition to their regular diets and given a rectal catheter to measure their farts over a 24-hour period. Although it was a small sample, the results were still telling. Men and women let loose the same amount of gas, and the average number of “flatus episodes” (a single fart, or series of farts) during that period was eight. Another study of 10 people found that high-fiber diets led to fewer but bigger farts, and a third study found that gases containing sulphur are the culprit of the world’s stinkiest farts. Two judges were tapped to rate the odor intensity of each toot, and we can only hope that they made it out alive.

Scientific literature also seems to support Collins’s advice to “let it go.” A 2010 paper on “Methane and the gastrointestinal tract” says methane, hydrogen sulfide, and other gases that are produced in the intestinal tract are mostly eliminated from the body via the anus or “expelled from the lungs.” Holding it in can lead to belching, flatulence, bloating, and pain. And in some severe cases, pouches can form along the wall of the colon and get infected, causing diverticulitis.

So go ahead and let it rip, just like nature intended—but maybe try to find an empty room first.

[h/t CBS Philadelphia]

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