Ig Nobel Prizes Honor Self-Colonoscopies and Kidney Stone-Dislodging Roller Coasters

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Not all science awards are reserved for discoveries that revolutionize their fields. As the Ig Nobel Prize recognizes, sometimes a largely pointless, but wildly creative, study is just as worthy of accolades. On September 13, the Ig Nobel Prize continued its tradition of honoring achievements "that make people laugh, and then think" with its 28th annual ceremony.

The Ig Nobel Prize recognizes work across a variety of fields. This year, the medicine prize was awarded to Marc Mitchell and David Wartinger for their investigation of whether or not riding a roller coaster can dislodge a kidney stone. The answer: It can, at least if you're riding in the back car of the Big Thunder Mountain coaster at Walt Disney World. Other notable winners include a study detailing a self-administered colonoscopy and one that asks if using a voodoo doll of your boss is an effective way to manage workplace aggression (it is).

You can check out the full list of 2018 Ig Nobel Prize recipients below.

MEDICINE

"For using roller coaster rides to try to hasten the passage of kidney stones."

Winners: Marc Mitchell and David Wartinger

Study: "Validation of a Functional Pyelocalyceal Renal Model for the Evaluation of Renal Calculi Passage While Riding a Roller Coaster," published in The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association

ANTHROPOLOGY

"For collecting evidence, in a zoo, that chimpanzees imitate humans about as often, and about as well, as humans imitate chimpanzees."

Winners: Tomas Persson, Gabriela-Alina Sauciuc, and Elainie Madsen

Study: "Spontaneous Cross-Species Imitation in Interaction Between Chimpanzees and Zoo Visitors," published in Primates

BIOLOGY

"For demonstrating that wine experts can reliably identify, by smell, the presence of a single fly in a glass of wine."

Winners: Paul Becher, Sebastien Lebreton, Erika Wallin, Erik Hedenstrom, Felipe Borrero-Echeverry, Marie Bengtsson, Volker Jorger, and Peter Witzgall

Study: "The Scent of the Fly," published in bioRxiv

CHEMISTRY

"For measuring the degree to which human saliva is a good cleaning agent for dirty surfaces."

Winners: Paula Romão, Adília Alarcão and the late César Viana

Study: "Human Saliva as a Cleaning Agent for Dirty Surfaces," published in Studies in Conservation

MEDICAL EDUCATION

"For the medical report 'Colonoscopy in the Sitting Position: Lessons Learned From Self-Colonoscopy.'"

Winner: Akira Horiuchi

Study: "Colonoscopy in the Sitting Position: Lessons Learned From Self-Colonoscopy by Using a Small-Caliber, Variable-Stiffness Colonoscope," published in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

LITERATURE

"For documenting that most people who use complicated products do not read the instruction manual."

Winners: Thea Blackler, Rafael Gomez, Vesna Popovic and M. Helen Thompson

Study: "Life Is Too Short to RTFM: How Users Relate to Documentation and Excess Features in Consumer Products," published in Interacting With Computers

NUTRITION

"For calculating that the caloric intake from a human-cannibalism diet is significantly lower than the caloric intake from most other traditional meat diets."

Winner: James Cole

Study: "Assessing the Calorific Significance of Episodes of Human Cannibalism in the Paleolithic," published in Scientific Reports

PEACE

"For measuring the frequency, motivation, and effects of shouting and cursing while driving an automobile."

Winners: Francisco Alonso, Cristina Esteban, Andrea Serge, Maria-Luisa Ballestar, Jaime Sanmartín, Constanza Calatayud, and Beatriz Alamar

Study: "Shouting and Cursing While Driving: Frequency, Reasons, Perceived Risk and Punishment," published in the Journal of Sociology and Anthropology

REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE

"For using postage stamps to test whether the male sexual organ is functioning properly."

Winners: John Barry, Bruce Blank, and Michel Boileau

Study: "Nocturnal Penile Tumescence Monitoring With Stamps," published in Urology

ECONOMICS

"For investigating whether it is effective for employees to use voodoo dolls to retaliate against abusive bosses."

Winners: Lindie Hanyu Liang, Douglas Brown, Huiwen Lian, Samuel Hanig, D. Lance Ferris, and Lisa Keeping

Study: "Righting a Wrong: Retaliation on a Voodoo Doll Symbolizing an Abusive Supervisor Restores Justice," published in The Leadership Quarterly

Alcohol-Producing Gut Bacteria May Harm Livers—Even if You Don't Drink

itakdalee/iStock via Getty Images
itakdalee/iStock via Getty Images

Teetotalers might think their liver is safe from the damaging effects of alcohol consumption, but new research is hinting that even non-drinkers and light drinkers might have cause for concern. It turns out a type of gut bacteria is capable of producing alcohol—and enough of it to potentially cause some pretty serious health consequences, including liver disease.

A study led by Jing Yuan at the Capital Institute of Pediatrics in Beijing, China and published in the journal Cell Metabolism offers details. After evaluating a patient with auto-brewery syndrome (ABS), a rare condition brought on by consumption and fermentation of sugary foods that leaves a person with high blood alcohol levels, researchers made an intriguing discovery. Rather than finding fermenting yeast that may have led to the condition, the patient’s stool contained Klebsiella pneumonia, a common gut bacteria capable of producing alcohol. In this subject, K. pneumonia was producing significantly more alcohol than in healthy patients.

The patient also had nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by fatty deposits in the liver. While many cases of NAFLD are relatively benign, too much fat can become toxic. Examining 43 other subjects with NAFLD, scientists found that that K. pneumonia was both present and potent, pumping out more alcohol than normal in 60 percent of participants with NAFLD. In the control group, a surplus was found in only 6.25 percent.

To further observe a correlation, scientists fed the bacteria to healthy, germ-free mice, who began to see an increase in fat in their livers after only one month. While not conclusive proof that the bacteria prompts NAFLD, it will likely trigger additional research in humans.

It’s not yet known how K. pneumonia acts in concert with the bacterial profile of the gut or what might make someone carrying stronger strains of the bacteria. Luckily, K. pneumonia can be treated with antibiotics. That’s good news for people who might never touch a drink and still find themselves with a damaged liver.

[h/t Live Science]

5 Hilarious Discoveries from the 2019 Ig Nobel Prize Winners

andriano_cz/iStock via Getty Images
andriano_cz/iStock via Getty Images

Each September, the Ig Nobel Prizes (a play on the word ignoble) are given out to scientists who have wowed the world with their eccentric, imaginative achievements. Though the experiments are usually scientifically sound and the results are sometimes truly illuminating, that doesn’t make them any less hilarious. From postal workers’ scrotal temperatures to cube-shaped poop, here are our top five takeaways from this year’s award-winning studies.

1. Left and right scrota often differ in temperature, whether you’re naked or not.

Roger Mieusset and Bourras Bengoudifa were awarded the anatomy prize for testing the scrotum temperatures in clothed and naked men in various positions. They found that in some postal workers, bus drivers, and other clothed civilians, the left scrotum is warmer than the right, while in some naked civilians, the opposite is true. They suggest that this discrepancy may contribute to asymmetry in the shape and size of male external genitalia.

2. 5-year-old children produce about half a liter of saliva per day.

Shigeru Watanabe and his team nabbed the chemistry prize for tracking the eating and sleeping habits of 15 boys and 15 girls to discover that, regardless of gender, they each produce about 500 milliliters of spit per day. Children have lower salivary flow rates than adults, and they also sleep longer (we produce virtually no saliva when we sleep), so it seems like they may generate much less saliva than adults. However, since children also spend more time eating than adults (when the most saliva is produced), the average daily levels are about even—at least, according to one of Watanabe’s previous studies on adult saliva.

3. Scratching an ankle itch feels even better than scratching other itches.

Ghada A. bin Saif, A.D.P. Papoiu, and their colleagues used cowhage (a plant known to make people itchy) to induce itches on the forearms, ankles, and backs of 18 participants, whom they then asked to rate both the intensity of the itch and the pleasure derived from scratching it. Subjects felt ankle and back itches more intensely than those on their forearms, and they also rated ankle and back scratches higher on the pleasure scale. While pleasure levels dropped off for back and forearm itches as they were scratched, the same wasn’t true for ankle itches—participants still rated pleasurability higher even while the itchy feeling subsided. Perhaps because there’s no peace quite like that of scratching a good itch, the scientists won the Ig Nobel peace prize for their work.

4. Elastic intestines help wombats create their famous cubed poop.

In the final 8 percent of a wombat’s intestine, feces transform from a liquid-like state into a series of small, solid cubes. Patricia Yang, David Hu, and their team inflated the intestines of two dead wombats with long balloons to discover that this formation is caused by the elastic quality of the intestinal wall, which stretches at certain angles to form cubes. For solving the mystery, Yang and Hu took home the physics award for the second time—they also won in 2015 for testing the theory that all mammals can empty their bladders in about 21 seconds.

5. Romanian money grows bacteria better than other money.

Habip Gedik and father-and-son pair Timothy and Andreas Voss earned the economics prize by growing drug-resistant bacteria on the euro, U.S. dollar, Canadian dollar, Croatian luna, Romanian leu, Moroccan dirham, and Indian rupee. The Romanian leu was the only one to yield all three types of bacteria tested—Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci. The Croatian luna produced none, and the other banknotes each produced one. The results suggest that the Romanian leu was most susceptible to bacteria growth because it was the only banknote in the experiment made from polymers rather than textile-based fibers.

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