Could a Massive Volcanic Eruption Have Led to Napoleon's Loss at Waterloo?

iStock
iStock

Losing parties often have excuses for why they came up short. If you’re playing softball, maybe the sun got in your eyes. If you drop a Monopoly game, maybe someone cheated and squatted on Park Place. And if you’re Napoleon Bonaparte, maybe an Indonesian volcano helps explain why you lost the Battle of Waterloo.

Obviously, Napoleon isn’t around to lay blame for his defeat in Belgium in 1815, a conflict that ended his long reign as France’s emperor and premier military strategist. But recent research into how volcanic eruptions can influence weather patterns might be able to offer insight into why Napoleon made the fateful choice of delaying engagement against the Duke of Wellington’s forces 12 miles south of Brussels.

A paper published in the journal Geology [PDF] and authored by Imperial College earth scientist Matthew J. Genge offers new information about how high volcanic ash can rise following an eruption. Previously, it was believed ash could reach as high as the stratosphere, or 31 miles above Earth’s surface. Genge’s research, based on computer modeling, suggests that an electrostatically charged volcanic plume could force the ash even further, sending it 50 to 600 miles up and into the ionosphere, where the particles can cause cloud formation and precipitation.

An illustration depicts Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo
iStock

Two months before Napoleon arrived on the scene at Waterloo, Mount Tambora in Indonesia exploded, likely sending ash into the ionosphere. More than 8000 miles away from Belgium, the ash scattered for months, slowly migrating to Europe. Some climate historians have inferred that the resulting precipitation in Belgium created a waterlogged battleground for Napoleon and the opposing Prussian and British armies. It was this muddy, uneven terrain that likely prompted Napoleon to hold off advancing until the middle of the day, allowing his rivals to gather their forces and eventually forcing his retreat.

While Mount Tambora’s eruption was devastating—it killed 100,000 people on the island of Sumbawa and forced a global temperature drop of more than 5°F in 1816—the theory that it led directly to Napoleon’s defeat is hard to substantiate. While waiting until later in the day to attack and having unsure footing didn’t help, Napoleon's opposition was fighting in the same conditions and may have outmaneuvered him regardless. In one key sequence, he failed to follow up on an effective artillery attack, allowing Wellington to compose his forces and make a successful bid to end the scuffle.

Genge draws heavily on the behavior of volcanic ash from two subsequent massive eruptions—Indonesia's Krakatau in 1883 and the Philippines's Mount Pinatubo in 1991—to illustrate his “short-circuited” theory of ionosphere disruption, and not from Tambora specifically. While rain may have indeed altered Napoleon’s plans, it may not necessarily have been the result of Tambora. Genge's work will, however, likely inspire further investigation into how inclement weather may have changed the course of history.

[h/t Smithsonian]

15 Old-Fashioned Hats Ready for a Comeback

istock
istock

Whether we wear them to stay warm, protect our heads, hide our hair, or simply add flair to our ensembles, hats have always been a celebrated part of our wardrobes. In honor of National Hat Day, here are 15 once-iconic toppers that have fallen out of fashion—and should be brought back into style.

1. The Snood

Don’t call this knotted headdress a hair net—it’s actually a snood. In the late 1850s and early 1860s, it was in vogue for young women to hold their hair back with close-fitting, bag-shaped caps they’d woven from velvet, lace, yarn, or other materials.

The trend faded by the 1870s, but the snood made a comeback in the 1940s after female factory workers realized it added both practicality and panache to their work ensembles. The hat fell to the wayside once more after World War II ended and women returned to the domestic sphere.

2. The Cartwheel hat

Resembling a flying saucer affixed to one’s head, the cartwheel hat is a wide-brimmed circular or saucer-shaped topper that first became popular in the 1930s. It was typically worn at a rakish angle, and it was usually fashioned from materials like straw, felt, silk, or taffeta.

To our modern sensibilities, the cartwheel hat may seem bizarre, and records indicate that the look also perplexed the public when it was first debuted. “Do not be astounded if you notice a smartly gowned woman crowned with a hat of huge proportions, for she is but following fashion’s latest edict,” one 1914 newspaper article noted. “The new large hats are broad brimmed and have low crowns, which are not discernible when the hat is worn, hence they resemble cartwheels tilted at a becoming angle.”

3. The tri-corner hat

If you’ve ever seen a portrait of George Washington, chances are good that he was wearing a tri-corner hat, or a tricorn. 17th-century European and American men of all social classes wore these hats because the brim turned up on three sides, allowing them to show off their stylish wigs. The hats were also small, which allowed polite gentlemen to take them off and tuck them underneath their arms when entering a building.

Tricorners were either left plain or festooned with feathers, brocades, silks, or metallic fabrics. They often came in neutrals like black, grey, and tan.

4. cloche hat

Woman wearing a cloche hat
iStock.com/upheaval

Famous flappers were fans of the cloche—a fitted, bell-shaped hat that took Roaring Twenties style by storm. Invented in Paris, the cloche became popular among both European and American women during the 1920s. The hat fit neatly over a short bob, and its simplicity allowed the era’s “modern women” to dance, socialize, and move with abandon.

Today, women occasionally wear cloche-like styles. However, the hat still remains synonymous with the Jazz Age.

5. The bowler hat

Bowler hat and gloves
iStock.com/Kalulu

In 1849, London hat makers Thomas and William Bowler created a toque that gamekeepers on horseback could wear to shield their heads from low hanging branches. With its close fit, low crown, and sturdy make, the bowler hat was way more practical than a top hat.

Over time, businessmen, politicians, and celebrities became fans of the look. By the mid 1950s to 1960s, it was common for men to incorporate bowler hats into their suited ensembles. The look became less common by the 1980s. However, British cavalry officers still traditionally wear bowler hats and suits for their annual parade.

6. The coonskin cap

Young boy wearing a coon skin cap and carring a walking stick
iStock.com/spillover

While it’s a myth that Davy Crockett wore a coonskin cap, they were indeed popular among American frontiersman during the late 18th century. Early pioneers saw Native Americans wearing the warm, fuzzy hats, and they adopted the look for themselves. Soon, the coonskin cap became inextricably linked with the rugged, individualistic American settler.

Like all iconic looks, changing cultural aesthetics caused the coonskin cap to dwindle in popularity. By 1902, the fuzzy hat wasn’t perceived as “rustic”—it was straight-up redneck. However, the look exploded in popularity once more when a TV show based on Crockett’s adventures premiered in 1954.

Crockett fever faded in the 1960s, and the cap once more became a relic of a bygone era. However, bloggers report that a few brave souls have been spotted donning the coonskin cap while walking the streets of New York City’s SoHo and Williamsburg neighborhoods.

7. THE DEERSTALKER HAT

A deerstalker hat and tobacco pipe
iStock.com/homydesign

Not surprisingly, the deerstalker hat is worn for hunting. However, fictional detective Sherlock Holmes popularized the hat in the 19th century, trotting about in his novels clad in a cape and the smart headwear. Not surprisingly, the hat is most often worn by rural outdoorsmen—not by genteel city dwellers like Sherlock.

8. BOATER HATS

Straw boater hat
iStock.com/Easy_Asa

British sailors in the 19th century donned hard, flat-topped hats made from water-resistant varnished straw. Later, English sportsmen wore the stiff-brimmed hats while rowing along the Thames. The look caught on, and by the 1890s, everyone was wearing boater hats—even girls and women, who were becoming more active in outdoor sports.

Boater hats crossed the Atlantic, and were fashionable among middle-class men and college boys alike. During election campaigns, they were dressed up with red, white, and blue bands and transformed into political symbols.

9. THE PILLBOX HAT

The pillbox hat was a simple, elegant, and no-frills accessory hat that was popular from the 1930s through the late 1960s. The round, brim-less hats were worn perched on top of the head. True to their name, they were also shaped like a pillbox.

10. THE HENNIN


iStock.com

Those pointy medieval princess hats with veils have a name: They’re called hennins. Worn by European royalty, the tall, stiff hats were fashioned from expensive fabric and girded with wire or padding. In France, some hennins reached heights of up to three feet. However, English versions of the hennin were smaller and less dramatic.

11. THE FASCINATOR

Woman wearing a fascinator
iStock.com

Unless you’re running with a royal crowd, fascinators probably aren’t on your radar. But they should be: these decorative headpieces can be as simple or as elaborate as you’d like. All around the world—going way back to ancient times—women have dressed up their locks using feathers, cloth, flowers, and more, creating fascinator-like looks. Our favorite is probably the 13th century ramshorn, which involved a headband-brooch combo, plus two coiled buns reminiscent of a certain science fiction heroine.

12. THE BICORNE HAT

Black bicorne hat
iStock.com/sigurcamp

In the late 18th century, European and American military and naval officers (think Napoleon Bonaparte) wore bicornes. The hat had a broad, floppy brim, and its front and back section were folded over and pinned together. This feature made the accessory less cumbersome and easier to carry.

13. THE CALASH

The sky-high hairdos of the late 18th century demanded equally lofty protection. Massive bonnets called calashes fit the bill. Each had wood or whalebone sewn in for stability, but the super tall toppers were collapsible, too.

14. THE PHRYGIAN CAP

The Phrygian cap is most commonly associated with freed Roman slaves, who wore a variant of the soft, pointy hat to symbolize their independence. The hat was later adopted as a symbol of liberty during the French Revolution.

15. THE BALMORAL BONNET

The Balmoral bonnet
iStock.com/EuToch

This floppy, tasseled beret was named after Queen Victoria’s Scottish estate, Balmoral Castle. The traditional hat is worn tilted sideways, and is typically paired with Scottish highland dress.

17 Bizarre Natural Remedies From the 1700s

In the late 1740s, John Wesley—a British evangelist and the co-founder of Methodism—published Primitive Physick, or, An Easy and Natural Method of Curing Most Diseases. The tome gave regular people ways to cure themselves with natural remedies, using items they could find in their own homes.

When in doubt, Welsey thought that drinking cold water or taking cold baths could cure most illnesses (including breast cancer); some of his suggestions, like using chamomile tea to soothe an upset stomach, have survived today. Other natural remedies he whipped up, though, are decidedly strange. Here are a few of them.

1. To Cure An Ague

Wesley describes an ague as “an intermitting fever, each fit of which is preceded by a cold shivering and goes off in a sweat.” There are many natural remedies for curing it, but all must be preceded by taking a “gentle vomit,” which, if taken two hours before the fit, Wesley says will generally prevent it, and may even cure the ague. If the vomiting fails, however, Wesley suggests wearing a bag of groundsel, a weed, “on the pit of the stomach, renewing it two hours before the fit.” The weed should be shredded small, and the side of the bag facing the skin should have holes in it.

Should this not work, Wesley suggests a remedy that requires a stronger stomach: “Make six middling pills of cobwebs, take one a little before the cold fit: Two a little before the next fit: The other three, if Need be, a little before the third fit. I never knew this fail.”

2. To Cure a Canine Appetite

Wesley turns to a Dr. Scomberg for the cure to this condition, which is defined by Wesley as “an insatiable desire of eating”: If there’s no vomiting, canine appetite “is often cured by a small Bit of Bread dipt in Wine, and applied to the Nostrils."

3. To Cure Asthma

Tar water, sea water, nettle juice, and quicksilver are all acceptable cures for what Wesley calls "moist Asthma" (which is characterized by “a difficulty of breathing … the patient spits much”). But a method that “seldom fails,” Wesley says, is living “a fortnight on boiled carrots only.”

Dry and convulsive asthma, meanwhile, can be treated with toad, dried and powdered. “Make it into small pills,” Wesley writes, “and take one every hour until the convulsions fade.”

4. To Prevent or Cure Nose Bleeds

Drinking whey and eating raisins every day, Wesley says, can help prevent nose bleeds. Other methods for preventing or curing the phenomenon include “hold[ing] a red hot poker under the nose” and “steep[ing] a linnen rag in sharp vinegar, burn[ing] it, and blow[ing] it up the nose with a Quill.”

5. To Cure a “Cold in the Head”

Getting rid of this common ailment is easy, according to Wesley: Just “pare very thin the yellow rind of an orange," he writes. "Roll it up inside out, and thrust a roll inside each nostril.”

6. To Cure “An Habitual Colick”

Today's doctors define colic as a condition suffered by "a healthy, well-fed infant who cries for more than three hours per day, for more than three days per week, for more than three weeks." But adults can get it, too; it's characterized by severe stomach pains and spasms (which, we now know, can be an indication of other conditions, like Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome). To cure it, Wesley suggests this odd remedy: “Wear a thin soft Flannel on the part.”

6. To Cure “White Specks in the Eye”

While it's unclear exactly what "white specks in the eye" actually is—eye floaters, maybe—Wesley suggests that, when “going to bed, put a little ear-wax on the Speck.—This has cured many.”

7. To Cure the Falling Sickness

Those who suffer from this illness “fall to the ground, either quite stiff, or convulsed all over, utterly senseless, gnashing his teeth, and foaming at the mouth.” To cure the condition, Wesley recommends “an entire milk diet for three months: It rarely fails.” During fits, though, “blow up the nose a little powder’d ginger.”

8. To Cure Gout

“Regard not them who say the gout ought not to be cured. They mean, it cannot,” Wesley writes. (They, here, might be referring to regular practitioners of medicine.) “I know it cannot by their regular prescriptions. But I have known it cured in many cases, without any ill effect following.” Gout in the foot or hand can be cured by “apply[ing] a raw lean beef-steak. Change it once in 12 hours, ‘till cured.”

Curing the gout in any limb can be accomplished by beginning this ritual at six in the evening: “Undress and wrap yourself up in Blankets. — Then put your Legs up to the Knees in Water, as hot as you can bear it. As it cools, let hot Water be poured in, so as to keep you in a strong Sweat till ten. Then go into a Bed well warm'd and sweat till Morning. — I have known this to cure an inveterate Gout.”

9. To Cure Jaundice

Wesley suggests curing jaundice—which turns the skin and whites of the eyes yellow (thanks to too much bilirubin in the blood, we now know)—by wearing "leaves of Celandine upon and under the feet." Other possible cures include taking a small pill of Castile soap in the morning for eight to 10 days, or "as much lies on a shilling of calcin’d egg-shells, three mornings fasting; and walk till you sweat.”

10. To Cure “The Iliac Passion”

This decidedly unpleasant condition—which Wesley defines as a “violent kind of Colic ... the Excrements are thrown up by the mouth in vomiting,” eww—has a few cures, including “apply[ing] warm Flannel soaked in Spirits of Wine.” Most delightful, however, is the cure recommended by a Dr. Sydenham: “Hold a live Puppy constantly on the Belly.”

11. To Cure “the Palpitation or Beating of the Heart”

Among the remedies for this ailment are the mundane “drink a Pint of cold Water,” the stinky-but-probably-not-effective “apply outwardly a Rag dipt In vinegar,” and the very exciting “be electrified” (which is suggested for a few other illnesses as well).

12. To Cure Pleurisy

This illness is characterized by “a Fever attended with a violent pain in the Side, and a Pulse remarkably hard.” (It's caused, we now know, when the double membrane that surrounds the lungs inside the chest cavity becomes inflamed.) Wesley’s first suggested remedy involves applying “to the Side Onions roasted in the Embers, mixt with Cream." Next up is filling the core of an apple with frankincense “stop[ping] it close with the Piece you cut out and roast[ing] it in Ashes. Mash and eat it.” Sounds delicious!

13. To cure Quinsy

“A quinsy,” Wesley explains, “is a Fever attended with Difficulty of Swallowing, and often Breathing.” (Today, the condition is called peritonsillar abscess and it's known to be a complication of tonsillitis.) He suggests applying “a large White-bread Toast, half an Inch thick, dipt in Brandy, to the crown of the Head till it dries.”

14. To Cure “A Windy Rupture”

Wesley doesn't say what, exactly, this condition is, though a Google search brings up the term hernia ventosa, which another medical book of the same time defines as a "false hernia ... where the wind is pent up by the coats of the Testes, inflating and blowing up the inguen," or the groin area. Wesley prescribes the following method to cure it: “Warm Cow-dung well. Spread it thick on Leather, [throwing] some cummin seeds on it, and apply it hot. When cold, put on a new one.” This, he says, “commonly cures a Child (keeping his Bed) in two Days.”

15. To Cure a "Tooth-ach"

Wesley suggests being electrified through the tooth. If that’s too extreme for you, try “rub[bing] the Cheek a Quarter of an Hour ... Or, put[ting] a Clove of Garlick into the Ear.”

16. To Stop Vomiting

Induced vomiting was an important part of Wesley's medical theories (remember the "gentle vomit" that could stop the ague?). But if a patient was vomiting and it wasn't a part of the prescribed method for curing him, Wesley advised "after every Vomiting, drink a pint of warm water; or, apply a large onion slit, to the Pit of the Stomach."

17. To Heal a Cut

Wesley suggests holding the cut closed "with your thumb for a quarter of an hour" (what we might call applying pressure these days), then dipping a rag in cold water and wrapping the cut in it. Another method: "Bind on toasted cheese," Wesley writes. "This will cure a deep cut." Pounded grass, applied fresh every 12 hours, will also do the trick.

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER