10 "Udderly" Fascinating Facts About Cows

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iStock

Cows dot fields and pastures across many countries, and cow products are valued and consumed worldwide because their production of milk and meat isn't seasonal, as crops usually are. Cow products can also be preserved for extended use, such as butter, cheese, and smoked or cured meats. And, scientists are still finding new uses for the roughly 80 pounds of manure that a dairy cow produces daily. Chew the cud over these 10 facts about bovines. 

1. COWS ARE KILLERS.

Cow looking at a camera.
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An ABC News report cited a 2012 study, published in Wilderness and Environmental Medicine, which found that cattle cause an average of 22 deaths per year. Sharks, on the other hand, kill about six people per year. It sounds like SyFy should have made Cownado instead.

2. COW TIPPING IS JUST A MYTH.

Cow sleeping with its head on the rock.
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It might be funny to imagine a sleeping cow falling over with just a gentle shove, but cow tipping isn't that easy. Actually, it's nearly impossible. Cows sleep lying down and are generally wary of approaching humans, so they're never really blissed-out enough to allow a stranger to get close enough to touch them. But the bigger obstacle is their sheer size. Cows are massive—on average 1500 pounds—and balance their weight on all four legs.

3. COWS HAVE COMPLICATED DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS.

Cows eating hay in a row.
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Cows' stomachs are made up of four pouches—the reticulum, the rumen, the omasum, and the abomasum—each serving a specific purpose. Cows barely chew their food before it enters the first and largest part of the stomach called the rumen. Once the rumen is full, the cow lies down and the reticulum—which is made of muscle and is connected to the rumen so food and water can easily pass back and forth—pushes the unchewed food back up the esophagus and into the mouth. After re-chewing, or rumination, the food eventually passes through the omasum. The omasum filters out the water and gives the bacteria in the rumen more time to break down the food and take in more nutrients. Finally, the food enters the abomasum, which functions similar to a human stomach.

4. THERE ARE SURROGATE COWS.

Pregnant cow in a field.
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Transferring embryos from a genetically superior cow to a merely adequate cow is becoming more common. The procedure—known as embryo transfer (ET)—involves injecting a superior cow with hormones so she produces multiple eggs. Her eggs then need to be fertilized, either naturally or through artificial insemination. When the eggs are fertilized, a vet performs an "embryo flush" to remove them. That generally results in six to seven usable embryos, but can produce as many as 80 or 90. Without hormone treatment, a cow can only produce one embryo.

There are a number of reasons to perform ET—genetically superior cows produce genetically superior eggs. When they're transferred to surrogates, herds gain more powerful and efficient cows, instead of the offspring the surrogates might produce on their own. Embryos are also easily sent overseas to improve the bovine gene pool elsewhere, supplying more (and more efficient) milk-producing cows to countries that lack enough resources to meet demand. (For more on the cow surrogacy process, check out this story from NPR's Abby Wendle.)

5. THE ORIGIN OF THE WORD CATTLE STEMS FROM THE WORD FOR PERSONAL PROPERTY.

Cattle in a field.
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According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the origin of cattle is chatel, the Anglo-French word for personal property. Chatel comes from the Medieval Latin term capitale.

6. A COW IS TECHNICALLY A FEMALE WHO HAS GIVEN BIRTH TO AT LEAST ONE CALF.

Mother cow licking a baby calf.
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There are specific terms for bovines depending on their age, sex, and purpose. For example, a "bull" is a mature, male bovine used for breeding, while a "steer" is a male that's been castrated and is used for its beef. A "heifer" is a female bovine that has yet to have calves, and a "bred heifer" is a pregnant heifer. There are a number of additional terms that farmers use to describe members of their herd.

7. BULLS CAN'T SEE RED.

A matador in the arena with a bull.
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A bullfighter could just as easily wave a pink or purple flag to get a bull to charge. The bull isn't angered by the color—all bovines are red/green colorblind. Instead, it's the movement of the cloth that gets it all riled up. The real reason matadors wear red: to hide the bull's blood.

8. COWS WITH NAMES PRODUCE MORE MILK.

A cow being milked.
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If farmers have a good relationship with their cows—meaning they give them names and show enough affection—they can produce more milk than their lonely counterparts. A 2009 study from Newcastle University found that cows who are more comfortable around humans are less stressed when milked. When cows are stressed, they produce cortisol, a hormone that inhibits milk production.  Another plus side of a happy cow-human relationship: farmers are less likely to get injured on the job (see fact #1).

9. INTO THE WOODS USED A REAL COW.

James Corden on stage in a white jacket
Kevin Winter, Getty Images for NARAS

For the 2014 film, director Rob Marshall wanted to use a real, live cow instead of depending on CGI. James Corden, who played the Baker and spent plenty of time with his bovine costar, admitted that things didn't always go smoothly: "You just don't know what it's like when you're doing a scene, and Meryl Streep is giving a phenomenal performance in only the way she can and it's scuppered by just 'Moooooooo,'" he recalled, adding, "That cow was the biggest diva on this set."

10. COWS PRODUCE METHANE, BUT DON'T BLAME THEM FOR GLOBAL WARMING.

Cows in a rounded milking station.
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Even though cattle produce plenty of methane during digestion, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) still considers the animals' contribution to global warming our fault, "because humans raise these animals for food and other products." In other words, this is a classic case of "He who smelt it, dealt it."

This story originally ran in 2015.

A Stranger Things Fan Is Selling Epic Demogorgon Dog Costumes on Etsy

Joe Keery, Maya Hawke, Priah Ferguson, and Gaten Matarazzo in Stranger Things.
Joe Keery, Maya Hawke, Priah Ferguson, and Gaten Matarazzo in Stranger Things.
Netflix

Stranger Things is great at placing the truly terrifying alongside the absolutely adorable. One minute we are gushing over Eleven and Mike’s teen romance, and the next we’re jumping off the couch at the sight of those possessed by the Mind Flayer.

No matter how seamless the Duffer Brothers' Netflix series is in weaving together these moments, it seems like it would be impossible to make the Demogorgon cute. But somehow, one crafty fan has done just that.

Etsy shop ThatCraftyFriendShop has created Demogorgon headpieces that fit perfectly on your dog’s head.

People reports that the headpieces range in size from extra small (for 5- to 10-pound dogs) all the way to extra large (for dogs over 75 pounds). Prices range from $25 to $75, depending on the size of your four-legged friend.

These wool and felt doggy costumes are perfect for Halloween, or even a Stranger Things watch party while you continue to binge and re-binge the third seasonwith a decked-out doggy by your side.

[h/t People]

Georgia Beachgoers Saved a Pod of Pilot Whales That Washed Ashore

Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images
Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images

A day at the shore quickly turned into a rescue situation for beachgoers on St. Simons Island, Georgia this week when a pod of pilot whales washed ashore. Beaching can be disastrous for whales, but thanks to a group of first responders and volunteers, most of the stranded marine mammals were returned to safety, USA Today reports.

Spotting whales off the coast of Georgia isn't unusual, but what occurred at St. Simons Island the afternoon of Tuesday, July 16 was out of the ordinary. The pilot whales had swum so close to the shore that they had become stuck on the sand—and there were dozens of them. The animals could have died from dehydration at low tide or possibly drowned if the tide covered their blowholes.

Fortunately, the beachgoers watching the situation unfold acted fast. They waded into the sea and manually pushed the small whales back into deeper waters where they could swim freely. First responders from the Georgia Department of Natural Resources (DNR) also aided in the rescue effort.

The heroic volunteers weren't able to save every whale. Two of the mammals became incapacitated and had to be euthanized. But according to the Glynn County Emergency Management and Homeland Security Agency, the majority of the whales swam away unharmed. "This has been an unusual occurrence, but events like these can really show the level of care and support from our community," the agency wrote on its Facebook page. "Thank you to everyone that helped those that couldn’t help themselves today."

Beaching is a rare event that still isn't fully understood by scientists. In the case of these pilot whales, which travel in pods, one sick whale may have swum too close to land and led the rest of the whales to danger. The DNR plans to conduct autopsies on the two whales who perished.

[h/t USA Today]

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