The Latest on Hurricane Irma

Florida is on alert ahead of Hurricane Irma's arrival this weekend. Residents across almost the entire state are evacuating and preparing for one of the worst storms to threaten in years. Hurricane Irma is still a high-end category 4 storm with destructive 155 mph winds. The storm has been remarkably resilient so far, maintaining its intensity for longer than just about any hurricane we've ever seen in the Atlantic Ocean. The storm will tear through parts of Cuba and the Bahamas before making landfall in southern Florida on Sunday. It's already knocked out power in Puerto Rico and savaged several Caribbean islands, including Barbuda, Antigua, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

The latest advisory from the National Hurricane Center shows a hurricane that's been disrupted by its interaction with Cuba and smaller islands nearby, but they're not disrupting it enough to spare Florida from a very strong hurricane. The storm is still teetering on scale-topping category 5 intensity, and it's got plenty of very warm water to trudge through before it makes it to the United States. Meteorologists expect the storm to reach land on Sunday morning with maximum winds greater than 140 mph and slowly track up the entire length of the state before heading into Georgia and beyond.

Hurricane Irma’s forecast track as of 2 PM EDT September 8, 2017.
Hurricane Irma’s forecast track as of 2 PM EDT September 8, 2017.

This is a large hurricane that will have far-reaching impacts. Hurricane force winds currently extend 70 miles away from the center of the storm and tropical storm force winds extend 185 miles from the middle of the eye. Florida is only about 135 miles wide at its widest point, so this storm will easily engulf every part of the state outside of the panhandle. The greatest wind threat exists for the Florida Keys and communities that find themselves under the hurricane's northeastern eyewall. Although the worst conditions will depend on exactly where the hurricane makes landfall, the storm's sheer size ensures that the entire state will feel its full effects.

Irma's track up the entire state is unusual. Many hurricanes hit Florida's Atlantic or Gulf coasts and cross over land, exposing a smaller number of towns and people to strong winds. This hurricane will do what we feared Hurricane Matthew would do last year, but luckily didn't; by following the entire length of the peninsula, Irma will expose tens of millions of people to potentially life-threatening weather conditions in the 36 hours following landfall.

The storm's impacts aren't limited to Florida. Irma will slowly weaken as it travels up the Florida peninsula, but it will still produce strong winds and heavy rain across Georgia, the Carolinas, and parts of the interior southeast through early next week. Heavy rain could lead to flash flooding in some low-lying areas, and the rain will soften the soil and make it easier for winds to topple trees and power lines.

Hurricane Irma has been a weather forecasting success story. We've been following the wave that would become Irma since the middle of August, before it even emerged off the coast of Africa. The storm quickly cranked up in the eastern Atlantic, and we've watched it steadily make its way toward the United States over the past two weeks. Residents in the path of the storm have had ample time to prepare, and it seems to be paying off.

Highways started filling up with evacuees earlier this week, and just about everything is closed. Walt Disney World will close its parks early on Saturday and remain closed on Sunday and Monday—something that's happened fewer than a dozen times in the resort's five decades in operation. Most flights to and from Florida airports will be cancelled ahead of the storm. All schools in the state are closed through Monday.

The preparations leading up to this storm are proof that weather forecasting has made huge improvements over the past couple of decades, and that people in the path of the storm are actually heeding the warnings. The long lead-up to this storm will hopefully limit the number of people hurt once it makes landfall, which is always the ultimate goal of forecasting disasters as great as Hurricane Irma.

Great White Sharks May Have Led to Megalodons' Extinction

iStock.com/cdascher
iStock.com/cdascher

The megalodon has been extinct for millions of years, but the huge prehistoric shark still fascinates people today. Reaching 50 feet long, it's thought to be the largest shark to ever stalk the ocean, but according to a new study, the predator may have been brought down by familiar creature: the great white shark.

As Smithsonian reports, the analysis, published in the journal PeerJ, finds that the megalodon may have vanished from seas much earlier that previously believed. Past research showed that the last megalodons died roughly 2.6 million years ago, a time when other marine life was dying off in large numbers, possibly due to a supernova blasting Earth with radiation at the end of the Pliocene epoch.

A team of paleontologists and geologists revisited the fossils that this conclusion was originally based on for their new study. They found that many of the megalodon remains had been mislabeled, marked with imprecise dates, or dated using old techniques. After reassessing the specimens, they concluded that the species had likely gone extinct at least 1 million years earlier than past research indicates.

If the megalodon vanished 3.6 million years ago rather than 2.6 million years ago, it wasn't the victim of supernova radiation. One known factor that could explain the loss of the 13 million-year-old apex predator at this time is the rise of a new competitor: the great white shark. This predator came on the scene around the same time as the megalodon's decline, and though a full-grown great white shark is less than half the size of a mature megalodon, the species still would have been a stressor. Adult great whites likely competed with juvenile megalodons, and with the megalodon's favorite prey—small whales—becoming scarce at this time, this may have been enough to wipe the megalodons from existence.

Even if great white sharks eventually beat megalodons for dominance in the oceans, the megalodon's status as one of the most fearsome predators of all time shouldn't be contested. The giant sharks had 7-inch teeth and a bite stronger than that of a T. rex.

[h/t Smithsonian]

From Squatty Potty to Squat-N-Go: The Best Toilet Stool for Every Bathroom

iStock.com/eldemir
iStock.com/eldemir

In 2015, Squatty Potty's bathroom stool plopped into the popular conscience with a viral commercial that featured a unicorn joyfully pooping out a conveyor belt's worth of ice cream. The video racked up more than 35.9 million views on YouTube and reportedly caused a 600 percent jump in sales. "The stool for better stools" was a hit.

Now, it's a hit with the medical community, too. New research out of Ohio State University finds that the toilet stool—which aims to relax the puborectalis muscle and straighten out the rectum, making it easier to poop—really does help people who strain to empty their bowels. The study, published in the Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology's March 2019 issue, only involved 52 people, but it's the first clinical research into the Squatty Potty, and the results were very positive—71 percent of participants said they experienced faster bowel movements after using the stool for a month. A full 90 percent said they experienced less straining than before.

Since the Squatty Potty debuted, the company has inspired plenty of copycats, as well as launching a number of other official Squatty Potty design iterations targeted at every type of user. Here are the best toilet stool options for every bathroom.

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1. If You're Hesitant to Commit: The Squatty Potty Original

At just $25, the original Squatty Potty is a great entry-level option that will allow you to try out the system without sinking a ton of money into it. (And it's a whole lot cheaper than an endless supply of Metamucil.) The white plastic isn't the most elevated decor option, but it's durable, easy to clean, and relatively unobtrusive. It's available in a 7-inch-tall version for standard toilets or a 9-inch-tall version for comfort-height porcelain thrones. If you're not sure how tall your toilet is, the company makes an adjustable height Squatty Potty that can be configured to fit anywhere.

Buy it on Amazon, from Squatty Potty's website for $25, or at these other retailers:

2. If Your Bathroom is Tiny: The Squatty Potty Curve

The original Squatty Potty can be a bit clunky, but a newer version offers all the health benefits without taking up as much space. The Curve has a thinner footprint so that it doesn't stick out quite so far from under your toilet, but still has just enough room for your feet. The 7-inch stool comes in white, pink, black, and gray.

Buy it for $25 on Squatty Potty's website.

3. If You Text on the Toilet: The Keeney Bathroom Stool

A white and blue Keeney toilet stool
Keeney, Amazon

Keeney's toilet stool offers a few unusual features. For one, it has a storage bin designed to keep your wet wipes close at hand. More importantly, it's designed to hold up more than just your feet—it has a smartphone/tablet holder, too. Though toilet stools are designed to make your bowel movements speedier, if you're the kind of person who likes to spend a lot of time on the can, you can also tuck your smartphone into the built-in groove in the stool designed to keep your screen at optimal viewing angles. Whether you're watching Netflix or looking at Tinder, it offers a hands-free option that you're not going to find on any brand-name Squatty Potty. Ergonomically, it's also got slightly angled footrests designed to put you in the optimal pooping position.

Buy it on Amazon for $21.

4. If You're Into Minimalist Design: The Squatty Potty Slim

Great bowel movements and great interior design don't have to be mutually exclusive. Squatty Potty's high-fashion option may be pricier, but it doesn't have the medical-device vibes of the original model, either. Designed for small, urban apartments, it's a bit bigger than the Curve but a lot more aesthetically pleasing. The teak finish is great if you're going for a Scandinavian minimalist vibe, while the acrylic glass Slim Ghost model has an artsy mid-century modern look.

Buy the Slim Teak or the Slim Ghost on Squatty Potty's website for $60 and $80, respectively, or on Amazon for $80 or $83.

5. If You Need to Go on the Go: Squat-N-Go Bamboo X Toilet Stool

While Squatty Potty does make a portable version of its bathroom stool (the cleverly named Porta-Squatty), the most convenient travel stool is made by a competitor. Squat-N-Go's foldable footstool comes in two different pieces for easy storage and portability. The two bamboo platforms essentially act as stilts, propping up your feet separately. They offer the most customizable fit, with 7-inch, 8-inch, and 9-inch heights and the ability to place each footstool anywhere around the toilet, at any angle. When you're done, they fold down to just an inch tall and can be stowed in the included travel bag.

Buy it on Amazon for $40 or at these other retailers:

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