How a Pinwheeling Weather System Brought Floods and Tornadoes to the Heartland

An infrared satellite image from the new GOES-16 satellite showing thunderstorms exploding in the Midwest on the evening of April 28, 2017.
An infrared satellite image from the new GOES-16 satellite showing thunderstorms exploding in the Midwest on the evening of April 28, 2017.
College of DuPage

An active month for severe weather went out with a bang this weekend when waves of powerful thunderstorms slammed the central United States, causing widespread flooding across the Midwest and several destructive tornadoes in Texas. The storm was so large and dynamic that it even caused a historic blizzard in western Kansas. The system responsible for the damage may be out of the picture now, but the dangerous effects of the tropical downpours will linger through next weekend.

A large, pinwheeling low-pressure system developed over the Plains late on Friday, April 28, 2017, setting the stage for a rambunctious couple of days in the American heartland. Counterclockwise winds flowing around the low-pressure system dragged deep plumes of tropical moisture northward from the Gulf of Mexico, allowing a warm, muggy air mass to crash into a cooler air mass lingering over states like Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana. The leading edge of this muggy air—a warm front—served as the focus for explosive thunderstorm development on Friday night and Saturday.


Estimated rainfall amounts between the evenings of April 27 and April 30, 2017. Areas in red saw five or more inches of rain. The pink shading indicates 10 or more inches of rain.
Dennis Mersereau

Unlike most organized batches of thunderstorms, which typically rage over one area for a few hours before moving on or dissipating, these torrents stuck around for almost an entire day, dumping copious amounts of rain over the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys as they rode along the boundary between warm to the south and cool to the north. This phenomenon, known as “training” due to thunderstorms rolling over the same areas like train cars on railroad tracks, is typically responsible for the worst flash flooding that storms can produce. Some communities recorded more than 10 inches of rain in just one day, which is more than double the normal amount of rain these areas see on average during the entire month of April.

At least 10 people died due to flooding across the Midwest, according to a report by The Weather Channel, and countless more residents were rescued from homes and vehicles when the water rose too quickly for them to evacuate on their own. Almost all of the confirmed flooding deaths this past weekend occurred in vehicles; the National Weather Service notes that nearly half of all flash flood deaths that occur every year are the result of people drowning in their vehicles.

The flooding isn’t over yet. Rivers in the region will continue to rise as the slow runoff overwhelms area waterways. At least two dozen gauges that measure water height in rivers across the areas affected by the heavy rain reported major flooding on Sunday, April 30, with numerous rivers expecting near-record flooding through the end of the week. The Mississippi River at Cape Girardeau, Missouri, is expected to crest at 48.5 feet on Friday, May 5, just shy of the all-time record high water mark set at this location in 2016 and a little bit above the historic and devastating flooding measured in 1993. The Mississippi River in St. Louis, Missouri, will likely reach major flood stage on Wednesday, May 3, though the crest will fall nearly 10 feet short of the record set back in 1993.

Flooding wasn’t the only concern with the storms this weekend. Meteorologists confirmed on Sunday that three tornadoes swept through the town of Canton, Texas, on Saturday evening, killing at least four people and injuring dozens more as the twisters caused significant damage.

Canton, a small town about 55 miles east of Dallas, Texas, saw all three tornadoes in the span of one hour, which is extremely rare but can happen from time to time. The first tornado hit the western side of town, while the second tornado struck the eastern side of town less than an hour later. A smaller tornado touched down just north of Canton in between the tracks of the two larger tornadoes.

The National Weather Service rated the first Canton tornado a violent EF-4, the second-highest level on the Enhanced Fujita Scale, while the second tornado received an EF-3 rating. Survey crews found that three additional tornadoes touched down in the area, including the one that struck the north side of Canton. All three small tornadoes produced minor damage and received the lowest rating, an EF-0.


Observed snowfall totals through the evening of April 30, 2017.

Dennis Mersereau

The eastern side of the storm may have seen a classic springtime severe weather outbreak, but the western side of the system didn’t quite get the memo that it’s the end of April. Portions of the Rocky Mountains and western Plains saw a significant snowstorm this past weekend. A large swath of western Kansas saw more than a foot of snow, with some areas coming close to 20 inches by the time the skies cleared out. This snowstorm ranks among the largest snowstorms ever recorded in western Kansas during the month of April, and could easily be the biggest snowstorm ever recorded so late in the year across areas that should see supercells instead of snow squalls.

Amazing Timelapse Shows Florida Sky Turning Purple Following Hurricane Dorian

Scott Olson/Getty Images
Scott Olson/Getty Images

Photographs taken of Hurricane Dorian's massive eye and the damage it caused in the Bahamas paint a picture of what it was like to live through the historic storm. But some of the most stunning images to come out of the event were captured after the hurricane had passed. As KENS5 reports, the time-lapse video below shows the sky over Florida turning a unique shade of purple in the wake of Hurricane Dorian.

Dorian skimmed the east side of Florida earlier this week, causing power outages and some flooding. The worst of the storm was over by Wednesday night, but the ominous purple clouds it left behind may have sparked concern among some Florida residents.

A purple sky following a hurricane is the result of a perfectly natural occurrence called scattering. The sky was super-saturated after Dorian arrived, and the moisture in the atmosphere refracted the light of the setting sun. Normally, only the longest wavelengths of light on the color spectrum are visible through the clouds—that's why sunsets often appear gold, pink, and orange.

Violet is the shortest wavelength on the spectrum, which means it's almost never visible in the sky. But the air's high dew point Wednesday night, combined with the dense low-hanging clouds, created the perfect conditions for a rare purple sky.

Locals who've lived through a few hurricanes may have recognized the phenomenon; the same thing happened after Hurricane Michael hit Florida last year.

[h/t KENS5]

See What the Eye of Hurricane Dorian Looks Like From Space

NOAA, Getty Images
NOAA, Getty Images

Hurricane Dorian has already caused damage on the ground, leveling houses and killing at least five people in the Bahamas earlier this week. For people who haven't seen Dorian's power up close, these pictures captured from space put the magnitude of the storm into perspective.

As Live Science reports, the photographs below were taken by European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano aboard the International Space Station. They show the hurricane swirling over the Atlantic, its massive eye in clear view.

The storm has grown even more intense since it was photographed from space. According to a tweet from Parmitano on September 1, the pictures show Dorian as a tropical storm. By the time the system reached the Bahamas on Monday, September 2, it had upgraded to Category 5 hurricane with winds exceeding 185 mph. Dorian has since weakened to a Category 3, but that's still strong enough to cause significant destruction if it makes landfall over the U.S.

After preparing for a direct hit all week, it looks as though the southern U.S. may be spared from the worst of the storm. Projections now show Dorian hugging the Atlantic coast, starting off the coast of Florida and skimming Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. The hurricane is still likely to drive powerful winds and storm surges along the east coast, so local governments are urging residents to take any necessary precautions and be prepared to evacuate if the order is given.

[h/t Live Science]

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