CLOSE
Original image
iStock
science
arrow

8 Common Misconceptions About Antidepressants

Original image
iStock

Think you have depression, but feeling uncomfortable about the idea of treating it with medication? Each person’s treatment plan is unique, but if you feel like your life could be improved by antidepressants, you shouldn’t let the many common myths and misconceptions surrounding their use keep you from seeking the help you need.

Mental Floss spoke with Dr. David Mischoulon, director of research at Massachusetts General Hospital's Depression Clinical and Research Program, who set the record straight on some common misconceptions about antidepressants.

1. THE MYTH: ANTIDEPRESSANTS DON'T ADDRESS THE ROOT CAUSE OF DEPRESSION.

There are multiple factors that can contribute to depression, ranging from environmental or situational components to brain biochemistry. Medication can help when the underlying cause is partly biological in nature.

“For example, there are some people who may develop depression for no apparent reason,” Dr. Mischoulon says. “There is absolutely no particular stress in their lives. There hasn’t been any misfortune of any sort. In fact, they’ll often say, ‘I’ve got a life that most of the world would envy,’ and yet they’re depressed ... Those people often respond very well to antidepressants, and in that sense, [the medicine] is getting at the root cause [of the depression], which is a biochemical imbalance in the brain.”

At the other end of the spectrum, some people “may become depressed primarily because of situational problems,” Mischoulon adds. "They may be experiencing problems in the workplace, family problems, or a divorce, things like that. Those factors can certainly contribute to depression—perhaps in combination with a proclivity to becoming depressed, or because … the stress is just so, so tremendous that the person becomes depressed as a result.”

Sometimes these individuals may not respond to antidepressants because the root cause is situational. If their situations were to improve—say, they got a better job—they might start feeling better. Therapy might also help them develop better coping skills.

“There are certain kinds of therapies that have been carefully studied in clinical trials, and for many [depression] cases, they can work very well,” Mischoulon says. “For example, cognitive behavioral therapy is one of the better studied forms; it’s been shown in some studies to be as effective as antidepressants.”

That said, research also suggests that for many people, treating depression with a combination of therapy and medication can be the best course of treatment. “The two will work synergistically," Mischoulon explains. "By combining the two you can get a better result.” (If you're thinking about beginning therapy, here's a guide to figuring out which type is best for you.)

Mental health researchers are trying to pinpoint ways to differentiate between a biochemical depression and situational depression. But as of right now, "we’re not at a point where we can use what we've learned in a clinical setting," Mischoulon says.

2. THE MYTH: ANTIDEPRESSANTS ARE "HAPPY PILLS."

“If I give an antidepressant to a healthy individual—someone who’s not depressed—they’re not going to be happier, or more cheerful” as a result of taking it, Mischoulon says. “It only works to return the mood to the patient’s normal baseline. So if you’re depressed, the antidepressant can help you get back to where you were.”

3. THE MYTH: ANTIDEPRESSANTS ARE ADDICTIVE.

Antidepressants “aren’t drugs of abuse,” Mischoulon says. They may improve your depression symptoms, which can lead to increased energy levels and an improved mood, but they won’t get you high or make you crave additional or stronger doses—all hallmarks of addiction.

However, since your body grows accustomed to the drug, you may experience withdrawal syndromes—including headaches, dizziness, nausea, and irritability—if you stop taking it abruptly, “similarly to what you might have with a recreational drug,” Mischoulon explains. If you’re thinking about discontinuing an antidepressant, check with your doctor first. He or she will likely recommend that you taper your dosage over a period of days or weeks, depending on the medication.

4. THE MYTH: ANTIDEPRESSANTS WILL PERMANENTLY ALTER YOUR PERSONALITY.

Taking the right antidepressant can slowly help a depressed person return to his or her baseline mood, making them feel and act more like “themselves." That said, Mischoulon does say that some patients on antidepressants “report being emotionally numbed, like they can’t experience normal emotions.” There aren’t many prospective or systematic studies that examine this phenomenon, but Mischoulon estimates that maybe 10 percent of the patients in his practice have reported it. It's "a relatively small minority," he adds. 

If this happens to you, don’t worry: It’s usually "not a known cause for concern,” Mischoulon says. This won’t “cause permanent damage to someone’s personality, or their capacity to feel emotions … It’s simply a matter of discontinuing the antidepressant and trying another one.”

5. THE MYTH: ANTIDEPRESSANTS ARE A SHORT-TERM FIX.

If you were successfully treated with antidepressants, you may want to speak with your doctor about continuing to take them as a preventative measure, even if you now feel fine. Research shows that experiencing just one episode of depression puts a person at a 50 percent risk for experiencing another episode, and increases their chances for future relapse.

Some doctors suggest treating conditions like major depression in the same way that you would a chronic illness—with lifelong management. “The good thing is that most antidepressants are very safe to take over the long term, so if a person had to take one indefinitely, it’s not the worst thing in the world,” Mischoulon says.

That said, if you’ve responded well to treatment and don’t have a prior history of depressive episodes, there’s a chance that you’ll be OK if you come off them under a doctor’s supervision.

6. THE MYTH: IF YOU TRY ONE ANTIDEPRESSANT AND IT DOESN'T WORK, MEDICATION ISN'T FOR YOU.

Once you begin taking an antidepressant, it can take weeks, if not months, to feel the full effects. And since there’s currently no good way to predict which antidepressant will work for any one individual, there’s always the chance that the one you’re trying may end up not being the right one for you. If this ends up being the case, you’ll have to begin the cycle anew—this time, with a different pill.

This trial-and-error process can be discouraging for some patients. Keep in mind, however, that there are more than two dozen antidepressants on the market—meaning there’s a good chance you’ll find something that alleviates your symptoms.

“There are antidepressants from different families that differ biochemically,” Mischoulon explains. “What we find is that a lot of people will take a particular type of antidepressant and it may not work, and then they’ll try an antidepressant from another family, and that one will work better for them.”

7. THE MYTH: ALL ANTIDEPRESSANTS HAVE AWFUL, LONG-LASTING SIDE EFFECTS.

From insomnia to blurred vision to fatigue, the long checklist of potential side effects included in your medicine packet can be intimidating, if not downright frightening. Don’t worry: The likelihood that you’ll experience every single one of them is slim, Mischoulon says. Most people only encounter one or two; common side effects include upset stomach, headaches, weight gain, and sedation, but side effects vary from one medication to the next. (For example, on average, Mischoulon estimates that about 15 percent of his patients report weight gain.)

These side effects are sometimes short-term, popping up during the initial stages of treatment and tapering off as the patient’s body gets used to the medication. Still, in other cases, they persist. In the latter instance, you may want to talk with your doctor about switching to another medication or the best way to treat your side effects.

8. THE MYTH: DOCTORS OVERTREAT AMERICANS FOR DEPRESSION.

According to the National Center for Health Statistics, antidepressants were the third most commonly prescribed drug taken by Americans of all ages between 2005 and 2008. (Though not all patients take antidepressants for depression and anxiety; they can also be used to treat other issues, including insomnia and chronic pain.) Are these medications overprescribed to patients?

“I think in certain circles they may be overprescribed, and in others they may be underprescribed,” Mischoulon says. “What we do know is that there are a lot of people with depression out there who are not being adequately treated … This could apply to antidepressants, as well as psychotherapy. A lot of people are not getting treatment at all who should be getting some treatment.”

People with depression don’t receive care for a variety of reasons, Mischoulon points out: Stigma, a lack of education, limited economic resources, or not living near a health care professional for treatment are just a few examples. That said, there can be dire repercussions for those who don't seek treatment, including suicide and worsened outcomes for concurrent medical conditions, like cardiovascular disease.

If you think you have depression and have the means to see a doctor, "get a professional evaluation," Mischoulon advises. "Don’t try to self-diagnose. Don’t try to treat it yourself with over-the-counter supplements. Speak to your primary care doctor, and maybe speak to a psychiatrist ... If not treated properly, depression can have devastating consequences."

Original image
iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
technology
arrow
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
Original image
iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

Original image
iStock
Sponsor Content: BarkBox
arrow
8 Common Dog Behaviors, Decoded
May 25, 2017
Original image
iStock

Dogs are a lot more complicated than we give them credit for. As a result, sometimes things get lost in translation. We’ve yet to invent a dog-to-English translator, but there are certain behaviors you can learn to read in order to better understand what your dog is trying to tell you. The more tuned-in you are to your dog’s emotions, the better you’ll be able to respond—whether that means giving her some space or welcoming a wet, slobbery kiss. 

1. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing with his legs and body relaxed and tail low. His ears are up, but not pointed forward. His mouth is slightly open, he’s panting lightly, and his tongue is loose. His eyes? Soft or maybe slightly squinty from getting his smile on.

What it means: “Hey there, friend!” Your pup is in a calm, relaxed state. He’s open to mingling, which means you can feel comfortable letting friends say hi.

2. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing with her body leaning forward. Her ears are erect and angled forward—or have at least perked up if they’re floppy—and her mouth is closed. Her tail might be sticking out horizontally or sticking straight up and wagging slightly.

What it means: “Hark! Who goes there?!” Something caught your pup’s attention and now she’s on high alert, trying to discern whether or not the person, animal, or situation is a threat. She’ll likely stay on guard until she feels safe or becomes distracted.

3. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing, leaning slightly forward. His body and legs are tense, and his hackles—those hairs along his back and neck—are raised. His tail is stiff and twitching, not swooping playfully. His mouth is open, teeth are exposed, and he may be snarling, snapping, or barking excessively.

What it means: “Don’t mess with me!” This dog is asserting his social dominance and letting others know that he might attack if they don’t defer accordingly. A dog in this stance could be either offensively aggressive or defensively aggressive. If you encounter a dog in this state, play it safe and back away slowly without making eye contact.

4. What you’ll see: As another dog approaches, your dog lies down on his back with his tail tucked in between his legs. His paws are tucked in too, his ears are flat, and he isn’t making direct eye contact with the other dog standing over him.

What it means: “I come in peace!” Your pooch is displaying signs of submission to a more dominant dog, conveying total surrender to avoid physical confrontation. Other, less obvious, signs of submission include ears that are flattened back against the head, an avoidance of eye contact, a tongue flick, and bared teeth. Yup—a dog might bare his teeth while still being submissive, but they’ll likely be clenched together, the lips opened horizontally rather than curled up to show the front canines. A submissive dog will also slink backward or inward rather than forward, which would indicate more aggressive behavior.

5. What you’ll see: Your dog is crouching with her back hunched, tail tucked, and the corner of her mouth pulled back with lips slightly curled. Her shoulders, or hackles, are raised and her ears are flattened. She’s avoiding eye contact.

What it means: “I’m scared, but will fight you if I have to.” This dog’s fight or flight instincts have been activated. It’s best to keep your distance from a dog in this emotional state because she could attack if she feels cornered.

6. What you’ll see: You’re staring at your dog, holding eye contact. Your dog looks away from you, tentatively looks back, then looks away again. After some time, he licks his chops and yawns.

What it means: “I don’t know what’s going on and it’s weirding me out.” Your dog doesn’t know what to make of the situation, but rather than nipping or barking, he’ll stick to behaviors he knows are OK, like yawning, licking his chops, or shaking as if he’s wet. You’ll want to intervene by removing whatever it is causing him discomfort—such as an overly grabby child—and giving him some space to relax.

7. What you’ll see: Your dog has her front paws bent and lowered onto the ground with her rear in the air. Her body is relaxed, loose, and wiggly, and her tail is up and wagging from side to side. She might also let out a high-pitched or impatient bark.

What it means: “What’s the hold up? Let’s play!” This classic stance, known to dog trainers and behaviorists as “the play bow,” is a sign she’s ready to let the good times roll. Get ready for a round of fetch or tug of war, or for a good long outing at the dog park.

8. What you’ll see: You’ve just gotten home from work and your dog rushes over. He can’t stop wiggling his backside, and he may even lower himself into a giant stretch, like he’s doing yoga.

What it means: “OhmygoshImsohappytoseeyou I love you so much you’re my best friend foreverandeverandever!!!!” This one’s easy: Your pup is overjoyed his BFF is back. That big stretch is something dogs don’t pull out for just anyone; they save that for the people they truly love. Show him you feel the same way with a good belly rub and a handful of his favorite treats.

The best way to say “I love you” in dog? A monthly subscription to BarkBox. Your favorite pup will get a package filled with treats, toys, and other good stuff (and in return, you’ll probably get lots of sloppy kisses). Visit BarkBox to learn more.

SECTIONS
BIG QUESTIONS
BIG QUESTIONS
WEATHER WATCH
BE THE CHANGE
JOB SECRETS
QUIZZES
WORLD WAR 1
SMART SHOPPING
STONES, BONES, & WRECKS
#TBT
THE PRESIDENTS
WORDS
RETROBITUARIES