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8 Common Misconceptions About Antidepressants

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Think you have depression, but feeling uncomfortable about the idea of treating it with medication? Each person’s treatment plan is unique, but if you feel like your life could be improved by antidepressants, you shouldn’t let the many common myths and misconceptions surrounding their use keep you from seeking the help you need.

Mental Floss spoke with Dr. David Mischoulon, director of research at Massachusetts General Hospital's Depression Clinical and Research Program, who set the record straight on some common misconceptions about antidepressants.

1. THE MYTH: ANTIDEPRESSANTS DON'T ADDRESS THE ROOT CAUSE OF DEPRESSION.

There are multiple factors that can contribute to depression, ranging from environmental or situational components to brain biochemistry. Medication can help when the underlying cause is partly biological in nature.

“For example, there are some people who may develop depression for no apparent reason,” Dr. Mischoulon says. “There is absolutely no particular stress in their lives. There hasn’t been any misfortune of any sort. In fact, they’ll often say, ‘I’ve got a life that most of the world would envy,’ and yet they’re depressed ... Those people often respond very well to antidepressants, and in that sense, [the medicine] is getting at the root cause [of the depression], which is a biochemical imbalance in the brain.”

At the other end of the spectrum, some people “may become depressed primarily because of situational problems,” Mischoulon adds. "They may be experiencing problems in the workplace, family problems, or a divorce, things like that. Those factors can certainly contribute to depression—perhaps in combination with a proclivity to becoming depressed, or because … the stress is just so, so tremendous that the person becomes depressed as a result.”

Sometimes these individuals may not respond to antidepressants because the root cause is situational. If their situations were to improve—say, they got a better job—they might start feeling better. Therapy might also help them develop better coping skills.

“There are certain kinds of therapies that have been carefully studied in clinical trials, and for many [depression] cases, they can work very well,” Mischoulon says. “For example, cognitive behavioral therapy is one of the better studied forms; it’s been shown in some studies to be as effective as antidepressants.”

That said, research also suggests that for many people, treating depression with a combination of therapy and medication can be the best course of treatment. “The two will work synergistically," Mischoulon explains. "By combining the two you can get a better result.” (If you're thinking about beginning therapy, here's a guide to figuring out which type is best for you.)

Mental health researchers are trying to pinpoint ways to differentiate between a biochemical depression and situational depression. But as of right now, "we’re not at a point where we can use what we've learned in a clinical setting," Mischoulon says.

2. THE MYTH: ANTIDEPRESSANTS ARE "HAPPY PILLS."

“If I give an antidepressant to a healthy individual—someone who’s not depressed—they’re not going to be happier, or more cheerful” as a result of taking it, Mischoulon says. “It only works to return the mood to the patient’s normal baseline. So if you’re depressed, the antidepressant can help you get back to where you were.”

3. THE MYTH: ANTIDEPRESSANTS ARE ADDICTIVE.

Antidepressants “aren’t drugs of abuse,” Mischoulon says. They may improve your depression symptoms, which can lead to increased energy levels and an improved mood, but they won’t get you high or make you crave additional or stronger doses—all hallmarks of addiction.

However, since your body grows accustomed to the drug, you may experience withdrawal syndromes—including headaches, dizziness, nausea, and irritability—if you stop taking it abruptly, “similarly to what you might have with a recreational drug,” Mischoulon explains. If you’re thinking about discontinuing an antidepressant, check with your doctor first. He or she will likely recommend that you taper your dosage over a period of days or weeks, depending on the medication.

4. THE MYTH: ANTIDEPRESSANTS WILL PERMANENTLY ALTER YOUR PERSONALITY.

Taking the right antidepressant can slowly help a depressed person return to his or her baseline mood, making them feel and act more like “themselves." That said, Mischoulon does say that some patients on antidepressants “report being emotionally numbed, like they can’t experience normal emotions.” There aren’t many prospective or systematic studies that examine this phenomenon, but Mischoulon estimates that maybe 10 percent of the patients in his practice have reported it. It's "a relatively small minority," he adds. 

If this happens to you, don’t worry: It’s usually "not a known cause for concern,” Mischoulon says. This won’t “cause permanent damage to someone’s personality, or their capacity to feel emotions … It’s simply a matter of discontinuing the antidepressant and trying another one.”

5. THE MYTH: ANTIDEPRESSANTS ARE A SHORT-TERM FIX.

If you were successfully treated with antidepressants, you may want to speak with your doctor about continuing to take them as a preventative measure, even if you now feel fine. Research shows that experiencing just one episode of depression puts a person at a 50 percent risk for experiencing another episode, and increases their chances for future relapse.

Some doctors suggest treating conditions like major depression in the same way that you would a chronic illness—with lifelong management. “The good thing is that most antidepressants are very safe to take over the long term, so if a person had to take one indefinitely, it’s not the worst thing in the world,” Mischoulon says.

That said, if you’ve responded well to treatment and don’t have a prior history of depressive episodes, there’s a chance that you’ll be OK if you come off them under a doctor’s supervision.

6. THE MYTH: IF YOU TRY ONE ANTIDEPRESSANT AND IT DOESN'T WORK, MEDICATION ISN'T FOR YOU.

Once you begin taking an antidepressant, it can take weeks, if not months, to feel the full effects. And since there’s currently no good way to predict which antidepressant will work for any one individual, there’s always the chance that the one you’re trying may end up not being the right one for you. If this ends up being the case, you’ll have to begin the cycle anew—this time, with a different pill.

This trial-and-error process can be discouraging for some patients. Keep in mind, however, that there are more than two dozen antidepressants on the market—meaning there’s a good chance you’ll find something that alleviates your symptoms.

“There are antidepressants from different families that differ biochemically,” Mischoulon explains. “What we find is that a lot of people will take a particular type of antidepressant and it may not work, and then they’ll try an antidepressant from another family, and that one will work better for them.”

7. THE MYTH: ALL ANTIDEPRESSANTS HAVE AWFUL, LONG-LASTING SIDE EFFECTS.

From insomnia to blurred vision to fatigue, the long checklist of potential side effects included in your medicine packet can be intimidating, if not downright frightening. Don’t worry: The likelihood that you’ll experience every single one of them is slim, Mischoulon says. Most people only encounter one or two; common side effects include upset stomach, headaches, weight gain, and sedation, but side effects vary from one medication to the next. (For example, on average, Mischoulon estimates that about 15 percent of his patients report weight gain.)

These side effects are sometimes short-term, popping up during the initial stages of treatment and tapering off as the patient’s body gets used to the medication. Still, in other cases, they persist. In the latter instance, you may want to talk with your doctor about switching to another medication or the best way to treat your side effects.

8. THE MYTH: DOCTORS OVERTREAT AMERICANS FOR DEPRESSION.

According to the National Center for Health Statistics, antidepressants were the third most commonly prescribed drug taken by Americans of all ages between 2005 and 2008. (Though not all patients take antidepressants for depression and anxiety; they can also be used to treat other issues, including insomnia and chronic pain.) Are these medications overprescribed to patients?

“I think in certain circles they may be overprescribed, and in others they may be underprescribed,” Mischoulon says. “What we do know is that there are a lot of people with depression out there who are not being adequately treated … This could apply to antidepressants, as well as psychotherapy. A lot of people are not getting treatment at all who should be getting some treatment.”

People with depression don’t receive care for a variety of reasons, Mischoulon points out: Stigma, a lack of education, limited economic resources, or not living near a health care professional for treatment are just a few examples. That said, there can be dire repercussions for those who don't seek treatment, including suicide and worsened outcomes for concurrent medical conditions, like cardiovascular disease.

If you think you have depression and have the means to see a doctor, "get a professional evaluation," Mischoulon advises. "Don’t try to self-diagnose. Don’t try to treat it yourself with over-the-counter supplements. Speak to your primary care doctor, and maybe speak to a psychiatrist ... If not treated properly, depression can have devastating consequences."

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Photo Illustration by Mental Floss. Curie: Hulton Archive, Getty Images. Background: iStock
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10 Radiant Facts About Marie Curie
Photo Illustration by Mental Floss. Curie: Hulton Archive, Getty Images. Background: iStock
Photo Illustration by Mental Floss. Curie: Hulton Archive, Getty Images. Background: iStock

Born Maria Salomea Skłodowska in Poland in 1867, Marie Curie grew up to become one of the most noteworthy scientists of all time. Her long list of accolades is proof of her far-reaching influence, but not every stride she made in the fields of chemistry, physics, and medicine was recognized with an award. Here are some facts you might not know about the iconic researcher.

1. HER PARENTS WERE TEACHERS.

Maria Skłodowska was the fifth and youngest child of two Polish educators. Her parents placed a high value on learning and insisted all their children—even their daughters—receive a quality education at home and at school. Maria received extra science training from her father, and when she graduated from high school at age 15, she was first in her class.

2. SHE HAD TO SEEK OUT ALTERNATIVE EDUCATION FOR WOMEN.

After collecting her high school diploma, Maria had hoped to study at the University of Warsaw with her sister, Bronia. Because the school didn't accept women, the siblings instead enrolled at the Flying University, a Polish college that welcomed female students. It was still illegal for women to receive higher education at the time so the institution was constantly changing locations to avoid detection from authorities. In 1891 she moved to Paris to live with her sister, where she enrolled at the Sorbonne to continue her education.

3. SHE'S THE ONLY PERSON TO WIN NOBEL PRIZES IN TWO SEPARATE SCIENCES.

Marie Curie and her husband, Pierre Curie, in 1902.
Marie Curie and her husband, Pierre Curie, in 1902.
Agence France Presse, Getty Images

In 1903, Marie Curie made history when she won the Nobel Prize in physics with her husband, Pierre, and with physicist Henri Becquerel for their work on radioactivity, making her the first woman to receive the honor. The second Nobel Prize she took home in 1911 was even more historic. With that win in the chemistry category, she became the first person of any gender to win the award twice. She remains the only person to ever receive Nobel Prizes for two different sciences.

4. SHE ADDED TWO ELEMENTS TO THE PERIODIC TABLE.

The second Nobel Prize she received recognized her discovery and research of two elements: radium and polonium. The former element was named for the Latin word for "ray" and the latter was a nod to her home country, Poland.

5. NOBEL PRIZE-WINNING RUNS IN HER FAMILY.

Marie Curie's daughter Irène Joliot-Curie, and her husband, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, circa 1940.
Marie Curie's daughter Irène Joliot-Curie, and her husband, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, circa 1940.
Central Press, Hulton Archive // Getty Images

When Marie Curie and her husband, Pierre, won their Nobel Prize in 1903, their daughter Irène was only 6 years old. She would grow up to follow in her parents' footsteps by jointly winning the Nobel Prize for chemistry with her husband, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, in 1935. They were recognized for their discovery of "artificial" radioactivity, a breakthrough made possible by Irène's parents years earlier. Marie and Pierre's other son-in-law, Henry Labouisse, who married their younger daughter, Ève Curie, accepted a Nobel Prize for Peace on behalf of UNICEF, of which he was the executive director, in 1965. This brought the family's total up to five.

6. SHE DID HER MOST IMPORTANT WORK IN A SHED.

The research that won Marie Curie her first Nobel Prize required hours of physical labor. In order to prove they had discovered new elements, she and her husband had to produce numerous examples of them by breaking down ore into its chemical components. Their regular labs weren't big enough to accommodate the process, so they moved their work into an old shed behind the school where Pierre worked. According to Curie, the space was a hothouse in the summer and drafty in the winter, with a glass roof that didn't fully protect them from the rain. After the famed German chemist Wilhelm Ostwald visited the Curies' shed to see the place where radium was discovered, he described it as being "a cross between a stable and a potato shed, and if I had not seen the worktable and items of chemical apparatus, I would have thought that I was been played a practical joke."

7. HER NOTEBOOKS ARE STILL RADIOACTIVE.

Marie Curie's journals
Hulton Archive, Getty Images

When Marie was performing her most important research on radiation in the early 20th century, she had no idea the effects it would have on her health. It wasn't unusual for her to walk around her lab with bottles of polonium and radium in her pockets. She even described storing the radioactive material out in the open in her autobiography. "One of our joys was to go into our workroom at night; we then perceived on all sides the feebly luminous silhouettes of the bottles of capsules containing our products[…] The glowing tubes looked like faint, fairy lights."

It's no surprise then that Marie Curie died of aplastic anemia, likely caused by prolonged exposure to radiation, in 1934. Even her notebooks are still radioactive a century later. Today they're stored in lead-lined boxes, and will likely remain radioactive for another 1500 years.

8. SHE OFFERED TO DONATE HER MEDALS TO THE WAR EFFORT.

Marie Curie had only been a double-Nobel Laureate for a few years when she considered parting ways with her medals. At the start of World War I, France put out a call for gold to fund the war effort, so Curie offered to have her two medals melted down. When bank officials refused to accept them, she settled for donating her prize money to purchase war bonds.

9. SHE DEVELOPED A PORTABLE X-RAY TO TREAT SOLDIERS.

Marie Curie circa 1930
Marie Curie, circa 1930.
Keystone, Getty Images

Her desire to help her adopted country fight the new war didn't end there. After making the donation, she developed an interest in x-rays—not a far jump from her previous work with radium—and it didn't take her long to realize that the emerging technology could be used to aid soldiers on the battlefield. Curie convinced the French government to name her Director of the Red Cross Radiology Service and persuaded her wealthy friends to fund her idea for a mobile x-ray machine. She learned to drive and operate the vehicle herself and treated wounded soldiers at the Battle of the Marne, ignoring protests from skeptical military doctors. Her invention was proven effective at saving lives, and ultimately 20 "petite Curies," as the x-ray machines were called, were built for the war.

10. SHE FOUNDED CENTERS FOR MEDICAL RESEARCH.

Following World War I, Marie Curie embarked on a different fundraising mission, this time with the goal of supporting her research centers in Paris and Warsaw. Curie's radium institutes were the site of important work, like the discovery of a new element, francium, by Marguerite Perey, and the development of artificial radioactivity by Irène and Frederic Joliot-Curie. The centers, now known as Institut Curie, are still used as spaces for vital cancer treatment research today.

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Where Did the Myth That Radiation Glows Green Come From?
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by C Stuart Hardwick

Probably from radium, which was widely used in self-luminous paint starting in 1908. When mixed with phosphorescent copper-doped zinc sulfide, radium emits a characteristic green glow:


Quora

The use of radioluminescent paint was mostly phased out by the mid-1960s. Today, in applications where it is warranted (like spacecraft instrument dials and certain types of sensors, for example), the radiation source is tritium (radioactive hydrogen) or an isotope of promethium, either of which has a vastly shorter half life than radium.

In most consumer products, though, radioluminescence has been replaced by photoluminescence, phosphors that emit light of one frequency after absorbing photons of a difference frequency. Glow-in-the-dark items that recharge to full brightness after brief exposure to sunlight or a fluorescent light only to dim again over a couple of hours are photoluminescent, and contain no radiation.

An aside on aging radium: By now, most radium paint manufactured early in the 20th century has lost most of its glow, but it’s still radioactive. The isotope of radium used has a half life of 1200 years, but the chemical phosphor that makes it glow has broken down from the constant radiation—so if you have luminescent antiques that barely glow, you might want to have them tested with a Geiger counter and take appropriate precautions. The radiation emitted is completely harmless as long as you don’t ingest or inhale the radium—in which case it becomes a serious cancer risk. So as the tell-tale glow continues to fade, how will you prevent your ancient watch dial or whatever from deteriorating and contaminating your great, great grandchildren’s home, or ending up in a landfill and in the local water supply?

Even without the phosphor, pure radium emits enough alpha particles to excite nitrogen in the air, causing it to glow. The color isn’t green, through, but a pale blue similar to that of an electric arc.


Quora

This glow (though not the color) entered the public consciousness through this early illustration of its appearance in Marie Curie’s lab, and became confused with the green glow of radium paints.

The myth is likely kept alive by the phenomenon of Cherenkov glow, which arises when a charged particle (such as an electron or proton) from submerged sources exceeds the local speed of light through the surrounding water.

So in reality, some radionuclides do glow (notably radium and actinium), but not as brightly or in the color people think. Plutonium doesn’t, no matter what Homer Simpson thinks, unless it’s Pu-238—which has such a short half life, it heats itself red hot.


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This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.

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