Before we get into any of this, if you’re not caught up on HBO's Game of Thrones, we’re about to unleash a whole lot of spoilers. (Same goes for all of the published books.) So if you haven’t finished watching the sixth season, go do that now. Then come back.
By now, even the most casual Game of Thrones watchers know that when there are still a few months to kill before the new season premieres (in this case, season seven on July 16), any hint at what the next episodes will bring is enough to get the creative wheels turning in a serious fan’s head. Which is why, at various times over the years, we’ve reported on several fan theories—some of them plausible, some of them kookier than Lady Lysa Arryn.
One of the theories that has long been debated by viewers revolves around a vision that Daenerys has in George R.R. Martin's book series, A Song of Fire and Ice. The vision is of her brother, Rhaegar Targaryen, who talks about his son as “the prince that was promised.” In the vision, Rhaegar also says "there must be one more ... the dragon has three heads." As Nerdist reports, “it has long been assumed that in order to ride a dragon—and in turn be one of the three heads to ride Dany’s kiddies into the future to save Westeros from the White Walkers—one must have Targaryen blood.”
We got one step closer to figuring out who this dragon-riding trio might be when it was revealed in season six that Jon Snow, the supposed bastard son of Ned Stark, is actually the son of Lyanna Stark (Ned's sister) and Rhaegar, which makes him Daenerys's nephew. Rather than bask in the joy of finally knowing for sure who Jon’s parents were, fans immediately began wondering about that third head—and how it might play into another popular fan theory that asserts that Tyrion Lannister is not a Lannister at all, but the product of an affair between Joanna Lannister and Aerys II Targaryen (a.k.a. the Mad King).
This is where we get to the new theory we promised: Over at Mashable, Alex Hazlett has laid out an extremely detailed—and very believable—idea that it’s that Kingslayer Jaime Lannister who, in fact, has the Targaryen blood and is being set up to become the show’s true hero. To understand the nuances of Hazlett’s theory, you’ll want to read her piece in full. But if you go in a skeptic, be forewarned that she has photographic proof … well, sort of.
The picture above, one of the promotional images for season seven, is what sparked the theory because of one tiny detail: that shiny sword. Remember that prince that was promised? Well, he’ll carry a burning sword known as Lightbringer with him, and he’ll use it to wreak all sorts of havoc before he can begin on his path to redemption. (Nerdist breaks that all down here.)
It’s an intriguing theory, to be sure, and one that would open the door to a variety of surprising—and bloody—storylines. (Hey, it’s Game of Thrones.) For now, we’ll all just have to wait and wonder.
According to designer José de la O, the Spanish alphabet is too crowded. Letters like B and V and S and Z are hard to tell apart when spoken out loud, which makes for a language that's "confusing, complicated, and unpractical," per his design agency's website. His solution is Nueva Qwerty. As Co.Design reports, the "speculative alphabet" combines redundant letters into single characters, leaving 19 letters total.
In place of the letters missing from the original 27-letter Spanish alphabet are five new symbols. The S slot, for example, is occupied by one letter that does the job of C, Z, and S. Q, K, and C have been merged into a single character, as have I and Y. The design of each glyph borrows elements from each of the letters it represents, making the new alphabet easy for Spanish-speakers to learn, its designer says.
José de la O
By streamlining the Spanish alphabet, de la O claims he's made it easier to read, write, and type. But the convenience factor may not be enough to win over some Spanish scholars: When the Royal Spanish Academy cut just two letters (CH and LL) from the Spanish alphabet in 2010, their decision was met with outrage.
José de la O has already envisioned how his alphabet might function in the real world, Photoshopping it onto storefronts and newspapers. He also showcased the letters in two new fonts. You can install New Times New Roman and Futurysma onto your computer after downloading it here.
Bad Lieutenant can be accused of many things, but one charge you can't level against it is false advertising. Harvey Keitel's title character, whose name is never given, is indeed a bad, bad lieutenant: corrupt, sleazy, drug-addled, irresponsible, and lascivious, all while he's on the job. (Imagine what his weekends must be like!)
Abel Ferrara's nightmarish character study was controversial when it was released 25 years ago today, and rated NC-17 for its graphic nudity (including a famous glimpse at Lil’ Harvey), unsettling sexual violence, and frank depiction of drug use. The film packs a wallop, no doubt. Here's some behind-the-scenes info to help you cope with it.
1. THE PLACID WOMAN WHO HELPS THE LIEUTENANT FREEBASE HEROIN WROTE THE MOVIE.
That's Zoë Tamerlis Lund, who starred in Abel Ferrara's revenge-exploitation thriller Ms. 45 (1981) more than a decade earlier, when she was 17 years old. She and Ferrara are credited together for writing Bad Lieutenant, though she always insisted that wasn't the case. "I wrote this alone," she said. "Abel is a wonderful director, but he's not a screenwriter." She said elsewhere that she "wrote every word of that screenplay," though everyone agrees the finished movie included a lot of improvisation. Lund was a fascinating, tragic character herself—a musical prodigy who became an enthusiastic and unapologetic user of heroin before switching to cocaine in the mid-1990s. She died of heart failure in 1999 at age 37.
2. CHRISTOPHER WALKEN WAS SUPPOSED TO STAR IN IT.
Christopher Walken had starred in Ferrara's previous film, King of New York (1990), and was set to play the lead in Bad Lieutenant before pulling out at almost the last minute. Ferrara was shocked. "[Walken] says, 'You know, I don't think I'm right for it.' Which is, you know, a fine thing to say, unless it's three weeks from when you're supposed to start shooting," Ferrara said. "It definitely caught me by surprise. It put me in terminal shock, actually." Harvey Keitel replaced him (though not without difficulty; see below), and the film's editor, Anthony Redman, thought Keitel was a better choice anyway. "Chris is too elegant for the part," he said. "Harvey is not elegant."
3. HARVEY KEITEL'S INITIAL REACTION TO THE SCRIPT WAS NOT PROMISING.
"When we gave [Keitel] the script the first time, he read about five pages and threw it in the garbage," Ferrara said. Keitel's recollection was a little more diplomatic. As he told Roger Ebert, "I read a certain amount of pages and I put it down. I said, 'There's no way I'm gonna make this movie.' And then I asked myself, 'How often am I a lead in a movie? Read it, maybe I can salvage something from it …' When I read the part about the nun, I understood why Abel wanted to make it."
4. IT WAS ORIGINALLY SUPPOSED TO BE FUNNY.
Lionsgate Home Entertainment
"It was always, in my mind, a comedy," Ferrara said. He cited the scene where the Lieutenant pulls the teenage girls over as a specific example of how Christopher Walken would have played it, and how Harvey Keitel changed it. "The lieutenant was going to end up dancing in the streets with the girls as the sun came up. They'd be wearing his gun belt and hat, and they'd have the radio on, you know what I mean? But oh my God, Harvey, he turned it into this whole other thing." Boy, did he.
5. THAT SCENE WITH THE TEENAGE GIRLS HAD A REAL-LIFE ELEMENT THAT MADE IT EVEN CREEPIER.
One of the young women was Keitel's nanny. Ferrara: "I said, 'You sure you want to do this with your babysitter?' He says, 'Yeah, I want to try something.'"
6. MUCH OF IT WAS FILMED GUERRILLA-STYLE.
Like many indie-minded directors of low-budget films, Ferrara didn't bother with permits most of the time. "We weren't permitted on any of this stuff," editor Anthony Redman admitted. "We just walked on and started shooting." For the scene where a strung-out Lieutenant walks through a bumpin' nightclub, they sent Keitel through an actual, functioning club during peak operating hours.
7. A GREAT DEAL OF THE DIALOGUE AND ACTION WERE MADE UP ON THE FLY.
The script was only about 65 pages at first, which would have made for about a 65-minute movie. "It left a lot of room for improvisation," producer Randy Sabusawa said, "but the ideas were pretty distilled. They were there."
Script supervisor Karen Kelsall said supervising the script was a challenge. "Abel didn't stick to a script," she said. "Abel used a script as a way to get the money to make a movie, and then the script was kind of—we called it the daily news. It changed every day. It changed in the middle of scenes." Ferrara was unapologetic about the script's brevity. "The idea of wanting 90 pages ... is ridiculous."
8. AND THERE WERE EVEN MORE IDEAS THAT THEY DIDN'T USE.
Ferrara said a scene that epitomized the movie for him—even though he never got around to filming it—was one where the Lieutenant robs an electronics store, leaves, then gets a call about a robbery at the electronics store. He responds in an official capacity (they don't recognize him), takes a statement, walks out, and throws the statement in the garbage. "And that to me is the Bad Lieutenant, you know?" Ferrara said.
9. THE BASEBALL PLAYOFF SERIES IS FICTIONAL.
The Mets have battled the Dodgers for the National League championship once, in 1988. (The Dodgers beat 'em and went on to win the World Series.) For the narrative Ferrara wanted—the Mets coming back from a 3-0 deficit to win the pennant—he had to make it up. He used footage from real Mets-Dodgers games (including Darryl Strawberry's three-run homer from a game in July 1991) and added fictional play-by-play. But the statistics were accurate: No team had ever been down by three in a best-of-seven series and then come back to win. (It's happened once since then, when the 2004 Red Sox did it.)
10. THEY HAD HELP FROM THE COP WHO SOLVED A SIMILAR CASE.
The disgusting crime at the center of the film (we won't dwell on it) was inspired by a real-life incident from 1981, which mayor Ed Koch called "the most heinous crime in the history of New York City." The street cop who solved it, Bo Dietl, advised Ferrara on the film and had an on-screen role as one of the detectives in our Lieutenant's circle of friends.
11. THEY DESECRATED THE CHURCH AS RESPECTFULLY AS THEY COULD.
Production designer Charles Lagola had his team cover the church’s altar and other surfaces with plastic wrap, then painted the graffiti and other defacements on the plastic.
12. IT WAS RATED NC-17 IN THEATERS, WITH AN R-RATED VERSION FOR HOME VIDEO.
Blockbuster and some of the other retail chains wouldn't carry NC-17 or unrated films, so sometimes studios would produce edited versions. (See also: Requiem for a Dream.) The tamer version of Bad Lieutenant was five minutes and 19 seconds shorter, with parts of the rape scene, the drug-injecting scene, and much of the car interrogation scene excised.
13. THE "SEQUEL" HAD NOTHING TO DO WITH IT, NOR DID FERRARA APPROVE OF IT.
First Look International
Movie buffs were baffled in 2009, when Werner Herzog directed Bad Lieutenant: Port of Call New Orleans, starring Nicolas Cage. It sounds like a sequel (or a remake), but in fact had no connection at all to the earlier film except that both were produced by Edward R. Pressman. Herzog said he'd never seen Ferrara's movie and wanted to change the title (Pressman wouldn't let him); Ferrara, outspoken as always, initially wished fiery death on everyone involved. Ferrara and Herzog finally met at the 2013 Locarno Film Festival in Switzerland, where Herzog initiated a conversation about the whole affair and Ferrara expressed his frustration cordially.
DVD interviews with Abel Ferrara, Anthony Redman, Randy Sabusawa, and Karen Kelsall.