8 Common Problems That Can Be Signs of Anxiety

iStock
iStock

Anxiety disorders aren't always just nail-biting worry—they can manifest in some pretty unexpected ways. The issues and symptoms listed here are certainly not exclusive to anxiety, but if you find yourself nodding emphatically as you read along, it might be time to talk to your doctor.

1. EVERYTHING UPSETS YOUR STOMACH.

If gas, bloating, constipation, cramps, and/or diarrhea are a regular part of your life, you may have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is extremely common in people with anxiety disorders. Stress and worry can exacerbate IBS symptoms, which, in turn, can make life a lot more stressful.

2. YOU CAN’T SLEEP.

The day is done and it’s time to hit the sack, but your body is just not cooperating. Your mind is racing, turning over a million little things or the same thing over and over, and your heart is pounding. As with IBS, anxiety can worsen insomnia, and the resulting sleep deprivation can make anxiety worse.

3. YOU PRE-GAME EVERY PARTY.

It’s one thing to have a glass of wine in the evening. It’s another to feel like you need a drink to face the stress of parties and other social situations. There’s a word for this—self-medicating—and it’s very common among people with social anxiety. Be careful with this one; while alcohol may help you relax for a few hours, it can definitely make things worse in the long run.

4. YOU NEED A MASSAGE.

Our bodies evolved a terrific defense system to keep us safe from predators. When a threat arises, our muscles tense, preparing us to run away. The problem is that these days we’re surrounded by minor stressors, and it’s no longer socially acceptable to literally stand up and run away. So we clench, and we clench, and we stay clenched. People with anxiety disorders are especially prone to muscle tension, spasm, and pain, as their defense systems are on perpetual high alert.

5. WORK IS REALLY HARD.

Even small tasks become challenges when you can’t stay focused. Difficulty concentrating is a hallmark of both anxiety and depression, and can be a self-fulfilling prophecy: You can’t focus, so your work starts to slip, so you get stressed, which leads to more trouble focusing.

6. YOUR HEADACHE JUST WON’T QUIT.

Scientists are still teasing out the complex relationships between anxiety, depression, and pain. They know that people with anxiety disorders are more prone to both tension headaches (which can be caused by clenching) and migraines. Fortunately, if properly diagnosed, medication for anxiety and depression can help reduce pain.

7. YOU’RE WINDED ALL THE TIME.

Shortness of breath is a classic anxiety symptom, especially for people with panic disorders. But it doesn’t always take the form of hyperventilating or wheezing; many people with anxiety report experiencing dyspnea, or air hunger, in which they feel like they can’t fill their lungs, no matter how deeply they inhale.

8. YOU CAN’T LET THE LITTLE THINGS GO.

Are you still fretting over the joke you made to your coworker two days ago that landed flat, or that insensitive thing your boyfriend said last week? Ruminating—going over and over things in your head, the same way ruminants like cows re-chew their food—is a form of obsessing, and is very common in people with anxiety.

All images from iStock.

Is There An International Standard Governing Scientific Naming Conventions?

iStock/Grafissimo
iStock/Grafissimo

Jelle Zijlstra:

There are lots of different systems of scientific names with different conventions or rules governing them: chemicals, genes, stars, archeological cultures, and so on. But the one I'm familiar with is the naming system for animals.

The modern naming system for animals derives from the works of the 18th-century Swedish naturalist Carl von Linné (Latinized to Carolus Linnaeus). Linnaeus introduced the system of binominal nomenclature, where animals have names composed of two parts, like Homo sapiens. Linnaeus wrote in Latin and most his names were of Latin origin, although a few were derived from Greek, like Rhinoceros for rhinos, or from other languages, like Sus babyrussa for the babirusa (from Malay).

Other people also started using Linnaeus's system, and a system of rules was developed and eventually codified into what is now called the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). In this case, therefore, there is indeed an international standard governing naming conventions. However, it does not put very strict requirements on the derivation of names: they are merely required to be in the Latin alphabet.

In practice a lot of well-known scientific names are derived from Greek. This is especially true for genus names: Tyrannosaurus, Macropus (kangaroos), Drosophila (fruit flies), Caenorhabditis (nematode worms), Peromyscus (deermice), and so on. Species names are more likely to be derived from Latin (e.g., T. rex, C. elegans, P. maniculatus, but Drosophila melanogaster is Greek again).

One interesting pattern I've noticed in mammals is that even when Linnaeus named the first genus in a group by a Latin name, usually most later names for related genera use Greek roots instead. For example, Linnaeus gave the name Mus to mice, and that is still the genus name for the house mouse, but most related genera use compounds of the Greek-derived root -mys (from μῦς), which also means "mouse." Similarly, bats for Linnaeus were Vespertilio, but there are many more compounds of the Greek root -nycteris (νυκτερίς); pigs are Sus, but compounds usually use Greek -choerus (χοῖρος) or -hys/-hyus (ὗς); weasels are Mustela but compounds usually use -gale or -galea (γαλέη); horses are Equus but compounds use -hippus (ἵππος).

This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.

An Ice Age Wolf Head Was Found Perfectly Preserved in Siberian Permafrost

iStock/stevegeer
iStock/stevegeer

Don’t lose your head in Siberia, or it may be found preserved thousands of years later.

A group of mammoth tusk hunters in eastern Siberia recently found an Ice Age wolf’s head—minus its body—in the region’s permafrost. Almost perfectly preserved thanks to tens of thousands of years in ice, researchers dated the specimen to the Pleistocene Epoch—a period between 1.8 million and 11,700 years ago characterized by the Ice Age. The head measures just under 16 inches long, The Siberian Times reports, which is roughly the same size as a modern gray wolf’s.

Believed to be between 2 to 4 years old around the time of its death, the wolf was found with its fur, teeth, and soft tissue still intact. Scientists said the region’s permafrost, a layer of ground that remains permanently frozen, preserved the head like a steak in a freezer. Researchers have scanned the head with a CT scanner to reveal more of its anatomy for further study.

Tori Herridge, an evolutionary biologist at London’s Natural History Museum, witnessed the head’s discovery in August 2018. She performed carbon dating on the tissue and tweeted that it was about 32,000 years old.

The announcement of the discovery was made in early June to coincide with the opening of a new museum exhibit, "The Mammoth," at Tokyo’s Miraikan National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation. The exhibit features more than 40 Pleistocene specimens—including a frozen horse and a mammoth's trunk—all in mint condition, thanks to the permafrost’s effects. (It's unclear if the wolf's head is included in the show.)

While it’s great to have a zoo’s worth of prehistoric beasts on display, scientists said the number of animals emerging from permafrost is increasing for all the wrong reasons. Albert Protopopov, director of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Sakha, told CNN that the warming climate is slowly but surely thawing the permafrost. The higher the temperature, the likelier that more prehistoric specimens will be found.

And with average temperatures rising around the world, we may find more long-extinct creatures rising from the ice.

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