CLOSE
Original image
An artist's rendering of the Europa mission's spacecraft. Main Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech Banner Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech

How Will the Europa Lander Search for Life?

Original image
An artist's rendering of the Europa mission's spacecraft. Main Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech Banner Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Water, chemistry, energy: three key components for life. We only have confirmation of life on Earth so far, but we're always looking elsewhere. One of the biggest targets in the solar system is Europa, one of Jupiter's moons. We're aiming for that target with the Europa lander, which will launch for the Jovian moon around 2024. The mission will be the first on-site search for evidence of life on another world since Viking 1 and Viking 2 landed on Mars in 1976.

Last month, the team behind the Europa Lander released the mission’s scientific objectives [PDF], and at the recent 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in The Woodlands, Texas, scientists answered questions and led a discussion about the trip with the wider planetary science community.

They explained that the Europa lander is not like the spacecraft Cassini or the Mars rovers—expeditions with big initial objectives, but quiet hope for decades of continued operation and science experiments. In contrast, this mission will live hard and die young. It will have to: The radiation environment at Europa is punishing, so the communications relay orbiter that will act as go-between for the lander and Earth won’t last more than a month or two. The lander will have enough power to run for just 20 days on the surface and will run on batteries; nuclear power was considered but discarded as being too expensive and challenging to launch. Batteries also have the advantage of being “quieter,” providing less vibration, magnetic, and electromagnetic disruption to sensitive instruments.

The lander will launch on a Space Launch System rocket and will spend years traveling to Europa. Upon arrival, the relay orbiter―which during the cruise phase to Jupiter acts as a carrier―will release the lander to Europa’s surface. As the communications satellite establishes its Europan orbit, the lander will use a mini sky crane system to land, looking and acting much like the rover Curiosity on Mars.

But notably, the scientists don’t call this process “Entry, Descent, and Landing” (EDL), but rather DDL, for Deorbit, Descent, and Landing—there’s no atmosphere around Europa for a lander to “enter.” This makes the job of landing much easier than on Mars, whose tenuous atmosphere is insufficient for parachutes alone, and yet enough that it makes a pure supersonic retropropulsive landing a challenge.

WHAT’S ON THE LANDER?

This artist's rendering illustrates a conceptual design for a potential future mission to land a robotic probe on the surface of Europa. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

The lander is a square about the size of a large riding lawnmower with four long, articulated cricket-like legs that will each compress independently on landing, allowing it to touch down on an uncertain or jagged surface and still remain level. (If it landed on a ledge, for example, one leg might remain fully extended along the drop, and three legs might compress fully, bringing the belly of the robot even and near the ground.) A communications antenna will then deploy and establish communications with the relay orbiter.

The lander will host a payload of science instruments weighing nearly 94 pounds. “That is a considerable mass for getting science done on any world,” Kevin Hand of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, co-chair of the science definition team, said. To get the science done, the lander will carry five instruments: a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer, which can identify the contents of a sample; a context camera, which should return some spectacular images, including a giant Jupiter hanging in the black sky over the ice world; and a geophone, used for seismometry, the study of seismic activity. Except for the camera, these instruments will live inside of the lander, which will protect them from the worst of the radiation.

The most crucial tool for gathering material is a sample collection arm: essentially an angled, twin-bladed boring instrument that will carve strips of granite-hard Europan surface at a depth of 4 inches or deeper. (Regolith at such a depth is not radiation-processed, increasing the likelihood of observing indicators of life.) The collected material will be loaded into a dock in the lander’s side, and the instruments within will begin their analyses. Over the course of the mission, the lander will collect and analyze a minimum of five samples with a minimum volume of .4 cubic inches from five different regions within the lander “workspace”―that is, the radial reach of the collector arm.

WHAT WILL WORKING ON EUROPA BE LIKE?

Two views of the trailing hemisphere of the ice-covered Europa. Image Credit: NASA/JPL/DLR

An Earth day is called a “day.” A Mars day is called a “sol.” A Europan day is called a “tal.” The carrier relay will orbit Europa every 24 hours―this is a happy coincidence with Earth, but wasn’t planned that way―and return three to four gigabits of data per orbit. Mission operations are therefore planned in 24-hour intervals.

At the start of a tal―00:00—the carrier relay will receive its commands from Earth to determine that period’s working schedule. The lander receives those instructions at 01:00, when the carrier is in view of the lander in its orbit. On an ordinary tal, the lander will start collecting samples for the next five hours. At 06:00, the lander will upload engineering data to the relay, which will, in turn, send that data to Earth.

The lander will then get to work on sample analysis, and at 11:00, upload its findings, and go to sleep. At this point, the carrier relay orbiter will be out of range of the lander. Two hours later, it will have a clear shot at Earth, and will send the data back here for analysis. Humans will use this data to plan the science and engineering for the next day, and will generate commands to that effect. At 23:00, those commands and instructions will be sent to the relay orbiter, and the cycle will repeat itself.

The baseline science mission will be achieved in 10 days. Depending on what the lander finds, the team might decide to prioritize different things—for example, focusing on collecting samples or image acquisition.

HOW WILL IT FIND LIFE?

Reddish spots and shallow pits pepper the ridged surface of Europa. Image Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona/University of Colorado

There is no such thing as a “life detector.” Instead of a single magic reading, the lander will look for many organic biosignatures that, taken together, reveal life. Instruments will look for signs and abundance of organic material, cell-like structures, chirality (molecular properties, like those found in amino acids), and biominerals (minerals produced by living things)—among many other things.

Individually, none of these biosignatures can reveal life, but if found collectively, the evidence will be all but irrefutable. A biosignature matrix of positive and negative results is, in essence, plotted on a spreadsheet. Hand called this “biosignature bingo.” Not all of the biosignatures are necessary, but some combination of them are; finding, for example, an abundance of organics, cell patterns, chirality, and microscopic evidence but no signs of biominerals would still conclude life with certainty. On the other hand, if none of these features were found but biominerals and cell patterns were, we wouldn't call that evidence of life.

Sampling will be done in triplicate to confirm life findings. Three samples will have to confirm the biosignatures. The lander team is confident about this process. “It would be very hard to have a false positive, especially after replicating it three times,” Hand told mental_floss. “We use life on Earth as a guide, and so applying that matrix to life on Earth, both past and present, we would have a hard time leading to a false positive.”

The lander, of course, will not be the first spacecraft to arrive at the Jovian moon. The Europa Clipper spacecraft will have arrived and studied Europa years earlier, and will have ably characterized the habitability of that world. What Clipper finds, Lander will build upon. The Clipper’s work will determine one of four possible outcomes: Europa is not habitable, in which case the lander will figure out why (for example: geological activity); Europa is maybe habitable, in which case the lander will resolve the ambiguity of the finding; Europa is habitable, in which case the lander will try to find life; and Europa is inhabited―Clipper outright finds life on Europa, in which case the lander will confirm the finding and set the stage for future exploration. In addition, Clipper will act as a backup plan for the lander should the relay orbiter fail. The lander can talk to Clipper, which will in turn send the information back to Earth.

Despite the recent White House budget request that notably failed to earmark money for the Europa lander, these missions are realistically in no danger. Congressional appropriators have made it clear that the Europa lander is going to happen, and, just as in the case of Clipper (which the Office of Management and Budget ignored for years), it is still expected to receive billions of dollars over the next decade.

HOW DOES THIS COMPARE TO VIKING?

Images from the Viking mission on Mars. Image Credit: NASA

NASA undertook its last true life-finding mission—Viking’s mission to Mars—decades ago. There’s a reason for this time gap: Viking didn’t find life. Scientists had previously held out hope that animals might be scurrying about on the Martian surface. When the red planet was found to be creature-less, interest was quickly lost in the Mars program. Viking is thus sometimes criticized as being a failure. But Hand disagreed. “Viking is vindicated by Europa,” he said. “If Pathfinder had gone back and found a golf course on Mars, someone could say Viking made mistakes. Viking worked beautifully. Mars did not cooperate. Life detection experiments should provide valuable information, regardless of the biology results.”

Even in the absence of life, scientists will learn a lot about Europa as an ocean world, and as a world with liquid water recycling through the sea floor. In the absence of biology, they will still advance the sciences of geochemistry and oceanography.

“As exciting as a positive result for biosignatures would be, a negative result is equally profound. It gets to the question of what does it take for the origin of life to occur,” Hand said. Today, for example, hydrothermal vents are thought to have been critical to the birth of life on Earth. If Europa—which also has hydrothermal vents—is dead, perhaps hydrothermal vents are not that important after all.

Science has marched rapidly since the Viking missions, which means if life exists on Europa, we’re more likely to find it now than Viking scientists on Mars were. When the Viking landers set down in the mid-1970s, the structure of DNA had only been known for about 20 years. In the years since Viking, hydrothermal vents were discovered on Earth, and a whole new domain of life was discovered in the microbial realm, like cryptoendoliths in Antarctica—not to mention the “polymerase chain reaction” was developed, allowing the human genome to be sequenced. Last year, a new tree of life was created based on this research. So going into the lander mission, Hand and his team are cautiously optimistic.

“We don’t know if biology works beyond Earth,” Hand said. “We have every reason to believe it should and could, but we have yet to do that experiment.” The Europa lander team hopes to change that.

Original image
iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
technology
arrow
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
Original image
iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

Original image
Amazon
Smart Shopping
arrow
This Week's Best Amazon Deals You Can Still Get
May 28, 2017
Original image
Amazon

As a recurring feature, we share some amazing Amazon deals we’ve turned up. These items were the ones that were the most popular with our readers this week, and they’re still available.

Mental Floss has affiliate relationships with certain retailers (including Amazon) and may receive a small percentage of any sale. But we only get commission on items you buy and don’t return, so we’re only happy if you’re happy. Good luck deal hunting! 

GADGETS, TOYS, AND MEDIA

EasyAcc 6000mAh MFi Slim Compact Power Bank, Built-in MFi Cable for Apple Lightning Devices, iPhones, iPads, iPods, and USB Port for Universal USB devices for $18.39 (list price $49.99)

WizGear Universal Air Vent Magnetic Car Mount Holder with Fast Swift-Snap Technology for Smartphones and Mini Tablets, Black for $6.99 (list price $18.99)

HQDmall Fidget Cube Anxiety Stress Relief And Relieves Stress Attention Focus for Children and Adults Anxiety Attention Toy, Black for $7.99 (list price $29.99)

SENSO Bluetooth Headphones, Best Wireless Sports Earphones w/ Mic IPX7 Waterproof HD Stereo Sweatproof Earbuds for Gym Running Workout 8 Hour Battery Noise Cancelling Headsets for $36.97 (list price $169.99)

Fitbit Flex 2, Black (US Version) for $59.95 (list price $99.95)

Anker PowerCore Fusion 5000 2-in-1 Portable Charger and Wall Charger, AC Plug with 5000mAh Capacity, PowerIQ Technology, For iPhone, iPad, Android, Samsung Galaxy and More for $21.99 (list price $50.99)

Anker 60W 6-Port USB Wall Charger, PowerPort 6 for iPhone 7 / 6s / Plus, iPad Pro / Air 2 / mini, Galaxy S7 / S6 / Edge / Plus, Note 5 / 4, LG, Nexus, HTC and More for $25.99 (list price $79.99)

AELEC S350 Bluetooth Headphones Wireless In-Ear Sports Earbuds Sweatproof Earphones Noise Cancelling Headsets with Mic for Running Jogging for $21.99 (list price $129.99)

SoundPEATS Bluetooth Headset V4.1 Wireless Earbud Mini In-ear Bluetooth Earpiece Car Headset Hand-free calling with Mic for iPhone/Android/Windows 10 Cellphones, Tablets and Computers (Black) for $15.29 (list price $39.99)

TaoTronics Bluetooth Receiver / Car Kit, Portable Wireless Audio Adapter 3.5 mm Stereo Output (Bluetooth 4.0, A2DP, Built-in Microphone) for Home Audio Music Streaming Sound System for $13.49 (list price $15.99)

Seagate Backup Plus 4TB Portable External Hard Drive USB 3.0, Silver (STDR4000900) for $109.99 (list price $129.99)

Funko POP TV: Golden Girls Dorothy Action Figure for $9.00 (list price $12.00)

LEGO STAR WARS TIE Striker 75154 for $45.88 (list price $69.99)

Ace Armor Shield (6 PACK) Screen Protector for the Fitbit Alta HR with free lifetime Replacement warranty for $7.85 (list price $11.99)

VicTsing Shower Speaker, Wireless Waterproof Speaker with 5W Driver, Suction Cup, Buit-in Mic, Hands-Free Speakerphone-Gray for $20.99 (list price $24.99)

Seagate Expansion 2TB Portable External Hard Drive USB 3.0 (STEA2000400) for $69.99 (list price $73.99)

Anker Bluetooth Folio Keyboard Case for iPad Air 2 - Smart Case with Auto Sleep / Wake, Comfortable Keys and 6-Month Battery Life Between Charges (Not compatible with iPad 9.7 inch/iPad Air) for $35.99 (list price $69.99)

Anker 2.4G Wireless Vertical Ergonomic Optical Mouse, 800 / 1200 /1600DPI, 5 Buttons - Black for $19.99 (list price $49.99)

FRiEQ Universal Waterproof Case for Outdoor Activities - Waterproof bag for Apple iPhone 7, 7 Plus, 6S, 6S Plus, 6, 6 Plus, 5S; Galaxy S6, S4; HTC One X, Galaxy Note 3, Note 2; LG G2 - IPX8 Certified to 100 Feet (Black) for $6.99 (list price $19.99)

Fritesla 20000mah Power Bank 4USB Portable Charger for Smartphones (Green) for $24.99 (list price $100.00)

KITCHEN

Moscow Mule Hammered Copper 18 Ounce Drinking Mug, Set of 4 for $21.48 (list price $40.00)

OXO Good Grips Nylon Potato Masher for Non-Stick Cookware for $6.99 (list price $9.59)

Imarku Pro Kitchen 8 inch Chef's Knife High Carbon Stainless Steel Sharp Knives Ergonomic Equipment for $29.99 (list price $99.99)

Lodge L9OG3 Cast Iron Round Griddle, Pre-Seasoned, 10.5-inch for $16.19 (list price $24.00)

Cuisinart CSBP-100 3-in-1 Stuffed Burger Press for $11.47 (list price $14.99)

Wilton Nonstick 6-Cavity Donut Pan for $8.15 (list price $9.99)

Cuisinart Set of 3 Fine Mesh Stainless Steel Strainers, CTG-00-3MS for $11.21 (list price $22.00)

BLACK+DECKER GD2011B Family Sized Electric Griddle, 20 x 11-Inch, Black for $16.57 (list price $39.99)

Circulon Sunrise Whistling Teakettles, 1.5-Quart, Black for $19.99 (list price $40.00)

Rachael Ray Cucina Hard Porcelain Enamel Nonstick Covered Round Casserole, 4.5-Quart, Agave Blue for $27.69 (list price $100.00)

VonShef 7- Egg Electric Cooker Stainless Steel with Poacher & Steamer Attachment for $19.94 (list price $34.99)

The Original GORILLA GRIP (TM) Set of 3 Non-Slip Reversible Cutting Boards, BPA Free, FDA Approved Materials (Set of 3 Boards: Green) for $19.99 (list price $39.99)

Presto 04820 PopLite Hot Air Popper for $17.55 (list price $29.99)

Contigo AUTOSEAL Transit Stainless Steel Travel Mug, 16 oz, Polar White with Grayed Jade Lid Accent for $15.55 (list price $24.99)

AUTOSPOUT Straw Ashland, 24oz, Monaco for $8.49 (list price $12.99)

HOME

URPOWER 2nd Version Essential Oil Diffuser, 100ml Aroma Essential Oil Cool Mist Humidifier with Adjustable Mist Mode,Waterless Auto Shut-off and 7 Color LED Lights Changing for Home Office Baby for $15.95 (list price $39.99)

Radha Beauty Aromatherapy Top 6 Essential Oils 100% Pure & Therapeutic grade - Basic Sampler Gift Set & Premium Kit - 6/10 Ml (Lavender, Tea Tree, Eucalyptus, Lemongrass, Orange, Peppermint) for $14.95 (list price $79.99)

Sherpa Throw Blanket Lt Grey 50x60 Reversible Fuzzy Microfiber All Season Blanket for Bed or Couch by Bedsure for $23.99 (list price $59.99)

Hoover Vacuum Cleaner WindTunnel 3 High Performance Pet Bagless Corded Upright Vacuum UH72630PC for $139.51 (list price $189.99)

LANGRIA Shredded Memory Foam Pillow Firm for Optimal Orthopedic Support, Removable Washable Bamboo Cover Hypoallergenic Anti-Bacterial CertiPUR-US Certification,Queen Size for $12.99 (list price $59.99)

Downy Unstopables In-Wash Scent Booster Beads - FRESH, 26.5 oz. for $10.97 (list price $15.99)

Aszaro Cedar Balls, Cedar Cubes & Cedar Sachets 40 pc Combo Pack | 20 Natural Cedar Wood Balls, 20 Blocks & 5 Bonus Sachets | Ward Off Moths, Mildew And Mustiness For Easy Garment Care for $17.97 (list price $25.99)

Garment Steamer, Holan Portable Handheld Clothes Steamer, Fast Heat-up and 200ml Capacity Fabric Steamer with Two Brushes Perfect for Home and Travel for $17.99 (list price $39.90)

Monkey Hook Picture Hanger Home and Office Pack, 30 pc set for $11.25 (list price $19.75)

Queen Size SafeRest Premium Hypoallergenic Waterproof Mattress Protector - Vinyl Free for $29.95 (list price $95.98)

LUCID Premium Hypoallergenic 100% Waterproof Mattress Protector - 15 Year Warranty - Vinyl Free - Queen for $19.99 (list price $40.00)

HANSLIN Desk Top Swivel Alarm Clock for $23.75 (list price $29.99)

WBM Himalayan Glow 1002 Hand Carved Natural Salt Lamp with Genuine Neem Wood Base/Bulb and Dimmer Control, Crystal, Amber, 8 - 9-Inch, 8 - 11 lb for $30.98 (list price $39.95)

 

HEALTH AND BEAUTY

BS-MALL Makeup Brushes Premium Makeup Brush Set Synthetic Kabuki Cosmetics Foundation Blending Blush Eyeliner Face Powder Brush Makeup Brush Kit (10pcs, Golden Black) for $9.99 (list price $39.99)

Nerdwax Stop Slipping Glasses as Seen on Shark Tank for $10.99 (list price $14.99)

Crest 3D White Luxe Whitestrip Teeth Whitening Kit, Glamorous White, 14 Treatments - Packaging May Vary for $34.69 (list price $44.99)

Gillette Fusion Manual Men’s Razor Blade Refills, 12 Count, Mens Razors / Blades for $33.97 (list price $47.99)

Neutrogena Ultra Sheer Dry-Touch Sunscreen, Broad Spectrum Spf 45, 3 Fl. Oz., Pack Of 2 for $11.24 (list price $14.99)

Neutrogena Ultra Sheer Body Mist Sunscreen, Broad Spectrum Spf 30, 5 Oz. for $7.47 (list price $10.99)

Thinksport Kid's Safe Sunscreen SPF 50+, 3oz for $10.87 (list price $11.99)

Colgate MaxFresh Wisp Disposable Travel Toothbrush, Peppermint - 24 Count for $3.41 (list price $7.99)

100% Pure Australian Tea Tree Essential Oil with 45% Terpinen-4-ol, 1 fl. oz. A Known Solution to Help in Fighting Acne, Toenail Fungus, Dandruff, Yeast Infections, Cold Sores.. for $10.95 (list price $65.00)

American Crew Forming Cream, 3 Ounce for $7.95 (list price $9.67)

Aquasentials Mesh Pouf Bath Sponge (8 Pack) for $8.49 (list price $12.99)

Neutrogena Oil-Free Acne Wash Redness Soothing Facial Cleanser With Salicylic Acid, 6 Fl. Oz. for $6.50 (list price $10.69)

Edge Shave Gel for Men Sensitive Skin - 7 Ounce (Pack of 6) for $17.82 (list price $26.99)

NIVEA Men Platinum Protect 3-in-1 Body Wash 16.9 Fluid Ounce for $3.11 (list price $4.99)

Gillette Fusion ProGlide Manual Men's Razor Blade Refills, 4 Count, Mens Razors / Blades for $13.22 (list price $18.03)

Radha Beauty Rosehip Oil 4 oz - 100% Pure Cold Pressed Certified Organic for $13.95 (list price $49.99)

OFFICE, SCHOOL, AND CRAFTS

SwissGear 1900 Scansmart TSA Laptop Backpack - Black for $54.99 (list price $130.00)

Cardinal by TOPS Products OneStep Printable Table of Contents and Index Dividers, 52-Tab, Numbered, Multi-Color (60990) for $7.15 (list price $11.51)

Chartpak Self-Adhesive Vinyl Capital Letters, 6 Inches High, Black, 38 per Pack (01184) for $16.65 (list price $21.99)

Fineliner Color Pen Set,0.38mm Colored Fine Line Point,Assorted Colors,10-Count for $6.58 (list price $9.99)

uni-ball 207 Impact Gel Pens, Bold Point (1.0mm), Blue, 12 Count for $20.00 (list price $26.46)

Elmer's Liquid School Glue, Washable, 1 Gallon, 1 Count for $14.08 (list price $20.49)

Westcott Jumbo Circles Template (T-826) for $4.31 (list price $7.00)

Amzdeal Magnifier Eye Glasseses Eye Loupe For Reading Drawing Making handicrafts Repairing for $11.89 (list price $39.99)

OUTDOORS, GARDEN, AND SPORTS

Coleman 12 oz. Enamel Mug for $3.49 (list price $8.98)

Igloo 5 Gallon Seat Top Beverage Jug with spigot for $22.99 (list price $39.99)

Mountainsmith Pinnacle Single Trekking Poles, Evergreen for $12.91 (list price $19.95)

Polar Bottle Insulated Water Bottle (24-Ounce) (White) for $7.99 (list price $11.99)

ALPS Mountaineering Crescent Lake 0-Degree Sleeping Bag (Regular) for $43.19 (list price $53.99)

Tapirus Extendable Marshmallow Roasting 4 Camping Sticks | Durable Stainless Steel Equipment BBQ Skewers With Insulated Handles | Telescopic Campfire Forks Utensils For Smores, Hot Dogs & Shish Kebabs for $14.95 (list price $25.99)

OUTERDO Monocular Dual Focus Telescope Camping Wildlife Hunting Surveillance Sporting Events Traveling Scope Waterproof Optics Zoom Bright and Clear with 10 Magnification 16x52 for $12.99 (list price $18.89)

TaylorMade 2016 Tour Preferred Golf Balls (1 Dozen) for $27.99 (list price $39.00)

VicTsing 50ft Expanding Hose, Strongest Expandable Garden Hose with Double Latex Core, Solid Brass Connector and Extra Strength Fabric for Car Garden Hose Nozzle for $34.99 (list price $39.99)

Insulated Picnic Basket - Lunch Tote Cooler Backpack w/ Flatware Two Place Setting (Black & Red) for $25.99 (list price $31.04)

Ekogrips BBQ Oven Gloves | Best Versatile Heat Resistant Grill Gloves | Lifetime Replacement | Insulated Silicone Oven Mitts For Grilling | Waterproof | Full Finger, Hand, Wrist Protection | 3 Sizes for $18.27 (list price $57.99)

Lightning Nuggets Inc 0-47815-14175-7 12-Count Firestarters for $5.54 (list price $12.99)

Imarku BBQ Grill & Baking Mats, Durable , Heat Resistant, Set of 10 Non-Stick Grilling Accessories for $23.99 (list price $49.99)

TOOLS

TIWIN LED Light Bulbs 100 watt equivalent (11W),Soft White (2700K), General Purpose A19 LED Bulbs,E26 Base ,UL Listed, Pack of 6 for $19.99 (list price $23.99)

Kidde FA110 Multi Purpose Fire Extinguisher 1A10BC, 1 Pack for $19.98 (list price $42.99)

Sugru Moldable Glue - Black & White (Pack of 8) for $14.80 (list price $21.25)

5 Pack Ipow LED Battery-powered Wireless Night Light Stick Tap Touch Lamp Stick-on Push Light for Closets, Cabinets, Counters, or Utility Rooms,Cordless Touch Light,Batteris Not Included for $9.97 (list price $11.99)

Dimmable LED Desk Lamp, 4 Lighting Modes(Studying, Reading, Relaxing, Sleeping), 5 Level Dimming, 1 Hour Auto Timer, Touch Sensitive Control, Modern, - Piano Black for $29.97 (list price $109.00)

KEDSUM 200pcs Adhesive Cable Clips, Wire Clips, Car Cable Organizer, Cable Wire Management, Drop Cable Clamp Wire Cord Tie Holder for Car, Office and Home for $8.99 (list price $19.99)

GlowBowl A-00452-01 Motion Activated Toilet Nightlight for $10.40 (list price $24.99)

Mothers 07240 California Gold Clay Bar System for $14.24 (list price $15.37)

J5 Tactical V1-Pro Flashlight The Original 300 Lumen Ultra Bright, LED 3 Mode Flashlight for $12.95 (list price $29.95)

Oria Precision Screwdriver Set, 60 in 1 Magnetic Driver Kit with 54 Bits, Professional Electronics Repair Tool Kit for iPhone/ Cell Phone/ iPad/ Tablet/ PC/ MacBook and Other Electronics for $13.99 (list price $26.99)

SE MH1047L Illuminated Multi-Power LED Head Magnifier for $8.94 (list price $15.44)

SECTIONS
BIG QUESTIONS
BIG QUESTIONS
WEATHER WATCH
BE THE CHANGE
JOB SECRETS
QUIZZES
WORLD WAR 1
SMART SHOPPING
STONES, BONES, & WRECKS
#TBT
THE PRESIDENTS
WORDS
RETROBITUARIES