Meet Civil Rights Pioneer Viola Desmond, the New Face on the Canadian $10 Bill

Viola Desmond hand-coloured portrait, 16-80-30220, ca. 1945. Wanda and Joe Robson Collection, Sydney NS. Beaton Institute, Cape Breton University // Used With Permission
Viola Desmond hand-coloured portrait, 16-80-30220, ca. 1945. Wanda and Joe Robson Collection, Sydney NS. Beaton Institute, Cape Breton University // Used With Permission

In 1946, Viola Desmond, a 32-year-old entrepreneur from Halifax, was on a business trip when her car broke down in the small community of New Glasgow in Nova Scotia, Canada. With some extra time to kill while she waited for the repairs, Desmond decided to go see a movie, and headed to the Roseland Theater at the corner of Forbes and Provost Streets. She requested and paid for a seat to see a noir called The Dark Mirror on the theater's main floor—but because she was black, the cashier gave her a ticket and the appropriate change for the balcony section.

Unaware that she had been given a balcony ticket, Desmond proceeded into the main-floor seating area, where the ticket-taker told her she'd have to go upstairs. She assumed that there had been a mistake, but when she went back to the cashier to ask again for a main-floor ticket, the cashier reportedly replied, "I'm sorry, but I'm not permitted to sell downstairs tickets to you people."

Desmond was used to finding a way when racially motivated roadblocks were thrown at her. When she was denied entrance to Halifax beauty schools because of her skin color, she trained in Montreal, New York, and New Jersey, then created her own beauty studio and school in Halifax, drawing black women from across Canada's east coast. She also created her own line of black beauty care products. So, being a woman used to making her own path, once Desmond realized she was being discriminated against, she courageously strode back inside the theater to take a seat on the main floor.

She was just settling in to enjoy the movie when she was confronted by the theater manager. Desmond stood her ground, but the police soon arrived and forcibly removed her from the theater, injuring her hip and knee in the process.

She spent the night in jail, though not for disobeying segregation laws; there weren't any. Instead, officials got her on a trumped-up claim of defrauding the Government of Nova Scotia. They alleged that she had failed to pay one cent in amusement tax—that is, the difference in the amount of tax charged on a main floor and balcony seat. Under a 1915 Canadian licensing statute, those who entered a theater without paying the proper amount of amusement tax could be arrested without a warrant and fined.

Realizing that the ludicrous charge was a way to punish her for refusing to bow to the unofficial segregation rules of the day, Desmond challenged the decision all the way to the Nova Scotia Supreme Court. Unfortunately, she lost the trial, and the charges stood.

Desmond died in 1965 at age 50. She may not have gotten justice during her lifetime, but her actions were a galvanizing force for the civil rights movement in Canada. And almost 65 years after the theater incident, the Canadian government tried to set things right. In 2010, a cultural studies professor from Nova Scotia worked with Desmond's sister, Wanda Robson, to secure a posthumous pardon from Nova Scotia's lieutenant governor as well as an apology from the province's premier. (The pair teamed up after Wanda, then 73, took Professor Graham Reynolds's class at Cape Breton University. As Reynolds was telling a story about Viola, Wanda piped up and said "Hey, that's my sister.")

Since then, the civil rights pioneer has been on a Canada Post stamp and had a passenger ferry named for her, while plans for streets bearing her name are in the works in Montreal and Halifax. She has also been honored with the creation of the Viola Desmond Chair of Social Justice at Cape Breton University.

And soon, Canadians will be seeing a lot more of her. In late 2016, she was chosen as the first Canadian woman to appear on a $10 bill. The design for the bill was unveiled on March 8, 2018, and features a violet-hued portrait of Viola on the front, plus images of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights and an excerpt from the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms on the back. The bill also includes an eagle feather, which the Bank of Canada says represents "the ongoing journey toward recognizing rights and freedoms for Indigenous Peoples in Canada." The banknote will enter into circulation later in 2018.

Speaking of Viola at the unveiling, Finance Minister Bill Morneau said, "Her story serves as inspiration to all Canadians and acts as a powerful reminder of how one person’s actions can help trigger change across generations."

As for Viola's sister Wanda, she said at the unveiling that seeing the new bill had left her speechless. "This is amazing, unique, and our family will go down in history. Imagine that."

Images of Canada's new $10 bill featuring Viola Desmond
Bank of Canada

There Could Be Hundreds of Frozen Corpses Buried Beneath Antarctica's Snow and Ice

Prpix.com.au/Getty Images
Prpix.com.au/Getty Images

Scientists and explorers take a number of risks when they travel to Antarctica. One of the more macabre gambles is that they'll perish during their mission, and their bodies will never be recovered. According to the BBC, hundreds of frozen corpses may be trapped beneath layers and layers of Antarctic snow and ice.

“Some are discovered decades or more than a century later,” Martha Henriques writes for the BBC series Frozen Continent. “But many that were lost will never be found, buried so deep in ice sheets or crevasses that they will never emerge—or they are headed out towards the sea within creeping glaciers and calving ice.”

In the world’s most extreme regions, this is not uncommon. For comparison, some estimates suggest that more than 200 bodies remain on Mt. Everest. Antarctica's icy terrain is rugged and dangerous. Massive crevasses—some concealed by snow—measure hundreds of feet deep and pose a particularly serious threat for anyone crossing them on foot or by dogsled. There’s also the extreme weather: Antarctica is the coldest, driest, and windiest place on Earth, yet scientists recently discovered hundreds of mummified penguins that they believe died centuries ago from unusually heavy snow and rain.

One of the most famous cases of a left-behind body on Antarctica dates back to the British Antarctic Expedition (also known as the Terra Nova Expedition) of 1910 to 1913. British explorer Robert Falcon Scott and his four-man team hoped to be the first ones to reach the South Pole in 1912, but were bitterly disappointed when they arrived and learned that the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen had beaten them to it.

On the return trip, Scott and his companions died of exposure and starvation while trapped by a blizzard in their tent, just 11 miles from a food depot. Two of those bodies were never found, but the others (including Scott’s) were located a few months after their deaths. Members of the search party covered their bodies in the tent with snow and left them there. The bodies have since travelled miles from their original location, as the ice grows and shifts around them.

Other evidence suggests people landed on Antarctica decades before Scott’s team did. A 175-year-old human skull and femur found on Antarctica’s Livingston Island were identified as the remains of a young indigenous Chilean woman. No one yet knows how she got there.

Accidents still happen: After coming close to completing the first solo, unaided traverse of Antarctica, British adventurer Henry Worsley died of organ failure following an airlift from the continent in 2016. Most modern-day polar visitors, however, have learned from past missteps.

[h/t BBC]

Dolly Parton, They Might Be Giants, and More Featured on New Album Inspired By the 27 Amendments

Valerie Macon, Getty Images
Valerie Macon, Getty Images

Since 2016, Radiolab's More Perfect podcast has taken what is typically viewed as a dry subject, the Supreme Court, and turned it into an engrossing podcast. Now, fans of the show have a whole new way to learn about the parts of U.S. history which textbooks tend to gloss over. 27, The Most Perfect Album, a new music compilation from Radiolab, features more than two dozen songs inspired by each of the 27 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, from freedom of religion to rules regulating changes to Congressional salaries.

More Perfect assembled an impressive roster of musical talents to compose and perform the tracklist. They Might Be Giants wrote the song for the Third Amendment, which prohibited the forced quartering of soldiers in people's homes. It goes, "But the presence of so many friendly strangers makes me nervous, and it does not mean that I'm not truly thankful for your service."

For the 19th Amendment, which gave women the right to vote, Dolly Parton sings, "We carried signs, we cursed the times, marched up and down the street. We had to fight for women's rights with blisters on our feet." Less sexy amendments, like the 12th Amendment, which revised presidential election procedures, and the 20th Amendment, which set commencement terms for congress and the president, are also featured. Torres, Caroline Shaw, Kash Doll, and Cherry Glazerr are just a handful of the other artists who contributed to the album.

The release of the compilation coincides with the premiere of More Perfect's third season, which will focus on the 27 amendments to the U.S. Constitution. You can check out the first episode of the new season today and download the companion album for free through WNYC.

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