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10 Behind-the-Scenes Secrets of Makeup Artists

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Makeup has been around in one form or another since at least Cleopatra. In an age of Instagram, personal branding, and perpetual selfies, it’s more popular than ever, and the same could be said of makeup artists. Mental_floss spoke to a few who ply the trade about their art, their business, and the ongoing appeal of making faces.

1. THEIR WORK REQUIRES SCIENCE AS WELL AS ART.

To the uninformed, makeup artistry may seem to involve little more than applying blush and lip gloss. But there’s much more to it. “I think the misconception is that it’s just putting on makeup,” says Jenn Blum, a beauty and special effects makeup artist in New York.

Blum says that her work requires knowledge of several overlapping disciplines: color theory (for blending and matching foundation); hygiene (for keeping makeup and brushes sanitary); facial anatomy and bone structure (for contouring and special effects creature design); and chemistry (for safety in knowing which products don’t mix, and when working with special effects molding compounds, glues, and removers). It's not advanced chemistry, but it still takes time and study.

2. MAKEUP SCHOOL IS NOT FOR EVERYONE.

While there are a number of great makeup schools out there, many fantastic makeup artists have been self-taught. The late, revered Kevyn Aucoin is one. So is Robert Garcia, a gender-fluid makeup artist and personal beauty adviser at Sephora. Garcia explains that while he received no formal training, his passion, natural ability, and hours spent experimenting provided the skills to get hired at Sephora and launch a career. “Every makeup artist I know has learned more in the industry than by going to school,” he says.

Still, a good makeup school can give artists a solid foundation and help them over inevitable hurdles. Chelsea Paige, a makeup artist specializing in character design for film, says that her education at the Make-up Designory (MUD) in New York was extremely valuable. But according to her, the first four or five years of most makeup careers are typically difficult in terms of making mistakes, gaining skill, building contacts, and getting jobs, and going to MUD “eliminated about three years of that.”

3. PERSISTENCE IS KEY.

As with many creative professions, it takes a tremendous amount of tenacity for a makeup artist to get to the point where they have regular work coming in and a respectable day rate. Hours can be long—often 14 to 16 hours a day for a makeup artist on a film—and newer artists often have to work multiple side jobs while they establish themselves. Paige says that even though she’s fairly established, she still has to hustle, promote herself, and deal with uncertainty between jobs. According to her, the drawbacks are worth it. “I feel truly grateful that I’ve found something so early in my life that I love,” she says.

4. COMPENSATION VARIES FROM GIG TO GIG.

The amount of money that a makeup artist can expect to make for a job varies widely depending on both the scope and nature of the project and the artist’s experience. When first starting out, artists may do a lot of jobs for low or no pay in order to gain experience (though our interviewees advise only working free gigs that provide valuable knowledge, contacts, or exposure). Blum says she has no set rate, instead making decisions about whether to take a job, and what to charge, on a project-to-project basis: “What one of my mentors taught me is [to ask] ‘what is the job worth to you?’”

As for what type of jobs are the most lucrative, opinions vary. New York-based makeup artist Shelley Van Gage says it’s advertising work, while Garcia says that for him it has been weddings. He says his starting rate for a bride is $400, while for some brides he has made as much as $3000.

5. THEIR MATERIALS DON’T COME CHEAP.

It might not seem like a big deal to pick up a CoverGirl compact at the local drug store, but for a professional makeup artist, stocking a complete makeup kit requires considerable financial outlay. This is particularly true because they have to keep abreast of cosmetic trends: “If you want to be an up-to-date makeup artist you have to update your kit,” Garcia says. “Your client wants to see something new and luxurious. Nobody wants to see old Clinique when they know they can get a high-definition foundation from Make Up Forever.”

But there are ways to be smart about cost when starting out. Garcia says skilled new artists can do glamorous work with less expensive brands of similar quality, and build up to premium brands later on.

6. THEY GET UP-CLOSE AND PERSONAL QUICKLY.

Makeup artists spend their careers in very close proximity to other people’s faces. Unsurprisingly, it helps to be a people person. But even for the most relaxed extrovert, the leap from being a complete stranger to total intimacy can be startling. This is particularly true on film or theatrical productions, where artists may be called upon to apply body makeup to nearly nude actors or to help those encumbered with prosthetic claws or other hindrances eat and drink.

Paige says that in the course of her job she touches people “in the most intimate and invasive ways.” This, oddly enough, can lead to accelerated friendships. “You have someone touching your face for umpteen hours a day for a month and a half,” she says, “and you develop a relationship.”

7. THEY CHANGE LIVES.

Sometimes a makeup artist’s close relationship with a client comes from helping them in a time of need. Garcia says a big motivator for him is helping women feel beautiful during traumatic times. He describes teaching cancer patients to paint in eyebrows or apply eyelashes, and how to care for chemotherapy-damaged skin. Speaking of a particular client with cancer, he says that “with skin care and makeup I was able to change this woman’s skin, change this woman’s life … It’s these women who need us.”

And when it comes to makeup for film and television, Blum says she loves knowing that she is supporting her clients’ passions. By doing a performer’s head shot makeup or creating a character for a director’s film, she says that she might “open the door so that they become famous and live their dream. I get chills because I might be helping someone’s dream come true.”

8. WORKING AT A SHOP CAN BE AN ADVANTAGE.

While many makeup artists work on a freelance basis, some have steadier jobs, like working at a makeup store. Besides the stability, working in a shop provides other benefits: Garcia says Sephora provided a lot of consistent practice that helped him early in his career. The company also keeps its employees up-to-date on trends and techniques.

Blum works at Alcone, one of the oldest professional makeup stores in NYC, and says landing a job there was “like winning the makeup lottery.” She explains that her constant interaction with new products and clients in all areas of makeup means that her knowledge base far exceeds her number of years in the industry.

9. IT’S NOT ALWAYS GLAMOROUS.

Some people dream of becoming a makeup artist as a means of rubbing shoulders with beautiful people. While that may be true in some cases, Paige says people often overestimate the glamor of film makeup: “It’s not an easy job. It’s not doing smoky eyes and putting on eyeliner. It’s a lot of design, it’s a lot of science, and it’s a lot of roughing it in terms of shooting.” Describing the task of maintaining an actor’s makeup throughout a long day, she says: “My day is mostly waiting around for people to sweat, and then I get to collect the sweat in tissues.”

10. WHAT THEY DO IS POWERFUL.

One thing many makeup artists agree on is that their work, whether in daily life or in the media, is often undervalued. Not only does it require a lot of skill, but it also influences how people see themselves and are seen by others. Whether it’s applying concealer to undereye circles or full werewolf makeup to an actor, makeup artistry is about metamorphosis. “Whether you want to look really scary or dead ... or if you just want to be the best version of yourself,” Blum says, “the fact that you can use makeup to do that is really exciting.”

All photos via iStock.

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11 Secrets of Matchmakers
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In an age of dating apps and casual hookups, matchmakers may seem like a relic from another era. But although they've been bringing people together since long before we were swiping right, matchmaking as a profession is still alive and well. We spoke to several matchmakers to get a glimpse at how their job really works, from their sixth sense for making matches to how they deal with picky clients.

1. THEY’RE ALWAYS ON THE CLOCK.

Whether they’re shopping for groceries, waiting in a doctor’s office, or traveling on vacation, matchmakers always have their eyes peeled for ideal partners for their clients. “Being a matchmaker is not a 9 to 5 job,” matchmaker and dating coach Bonnie Winston tells Mental Floss. “24 hours, seven days a week is more like it. My employees go home, but I never close!”

Winston, who often works on weekends and evenings, also gives her clients dating advice before, during, and after dates. “It is not unusual that clients call me with inquiries about what they should wear before certain dates,” she says. “Or, I’ll get calls in whispered hush tones—secretly from bathrooms in dining establishments—to ask me questions on etiquette, or if they can hook up with their date because they have great chemistry,” Winston says.

2. THEY HAVE A SIXTH SENSE.

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Romance is mysterious—no one can predict whether two strangers will meet and fall in love. But successful matchmakers possess a high level of emotional intelligence and intuition that guides them in their work. Winston, who made her first successful match when she was 16 years old, says she just has a natural sense of which people would be good together. “Matchmaking isn’t something that can be bought or taught,” she says. “I will meet someone and just know when they are a good match for one of my clients.”

3. THEY’RE PART THERAPIST/LIFE COACH.

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Matchmakers meet with clients, interview potential matches, dispense dating advice, and attend networking events. But some also perform background checks, administer personality testing, and build psychological profiles of their clients. The best combine a therapist’s listening skills and objective perspective with a life coach’s ability to motivate. Matchmakers may also interview their clients to determine why past relationships have failed, and help them formulate a strategy to achieve their relationship goals.

4. THEY’RE MASTERS AT NETWORKING.

The most successful matchmakers love people. Meeting people, listening and talking to them, and ultimately pairing them together excites and inspires them. In a Reddit AMA, three matchmakers at Three Day Rule explained that successful matchmakers are extroverts, and highly confident when approaching new people. “You really have to be able to walk up to anyone. We go up to people on the street all the time and say ‘Hey, are you single?’ so you have to be ok embarrassing yourself a bit,” they write.

Besides speaking with people they encounter in daily life, matchmakers may also rely on their networks of family and friends. “My mother is one of eight siblings and I have literally dozens of cousins who are well aware that there is a ‘yenta’ in the family. I tap into those resources, too!” Winston says.

5. THEY WISH PEOPLE WOULD BE WARY OF PHONY MATCHMAKERS.

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Although some reputable organizations offer courses and certifications in matchmaking, matchmakers don’t need any formal training to do their job. “Some [of these organizations] are legit, but others are just about the revenue,” says Jamie Rose, the founder and CEO of Rose Matchmaking. Similarly, some matchmaking companies are more about maximizing profit than helping people find love. Scammers who start these matchmaking businesses take advantage of desperate, lonely people looking for love.

So how to tell which businesses are legitimate? Watch for these red flags: matchmakers who won’t meet you in person, companies that have recently changed their name (perhaps to evade detection or create distance from angry former clients), sites that don’t have testimonials (or where the testimonials seem fake), and companies that have many negative user reviews.

6. OVERLY PICKY PEOPLE FRUSTRATE THEM.

Matchmakers get frustrated when clients have unrealistic expectations about love. “There is no such thing as a perfect match, and some people come in thinking that there may be,” Rose explains. Clients may also have emotional blocks that get in the way of finding love. “Some people say they want to get married but they don’t really want to,” Winston says. “They turn down every potential date for a ridiculous amount of petty and inconsequential reasons.”

Jennifer Hayes, the Director of Operations for South Carolina Matchmakers, adds that because bad relationships tend to harden people, matchmakers must encourage clients to keep their hearts and minds open to love. “One of the biggest hurdles we have as a matchmakers is encouraging clients to stay open to the possibilities of finding love,” she tells Mental Floss.

7. SOMETIMES THEY HAVE TO BE BLUNT.

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When a date goes poorly, matchmakers must walk a fine line between being honest and being tactful. “My least favorite part would be telling one client that another client wasn’t interested in them,” Rose says. Although most people don’t enjoy getting rejected and hearing about their off-putting habits, it’s essential that matchmakers be blunt with their clients. By speaking the truth in a kind yet firm way, matchmakers can build a trusting, productive relationship with their clients.

8. DATING APPS CAN MAKE THEIR JOB HARDER …

Dating apps give people a huge number of potential matches at their fingertips, but most apps don't vet matches—and good results are not guaranteed. “[Dating apps] make things so impersonal,” Winston says. “[Users] are deleting really good people forever so easily in seconds with their fingertips. And scratching their heads [about] why they can’t meet anyone.”

In addition, many dating apps are free, while matchmakers charge for their services. Matchmakers say that free apps propagate the view that finding love shouldn't cost anything, and thus threaten matchmakers’ livelihood.

9. … BUT APPS CAN ALSO DRIVE CLIENTS TO THEM.

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While apps may be many people’s initial foray into the dating world, a disappointing experience can lead unsuccessful daters to a matchmaker. “Honestly I think [dating apps] impact [our industry] positively,” Rose says. “People who try those apps or sites see that they are about quantity not quality, and then they research better options and find me.” Winston adds that matchmakers slow down the online dating process. “People who come to me are sick of swiping, scrolling, sexting and texting, getting poked, and being ghosted. They are burnt out,” she says. “I bring back old-fashioned courtship and romance.”

Matchmakers also lend a human element that’s often lacking in online dating. "We know as matchmakers that setting people up requires knowing them to some extent, and knowing people requires time. Unlike online apps we get to know our clients and build relationships with them so we can effectively match them," Hayes says.

10. THEY MAKE CLIENTS LOOK THEIR BEST.

Visuals and first impressions play a huge role in dating, and good matchmakers help their clients improve their image. “You’d be surprised how many people come to me with terrible selfies to find love!” Winston exclaims. Because she owned a fashion photography agency, Winston stays connected to top photographers and hair and make-up artists, and she provides her clients with professional photo shoots. “I want my clients look their best while showing their authentic selves,” she says.

11. THEY LOVE HELPING PEOPLE FIND TRUE LOVE.

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When matchmakers succeed in bringing two people together, they’re ecstatic. “I am joyful when my clients find joy in love. Especially when they immediately 'click'—I feel like I hit it out of the ballpark ... a homerun!” Winston says.

Rose adds that she enjoys changing people’s minds about each other. “I like when two people originally say no to one another, but you remind them of why they came to you. When that match works out you feel really good about it."

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12 Secrets of Roller Coaster Designers
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Back in the early 20th century, engineers attempting to push the limits of roller coaster thrills subjected riders to risky upside-down turns and bloody noses. A century later, coaster designers rely on computer software, physics, and psychology to push the limits of the roughly 4400 rides in operation worldwide. To get a sense of what their job entails, Mental Floss spoke with several roller coaster specialists about everything from testing rides with water-filled dummies to how something as simple as paint can influence a coaster experience. Here’s what we learned.

1. GETTING STRAPPED IN MIGHT BE THE MOST EXCITING PART OF THE RIDE.

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Known as a “thrill engineer,” UK-based Brendan Walker consults with coaster manufacturers and parks on the psychology of riding the rails. In his experience, riders getting secured into their seats are at the peak of their excitement—even more so than during the ride itself. “The moment the lap bar is being locked down and you have that feeling of things being inescapable, that you have to suffer the effects of the ride, is the highest moment of arousal,” Walker says. “The actual ride might only achieve 80 percent of that excitement.”

2. THEY TEST COASTERS WITH WATER-FILLED DUMMIES.

Bill Kitchen, founder of U.S. Thrill Rides, says it can take anywhere from two to five years for a coaster to go from idea to execution. Part of that process is devoted to the logistics of securing patents and permits for local site construction—the rest is extensive safety testing. “We’re subject to ASTM [American Society for Testing Materials] standards,” Kitchen says. “It covers every aspect of coasters. The rides are tested with what we call water dummies, or sometimes sandbags.”

The inanimate patrons allow designers to figure out how a coaster will react to the constant use and rider weight of a highly-trafficked ride. The water dummies—which look a bit like crash test dummies, but filled with water—can be emptied or filled to simulate different weight capacities. Designers also sometimes use the kind of crash-test dummies found in the auto industry to observe any potential issues prior to actual humans climbing aboard.

3. EVERY FOOT OF TRACK COSTS A LOT OF MONEY.

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There is absolutely nothing random about the length of a coaster’s track. In addition to designing a ride based on the topography of a park site, designers take into account exactly how much space they’ll need to terrorize you and not an inch more. When England’s Alton Towers park was preparing to build a ride named TH13TEEN for a 2010 opening, they asked Walker exactly how much of a drop was needed to scare someone in the dark. “It was a practical question,” Walker says. “For every extra foot of steelwork, it would have cost them £30,000 [roughly $40,000].”

4. ROLLERCOASTER TYCOON BROUGHT A LOT OF PEOPLE INTO THE BUSINESS.

The popular PC game, first released in 1999, allowed users to methodically construct their own amusement parks, including the rides. As a proving ground for aspiring engineers and designers, it worked pretty well. Jeff Pike, President of Skyline Attractions, says he’s seen several people grow passionate about the industry as a direct result of the game. “I remember when the game first got popular, I would go to trade shows and there would be kids looking to get into it using screen shots of rides they designed. The game definitely brought a lot of people into the fold.”

5. PAINT MAKES A BIG DIFFERENCE IN SPEED.

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For all of their high-tech design—the software, fabrication, and precise measures of energy—a good coaster ride can often come down to whether it’s got too much paint on it. “The one thing that will slow down a steel coaster is a build-up of paint on the track rails,” Pike says. “It softens where the wheel is rolling and hitting the track, which increases the drag.” A good, worn-in track will have grey or silver streaks where the wheel has worn down the paint, making it move more quickly.

6. A COASTER’S SKYLINE IS KEY.

Brian Morrow, Corporate Vice President for Theme Park Experience at SeaWorld Parks and Entertainment, says that the looming curvature of coasters spotted as guests drive toward and enter the park is very purposeful. “It’s like a movie trailer in that we want you to see some iconic coaster elements, but not the whole thing,” he says. “You approach it with anticipation.”

7. SOME COASTERS ARRIVE AS GIANT MODEL KITS.

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Whether a coaster’s theme or design comes first is largely left up to the end user—the amusement park. But for some rides, manufacturers are able to offer pre-fabricated constructions that designers can treat like the world’s biggest Erector Set. “Sometimes I work on rides that have already been built,” Walker says. “They’re produced by a company and presented almost like a kit with parts, like a model train set. There’s a curve here, a straight bit here, and you can pick your own layout depending on the lay of the land.”

8. WOODEN COASTERS ARE WEATHER-SENSITIVE.

If you’ve ever been on a wooden coaster that seems a little shaky from one trip to the next, check the forecast: It might be because of the weather. Pike says that humidity and other factors can shrink the wood, affecting how bolts fit and leading to a slightly shakier experience. “The structure itself can flex back and forth,” he says. It’s still perfectly safe—it just takes more maintenance to make sure the wood and fasteners are in proper operating condition. A well-cared-for wooden coaster, Pike says, can usually outlast a steel model.

9. THE TIME OF DAY CAN AFFECT THE RIDE EXPERIENCE.

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“A coaster running in the morning could run slower when cooler,” Morrow says. “The wheels are not as warm, the bearings are warming up. That could be different by 2 p.m., with a slicked-up wheel chassis.” Coasters experiencing their first-ever test runs can also be slightly unpredictable, according to Pike. "Those first trial runs [during the testing phase] can be slow because everything is just so tight," he says. "A lot of coasters don't even make it around the track. It's not a failure. It's just super-slow."

10. DESIGNS CAN COME FROM UNUSUAL PLACES—LIKE JAY LENO’S CHIN.

The twisting, undulating tracks of coasters can often be the result of necessity: Pike says that trees, underground piping, and available real estate all inform designers when it comes to placing a ride in a specific park. But when they have more freedom, coasters can sometimes take on the distinctive shape of whatever happens to be around the designers at the time of conception. “We had a giant piece of land in Holland that just had no constraints, and we were sitting around talking," Pike says. “And we started talking about Jay Leno’s chin.” The ride was a “loose” representation of the comedian's jaw, but “it is there.”

11. RIDERS ARE REALLY PERFORMERS.

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For Walker, the best advertising for a coaster is having spectators watch riders de-board after an exhilarating experience. “It’s all about that emotion,” he says. “A spectator basically asks, ‘What’s making them so aroused? What’s giving them such pleasure?’ The line for the ride is the audience. Imagining yourself on the structure becomes a very powerful thing."

12. THE FUTURE IS VERTICAL.

Biggest, fastest, longest—coasters are running out of superlatives. Because rides can only be designed with so many drips, rolls, or G forces, some companies are looking to the sky for their next big idea. Kitchen has been overseeing design of the Polercoaster for years: It’s a sprawling, skyscraper-esque ride that uses electromagnetic propulsion to carry riders upwards instead of across horizontal tracks. “We want to put it in places where land is very expensive, like the Vegas strip,” he says. “You can only do that if it takes up a lot less space.” Kitchen believes it’ll be another two years before ground is broken on the project, which is set to exceed the 456 feet of the current tallest ride, Kinga Ka at Six Flags in New Jersey. “It’ll be the world’s tallest—and hopefully the most fun.”

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