Getty Images
Getty Images

41 Facts About the 41 Kings and Queens Since 1066

Getty Images
Getty Images

Queen Elizabeth II is the great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-granddaughter of William the Conqueror, and she has been related in one way or another to every other king or queen of England (and later of Great Britain, and later still the United Kingdom) since. Ahead of her birthdays (yes, she has two), here is one fact each about all 41 of Britain’s kings and queens since 1066.

1. WILLIAM I

A heckler interrupted the funeral of William I in 1087, shouting from the back of the church that it had been built on his father’s land without his family being compensated. Just when his royal send off couldn’t get any worse, William’s sarcophagus was found to have been built too small to accommodate his body and after an attempt was made to squeeze the body into it—in the words of the English chronicler Orderic Vitalis—“the swollen bowels burst, and an intolerable stench assailed the nostrils of the by-standers and the whole crowd.”

2. WILLIAM II

William II died under questionable circumstances while out hunting in the New Forest in 1100; some have claimed that he was assassinated to secure his younger brother Henry’s claim to the throne. Oddly, he wasn’t the only member of the family to succumb to that fate: William’s elder brother, Richard, also died in a hunting accident in the New Forest around the 1070s, while his nephew, another Richard, died in a hunting accident in the New Forest in 1099.

3. HENRY I

When Henry I died in 1135, his entrails were removed and buried in Rouen in northwest France. The rest of his body was buried in England.

4. STEPHEN

Stephen, son of one of William the Conqueror’s daughters, could credit a bout of diarrhea with saving his life. On November 25, 1120, a vessel called the White Ship was chartered to carry the present king Henry I and much of his family and court (Stephen among them) across the English Channel from France to England. Henry, however, had made other arrangements for himself, leaving the rest of his court to travel on the White Ship as planned. Off the coast of Normandy, the overcrowded ship sank. Of the 300 or so people on board, only one or two survived; among those who died was the king’s only surviving legitimate son, William. Henry I decided to name his daughter Matilda as the successor, but when Henry died she was an unpopular choice, allowing Stephen to claim the throne in a period of civil crisis known as The Anarchy. He had reportedly left the White Ship before it departed due to a sudden bout of diarrhea.

5. HENRY II

Henry II rode his horse so frequently that he was bow-legged.

6. RICHARD I

Richard I was shot through the shoulder with a crossbow outside of Chalus Castle in France in March 1199. The injury was serious, but survivable—but the infection that followed it was not, and he died two weeks later on April 6. As for the shot that brought down the king? It was a lucky shot over the side of the castle from a young boy. It became immortalized as “the lion by the ant was slain.”

7. KING JOHN

King John was reportedly the first British monarch—and perhaps even the first medieval king in Europe—to own what Latin wardrobe records refer to as a “supertunicam domini Regis ad surgendum de nocte,” or a “king’s over-shirt for rising in the night.” In other words, John owned a dressing gown.

8. HENRY III

Henry III was given a polar bear by King Haakon IV of Norway in 1252. He kept it in the Tower of London, and had it taken down to the River Thames each morning to swim and catch fish.

9. EDWARD I

In his campaign against Scotland, Edward I more than earned his nickname “The Hammer of the Scots.” During the Siege of Stirling Castle in 1304, Edward commissioned the construction of a gigantic trebuchet (perhaps the largest in history) that became known as the Warwolf. The sight of the enormous catapult being constructed outside the castle walls was enough to compel those inside to offer an unconditional surrender—but Edward had none of it, and did not accept the surrender until after he had tried the Warwolf out.

10. EDWARD II

In 1313, Edward II enacted a statute forbidding the wearing of armor in Parliament. It remains in force to this day.

11. EDWARD III

Edward III once attended a Christmas fancy dress banquet dressed as a pheasant.

12. RICHARD II

To celebrate the coronation of king Richard II on July 16, 1377, fountains of wine were opened across London.

13. HENRY IV

The first king of the House of Lancaster, Henry IV was the first king since the Norman Conquest to be a native English speaker.

14. HENRY V

Henry V is the shortest-reigning of all eight of England’s King Henrys. He ruled for 9.5 years from March 20, 1413 until his sudden death in France at age 36 on August 31, 1422.

15. HENRY VI

Henry VI was the only child of Henry V, and his father’s unexpected death meant that he became king when he was just 9 months old. He reigned almost 40 years over a 50-year timespan (he was deposed for almost a decade by Edward IV) and supposedly died from “pure melancholy and displeasure” on hearing of the death of his son in 1471 (although many historians suspect he was murdered on Edward IV’s orders). Shortly after, a movement emerged to have Henry canonized as a saint. The many miracles “Saint Henry” are supposed to have been responsible for include saving a drowned boy, curing a man of scrofula, and resurrecting a young girl named Alice Newnett who had died of the plague.

16. EDWARD IV

Edward IV and his House of York took the throne from the opposing House of Lancaster in March 1461, following his victory at the extraordinarily violent Battle of Towton. Fought during a blinding snowstorm on Palm Sunday, Towton is believed to be the biggest and bloodiest battle ever fought on English soil: Somewhere between 50,000 and 60,000 troops were involved, of whom a contemporary account estimated 28,000 were killed. Put another way, the Battle of Towton wiped out 1 percent of the entire population of England at the time. Given such a bloody start to his reign, Edward IV has been credited as being, perhaps unsurprisingly, the first king in English history to appoint a bodyguard.

17. EDWARD V

Edward V is both shortest-lived English monarch post-conquest and the shortest-reigning English king (albeit uncrowned). Although his fate as one of the ill-fated Princes in the Tower is unclear, it has long been (controversially) assumed that he was murdered after just 78 days on throne on the orders of his successor, Richard III. He was just 12 years old at the time.

18. RICHARD III

When the skeleton of Richard III was unearthed in a car park in Leicester in 2012, analysis of his skull showed that he suffered from tooth decay (a result of the king’s rich diet—he drank a bottle of wine every day) and bruxism, better known as teeth grinding.

19. HENRY VII

Henry VII was the first English monarch to have a fully realized portrait stamped onto his coins. Before then, royal monetary portraiture was largely stylized and comprised little more than a crowned head, but a groat (equal to four pence) minted in London sometime around 1507 was embossed with a surprisingly realistic profile portrait of the king.

20. HENRY VIII

In 1520, Henry VIII challenged the king of France, Francis I, to a wrestling match. Henry lost [PDF].

21. EDWARD VI

Despite his youth (he was 9 when he as crowned and 15 when he died), Edward VI is credited with being the first English monarch to charter an exploration of the Arctic. The king was a keen geographer and had learned to read a compass from the Venetian explorer Sebastian Cabot. In 1553, Cabot championed an expedition, led by Sir Hugh Willoughby, to reach China via the Arctic Sea; Willoughby took with him letters signed by Edward VI and addressed to “the Kings, Princes, and other Potentates inhabiting the Northeast partes of the worlde.” Unfortunately, after a harsh storm Willoughby’s ships became encased in ice east of Murmansk and the entire crew perished. But one of the other captains, Richard Chancellor, found himself in Russia, where the letter was delivered to Ivan the Terrible and opened trade between England and Russia.

22. MARY I

After Edward's death in 1553, 16-year-old Lady Jane Grey—the great-granddaughter of Henry VII—ascended the throne. She had been named Edward's successor in a bid to keep Protestant control of England. Despite her youth, she was exceptionally well read and spoke Latin, Hebrew, and Italian. Her "reign" (which historians still debate) lasted just nine days; she was deposed by Mary I—a.k.a. Bloody Mary—on July 19, 1553, and was eventually executed in February 1554. Mary had two female court jesters, one of whom was named Lucretia the Tumbler.

23. ELIZABETH I

Elizabeth I had effigies of foreign dignitaries and other guests to her court made out of gingerbread.

24. JAMES I

James I kept an elephant in St. James’s Park. It was given a gallon of wine to drink every morning during the winter.

25. CHARLES I

Charles I remains the only English monarch ever to be executed. After he was beheaded on January 30, 1649, his head was sewn back onto his body before he was buried.

26. CHARLES II

Charles II wore an enormous pair of high-heeled shoes to his coronation. They can be seen in his official coronation portrait.

27. JAMES II

After the English took over the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam in 1664, they promptly renamed it New York in honor of James, Duke of York—later king James II.

28. WILLIAM III AND MARY II

These two are the only official joint monarchs to have ruled Britain (although some consider Mary I and Phillip II to have also been joint monarchs). William outlived Mary by eight years: she died of smallpox in 1694, while he died of an infection after breaking his collarbone falling from his horse in 1702. Popular legend claims William’s horse had tripped on a molehill.

29. QUEEN ANNE

This monarch's body was so swollen when she died she had to be buried in a square coffin.

30. GEORGE I

Because they contain saltpeter (potassium nitrate) which can be used to make gunpowder, George I allegedly declared all pigeon droppings to be the property of the crown.

31. GEORGE II

The last British monarch to lead his own troops into battle was George II at the battle of Dettingen in 1743.

32. GEORGE III

There’s a myth that on July 4, 1776, George III wrote in his diary, “Nothing of importance happened today.” In fact, he didn’t even keep a diary. He did, however, have blue urine—which has been ascribed to either porphyria or, more recently, to the medication his doctors were giving him.

33. GEORGE IV

In preparation for a meeting the Foreign Secretary, George IV took 100 drops of laudanum.

34. WILLIAM IV

In his youth, the future King William IV served in the Royal Navy and was posted to New York during the American War of Independence. While he was there, George Washington plotted to have him kidnapped. Washington wrote to Colonel Matthias Ogden in March 1782, “The spirit of enterprise so conspicuous in your plan for surprising in their quarters and bringing off the Prince William Henry … merits applause; and you have my authority to make the attempt in any manner, and at such a time, as your judgment may direct.” Needless to say, the plot was never enacted.

35. QUEEN VICTORIA

Queen Victoria was given a musical bustle that played the national anthem whenever she sat down.

36. EDWARD VII

Edward VII had a leather chair fitted with a set of scales to weigh his weekend guests at Sandringham House. He weighed them once when they arrived, and once when they left to ensure that they had eaten well during their stay.

37. GEORGE V

Lord Dawson, royal physician of George V, gave the king a deliberately lethal dose of morphine and cocaine as he lay on his deathbed so that he would die in time to make the following morning’s headlines. Dawson even called his wife in London to tell her to let the editor of The Times know to hold back publication. In his notes, Dawson pointed out “the importance of the death receiving its first announcement in the morning papers, rather than the less appropriate field of the evening journals.”

38. EDWARD VIII

In 2010, a letter written by a steward named Jim Richardson from on board the Nahlin, the steam yacht chartered by Edward VIII, was put up for auction. Writing to his mother during a Mediterranean cruise Edward and Wallis Simpson were taking, Richardson wrote that the king had been “drinking heavily,” and, following an argument with Mrs. Simpson, had spent much of his time doing jigsaws. “When he was quiet,” he wrote, “he [the king] was usually fitting together those picture puzzles they have for children. I don’t know if he ever completed one, I don't think he could stay that long at it.” Mrs. Simpson meanwhile was described as “not good looking,” with “a very big mouth” and “a very high pitched metallic American voice.”

40. GEORGE VI

In 1926, the future king George VI competed in the men’s doubles tournament at Wimbledon.

41. ELIZABETH II

Elizabeth II is the first British monarch to have a televised coronation and a televised Christmas address. She sent her first email from an army base in 1976, and sent the first royal tweet in 2014.

All images courtesy of Getty Images unless noted otherwise 

nextArticle.image_alt|e
iStock
17 Things to Know About René Descartes
iStock
iStock

The French polymath René Descartes (1596-1650) lived after the Renaissance, but he personified that age's interest in mathematics, philosophy, art, and the nature of humanity. He made numerous discoveries and argued for ideas that people continue to grapple with. (His dualist distinction between mind and the brain, for example, continues to be debated by psychologists.) Get to know him better!

1. NOBODY CALLED HIM RENÉ.

Descartes went by a nickname and often introduced himself as “Poitevin” and signed letters as “du Perron.” Sometimes, he went so far to call himself the “Lord of Perron.” That’s because he had inherited a farm from his mother’s family in Poitou, in western France.

2. SCHOOL MADE HIM FEEL DUMBER.

From the age of 11 to 18, Descartes attended one of the best schools in Europe, the Jesuit College of Henry IV in La Flèche, France. In his later work Discourse on the Method, Descartes wrote that, upon leaving school, “I found myself involved in so many doubts and errors, that I was convinced I had advanced no farther in all my attempts at learning, than the discovery at every turn of my own ignorance."

3. HIS DAD WANTED HIM TO BE A LAWYER.

Descartes’s family was chock-full of lawyers, and the budding intellectual was expected to join them. He studied law at the University of Poitiers and even came home with a law degree in 1616. But he never entered the practice. In 1618, a 22-year-old Descartes enlisted as a mercenary in the Dutch States Army instead. There, he would study military engineering and become fascinated with math and physics.

4. HE CHANGED CAREER PATHS THANKS TO A SERIES OF DREAMS.

In 1618, the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Ferdinand II, attempted to impose Catholicism on anybody living within his domain. The result of this policy would be the Thirty Years' War. It would also prompt Descartes, a Catholic, to switch allegiances to a Bavarian army fighting for the Catholic side. But on his travels, he stopped in the town of Ulm. There, on the night of November 10, he had three dreams that convinced him to change his life’s path. “Descartes took from them the message that he should set out to reform all knowledge,” philosopher Gary Hatfield writes in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

5. HE COULD BE EASILY DISTRACTED BY BRIGHT AND SHINY OBJECTS.

In 1628, Descartes moved to the Netherlands and spent nine months doggedly working on a theory of metaphysics. Then he got distracted. In 1629, a number of false suns—called parhelia, or “sun dogs”—were seen near Rome. Descartes put his beloved metaphysics treatise on the back burner and devoted his time to explaining the phenomenon. It was a lucky distraction: It led to his work The World, or Treatise on Light.

6. HE LAID THE GROUNDWORK FOR ANALYTIC GEOMETRY ...

In 1637, Descartes published his groundbreaking Discourse on the Method, where he took the revolutionary step of describing lines through mathematical equations. According to Hatfield, “[Descartes] considered his algebraic techniques to provide a powerful alternative to actual compass-and-ruler constructions when the latter became too intricate.” You might have encountered his system in high school algebra: They’re called Cartesian coordinates.

7. ... AND THE REST OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY.

Everybody knows Descartes for his phrase Cogito, ergo sum (which originally appeared in French as "Je pense, donc je suis"), or "I think, therefore I am." The concept appeared in many of his texts. To understand what it means, some context is helpful: At the time, many philosophers claimed that truth was acquired through sense impressions. Descartes disagreed. He argued that our senses are unreliable. An ill person can hallucinate. An amputee can feel phantom limb pain. People are regularly deceived by their own eyes, dreams, and imaginations. Descartes, however, realized that his argument opened a door for "radical doubt": That is, what was stopping people from doubting the existence of, well, everything? The cogito argument is his remedy: Even if you doubt the existence of everything, you cannot doubt the existence of your own mind—because doubting indicates thinking, and thinking indicates existing. Descartes argued that self-evident truths like this—and not the senses—must be the foundation of philosophical investigations.

8. HE'S THE REASON YOUR MATH TEACHER MAKES YOU CHECK YOUR WORK.

Descartes was obsessed with certainty. In his book Rules for the Direction of the Mind, “he sought to generalize the methods of mathematics so as to provide a route to clear knowledge of everything that human beings can know,” Hatfield writes. His advice included this classic chestnut: To solve a big problem, break it up into small, easy-to-understand parts—and check each step often.

9. HE LIKED TO HIDE.

Descartes had a motto, which he took from Ovid: “Who lives well hidden, lives well.” When he moved to the Netherlands, he regularly changed apartments and deliberately kept his address a secret. Some say it's because he simply desired privacy for his philosophical work, or that he was avoiding his disapproving family. In his book titled Descartes, philosopher A. C. Grayling makes another suggestion: "Descartes was a spy."

10. HE WASN'T AFRAID OF CRITICS. IN FACT, HE RE-PUBLISHED THEM.

When Descartes was revising his Meditations on First Philosophy [PDF], he planned to send the manuscript to “the 20 or 30 most learned theologians” for criticism—a sort of proto-peer review. He collected seven objections and published them in the work. (Descartes, of course, had the last word: He responded to each criticism.)

11. HE COULD THROW SHADE WITH THE BEST OF THEM.

In the 1640s, Descartes’s pupil and friend Henricus Regius published a broadsheet that distorted Descartes’s theory of the mind. (Which, put briefly, posits that the material body and immaterial mind are separate and distinct.) The two men had a falling out, and Descartes wrote a rebuttal with a barbed title that refused to even acknowledge Regius’s manifesto by name: It was simply called “Comments on a Certain Broadsheet.”

12. HE NEVER BELIEVED MONKEYS COULD TALK.

There’s a “fun fact” parading around that suggests Descartes believed monkeys and apes could talk. He believed no such thing. According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Descartes denied that animals were even conscious, let alone capable of speech. The factoid comes from a misreading of a letter Descartes had written in 1646, in which he attributed the belief to “savages.”

13. HE TOTALLY HAD THE HOTS FOR CROSS-EYED WOMEN.

In a letter to Queen Christina of Sweden, Descartes explained that he had a cross-eyed playmate as a child. “I loved a girl of my own age ... who was slightly cross-eyed; by which means, the impression made in my brain when I looked at her wandering eyes was joined so much to that which also occurred when the passion of love moved me, that for a long time afterward, in seeing cross-eyed women, I felt more inclined to love them than others.”

14. WHEN HE MET BLAISE PASCAL, THEY GOT INTO AN ARGUMENT ... ABOUT VACUUMS.

In 1647, a 51-year-old Descartes visited the 24-year-old prodigy and physicist Blaise Pascal. Their meeting quickly devolved into a heated argument over the concept of a vacuum—that is, the idea that air pressure could ever be reduced to zero. (Descartes said it was impossible; Pascal disagreed.) Later, Descartes wrote a letter that, depending on your translation, said that Pascal had “too much vacuum in his head.”

15. HIS WORK WAS BANNED BY THE CATHOLIC CHURCH.

Back in the late 1630s, the theologian Gisbert Voetius had convinced the academic senate of the University of Utrecht to condemn the philosopher’s work. (Descartes was Catholic, but his suggestion that the universe began as a “chaotic soup of particles in motion,” in Hatfield's words, was contrary to orthodox theology.) In the 1660s, his works were placed on the church’s Index of Prohibited Books.

16. HE REGULARLY SLEPT UNTIL NOON (AND TRYING TO BREAK THE HABIT MIGHT HAVE KILLED HIM).

Descartes was not a morning person. He often snoozed 12 hours a night, from midnight until lunchtime. In fact, he worked in bed. (Sleep, he wisely wrote, was a time of “nourishment for the brain.”) But according to the Journal of Historical Neuroscience, he may have had a sleep disorder that helped end his life. A year before his death, Descartes had moved to Stockholm to take a job tutoring Queen Christina, a devoted early-riser who forced Descartes to change his sleep schedule. Some believe the resulting sleep deprivation weakened his immune system and eventually killed him.

17. HIS SKELETON HAS TRAVELED FAR AND WIDE.

Descartes died in Stockholm in 1650 and was buried outside the city. Sixteen years later, his corpse was exhumed and taken to Paris. During the French Revolution, his bones were moved to an Egyptian sarcophagus at the Museum of French Monuments. Decades later, when plans were made to rebury Descartes in an abbey, officials discovered that most of his bones—including his skull—were missing. Shortly after, a Swedish scientist discovered a newspaper advertisement attempting to sell the polymath’s noggin [PDF]. Today, his head is in a collection at the Musée de l’Homme in Paris.

nextArticle.image_alt|e
Jack Taylor, Getty Images
8 Arresting Facts About Scotland Yard
Jack Taylor, Getty Images
Jack Taylor, Getty Images

Depicted in fiction for well over a century as the world's premier police force, Scotland Yard might be the most famous banner for law enforcement in history. Though the name itself is officially a term for the location of the London Metropolitan Police headquarters, it’s taken on a colloquial use to describe the collective brain trust of that station’s patrolmen and detectives. Here’s what we’ve deduced about the past, present, and future of this historic—and sometimes controversial—institution.

1. IT GOT ITS NAME FROM A TRICKY BIT OF GEOGRAPHY.

London didn’t have a formal police force until 1829, when Home Secretary Sir Robert Peel arranged for a squad to replace the fractured system of watchmen, street patrols, and the River Police. Colonel Charles Rowan and Richard Mayne were tasked with organizing the force: Mayne’s house at 4 Whitehall Place opened to an adjacent courtyard that had once been a medieval palace that hosted Scottish royalty while they were in London. This “Great Scotland Yard,” which was also reportedly the name of the street behind the building, became synonymous with Rowan and Mayne’s efforts to create a new era in law enforcement.

2. CHARLES DICKENS TAGGED ALONG ON PATROLS.

Author Charles Dickens poses for a photo
London Stereoscopic Company/Getty Images

The renowned author of Great Expectations and other literary classics wasn’t a policeman, but he did perform the 19th-century equivalent of a ride-along. Dickens was friends with Charles Frederick Field, a Scotland Yard inspector, and their relationship led to Dickens occasionally accompanying patrolmen on their nightly rounds. He even based a character in his novel Bleak House on Fields.

3. THERE WERE DIRTY COPS AMONG THE RANKS IN THOSE EARLY DAYS.

For all of the public acceptance of Scotland Yard—Londoners were initially wary of the plainclothes cops walking among them—the squad suffered a sensational blow to its image in 1877. Known as the “Turf Fraud Scandal” or the “Trial of the Detectives,” the controversy erupted after a Parisian socialite named Madame de Goncourt was conned by two men named Harry Benson and William Kurr. Scotland Yard inspector Nathaniel Druscovich was dispatched to Amsterdam to capture a fleeing Benson while others pursued Kurr. The men proved surprisingly elusive, which prompted suspicion among Scotland Yard officials. When the two con men were finally arrested, they explained that an inspector named John Meiklejohn was taking bribes in exchange for tipping off Kurr to police activity. Two other policemen were implicated; the three each received two years in prison. The high-profile breach led to a reorganization, with the Yard inserting detectives into a new Criminal Investigation Department (CID) to help minimize misconduct.

4. THEY HELPED PIONEER FINGERPRINTING.

A Scotland Yard employee examines fingerprints
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

At one time, the science of fingerprinting was more of a theory than anything that could be put into practice. Most police forces instead relied on anthropometry, a system created by French police officer Alphonse Bertillon, which used 11 body measurements taken by calipers to provide a unique physical identity for an individual. While fingerprinting was beginning to take off in India in the late 1800s, the English-speaking world didn’t adopt the forensic technique of lifting and matching prints until 1901, when Sir Edward Henry, then the assistant commissioner of Scotland Yard, instituted the Metropolitan Police Fingerprint Bureau. In 1902, a billiard ball thief was convicted based on a fingerprint he left on a windowsill. In 1904, a Yard detective demonstrated the efficacy of fingerprinting at the St. Louis World’s Fair, helping spread the new science to American law enforcement officials.

5. THEIR PATROL OFFICERS DIDN’T CARRY GUNS UNTIL 1994.

The uniformed police officers who wander London’s streets with an eye on keeping the peace were unarmed for most of the 20th century. It wasn’t until 1994 that select patrol officers were permitted to carry guns, a policy shift that stemmed from increased assaults on police. The addition of firearms was limited to armed response cars intended to be dispatched to high-risk calls; previously, officers were instructed to keep their weapons in a lockbox inside their vehicles. Today, 90 percent of Metropolitan police officers go on duty without a gun, a policy largely maintained in response to a relatively low number of guns carried by civilians. Less than four in 100 British citizens own a firearm.

6. THEY HAVE A SQUAD OF “SUPER RECOGNIZERS.”

A surveillance camera is posted in London
Leon Neal, AFP/Getty Images

With surveillance cameras dotting London, facial recognition for identifying criminal suspects is in high demand. But no software can outperform Scotland Yard’s team of “super recognizers,” who are recruited for their ability to match a face to a name based on their own memory. These officers are hired by administering a facial recognition test first implemented by Harvard in 2009. Those in the top percentile have an uncanny ability to retain facial feature details and are often dispatched to cull out known criminals like pickpockets at public gatherings. One such specialist, Constable Gary Collins, identified 180 people out of 4000 while examining footage of the 2011 London riots. Software was able to identify exactly one.

7. THEY KEEP A SECRET CRIME MUSEUM HIDDEN FROM THE PUBLIC.

Housed across two floors at the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police in London is the Black Museum, a macabre cavalcade of evidence from nearly 150 years of investigative work. Established in 1875, the collection houses body parts (gallstones that failed to dissolve in acid along with the rest of a murder victim) and seemingly innocuous items that take on sinister connotations: A set of pots and pans that once belonged to Scottish serial killer Dennis Nilsen and were used to boil human flesh. It’s closed to the public, though visiting law enforcement and sometimes celebrities can secure an invite: Laurel and Hardy and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle have toured its inventory. A sample of the collection went on display at the Museum of London in 2015.  

8. YOU COULD LIVE THERE ONE DAY.

The former New Scotland Yard building at 10 Broadway
Jack Taylor, AFP/Getty Images

The Metropolitan Police have changed locations several times over the years. It was situated at its original location of 4 Whitehall Place from 1829 to 1890, then housed in a large Victorian building on the Victoria Embankment from 1890 until 1967. That’s when the operation was moved to a 600,000 square-foot building at 10 Broadway in Westminster: a famous revolving sign announced a New Scotland Yard was taking up residence. In 2014, the building was sold to investors from Abu Dhabi for $580 million: London cited operating expenses and budget cuts as the reasons for the sale. The buyers plan to mount a residential housing project in the spot. Scotland Yard staff moved to a trimmed-down facility at the Curtis Green Building in Westminster and within walking distance of the Houses of Parliament.   

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios