Frank Fo via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0
Frank Fo via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

Tardigrades Produce Glass Shields to Survive Extreme Conditions

Frank Fo via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0
Frank Fo via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

Nothing the tardigrade does could really surprise us at this point. Scientists now say the microscopic critters produce “glass shields” inside their cells to protect vital chemicals from drying out. They published their report on the tardigrades’ latest bizarre talent in the journal Molecular Cell.

Tardigrades, also known adorably as water bears or moss piglets, may be the most extreme organisms on or off this planet. When the going gets tough—whether that’s high heat, freezing cold, extreme dryness, or the vacuum of space—tardigrades dry up and shut down, going into a near-death state called cryptobiosis. Later, when the environment is livable again, they spring back to life like tiny, many-legged Snow Whites. Exactly how they pull this off has remained something of a mystery.

There are other organisms that can survive drying up and rehydrating. Many of them do so by producing a sugar called trehalose, which vitrifies, or turns into glass, inside their cells, creating a protective coating around life-sustaining proteins and other molecules.

But not all tardigrade species can make trehalose—which suggested to scientists that the water bears might produce their own proprietary material to keep their molecules safe.

Researchers pored over the genomes of the commonly studied tardigrade species Hypsibius dujardini and Paramacrobiotus richtersi looking for genes that might let the critters pump out some form of protective gear.

They found a few. Drying out the tardigrades prompted both species to switch on genes associated with weird chemicals called intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). The specific IDPs were, unsurprisingly, unique to tardigrades and haven’t been seen in any other organisms.

If we can figure out how to harness these genes, the authors say, we could solve big problems in keeping both crops and biomedical samples safe in extreme conditions.

[h/t Science]

Martin Wittfooth
The Cat Art Show Is Coming Back to Los Angeles in June
Martin Wittfooth
Martin Wittfooth

After dazzling cat and art lovers alike in 2014 and again in 2016, the Cat Art Show is ready to land in Los Angeles for a third time. The June exhibition, dubbed Cat Art Show 3: The Sequel Returns Again, will feature feline-centric works from such artists as Mark Ryden, Ellen von Unwerth, and Marion Peck.

Like past shows, this one will explore cats through a variety of themes and media. “The enigmatic feline has been a source of artistic inspiration for thousands of years,” the show's creator and curator Susan Michals said in a press release. “One moment they can be a best friend, the next, an antagonist. They are the perfect subject matter, and works of art, all by themselves.”

While some artists have chosen straightforward interpretations of the starring subject, others are using cats as a springboard into topics like gender, politics, and social media. The sculpture, paintings, and photographs on display will be available to purchase, with prices ranging from $300 to $150,000.

Over 9000 visitors are expected to stop into the Think Tank Gallery in Los Angeles during the show's run from June 14 to June 24. Tickets to the show normally cost $5, with a portion of the proceeds benefiting a cat charity, and admission will be free for everyone on Wednesday, June 20. Check out a few of the works below.

Man in Garfield mask holding cat.
Tiffany Sage

Painting of kitten.
Brandi Milne

Art work of cat in tree.
Kathy Taselitz

Painting of white cat.
Rose Freymuth-Frazier

A cat with no eyes.
Rich Hardcastle

Painting of a cat on a stool.
Vanessa Stockard

Sculpture of pink cat.
Scott Hove

Painting of cat.
Yael Hoenig
Tony Karumba, AFP/Getty Images
How a Pregnant Rhino Named Victoria Could Save an Entire Subspecies
Sudan, the last male member of the northern white rhino subspecies, while being shipped to Kenya in 2009
Sudan, the last male member of the northern white rhino subspecies, while being shipped to Kenya in 2009
Tony Karumba, AFP/Getty Images

The last male northern white rhino died at a conservancy in Kenya earlier this year, prompting fears that the subspecies was finally done for after decades of heavy poaching. Scientists say there's still hope, though, and they're banking on a pregnant rhino named Victoria at the San Diego Zoo, according to the Associated Press.

Victoria is actually a southern white rhino, but the two subspecies are related. Only two northern white rhinos survive, but neither of the females in Kenya are able to reproduce. Victoria was successfully impregnated through artificial insemination, and if she successfully carries her calf to term in 16 to 18 months, scientists say she might be able to serve as a surrogate mother and propagate the northern white rhino species.

But how would that work if no male northern rhinos survive? As the AP explains, scientists are working to recreate northern white rhino embryos using genetic technology. The San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research has the frozen cell lines of 12 different northern white rhinos, which can be transformed into stem cells—and ultimately, sperm and eggs. The sperm of the last northern white male rhino, Sudan, was also saved before he died.

Scientists have been monitoring six female southern white rhinos at the San Diego Zoo to see if any emerge as likely candidates for surrogacy. However, it's not easy to artificially inseminate a rhino, and there have been few successful births in the past. There's still a fighting chance, though, and scientists ultimately hope they'll be able to build up a herd of five to 15 northern white rhinos over the next few decades.

[h/t Time Magazine]


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