National Oceanography Center
National Oceanography Center

Boaty McBoatface Is About to Embark on Its First Mission

National Oceanography Center
National Oceanography Center

Boaty McBoatface is shoving off. The Arctic submarine was a bit of a consolation prize to the 124,000 people who voted last year to give the silly moniker to a $300 million polar research ship (which was instead named for David Attenborough), but it has real research value. Mashable reports that the long-range autonomous submarine has launched its first mission, which will explore some of the deepest parts of the ocean.

Boaty McBoatface will sail south from Chile later this week to start collecting data for the Dynamics of the Orkney Passage Outflow (DynOPO) project. The study of the Orkney Passage, located about 500 miles from the Antarctic Peninsula, includes researchers from the UK’s National Oceanography Center and the British Antarctic Survey. They hope to analyze how turbulence in the waters there, two miles under the ocean surface, might affect climate change.

The Antarctic Bottom Water, a mass of dense, cold water at the bottom of the ocean, plays an important part in ocean water circulation, moving cold water from Antarctica around the world. The DynOPO project aims to see how changes in winds near Antarctica might influence that system, and the data collected by Boaty McBoatface can help scientists model the flow of those abyssal waters and their relation to general climate patterns.

[h/t Mashable]

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Blue Water Ventures International
Gold Artifacts Discovered in 19th-Century Shipwreck That Was the ‘Titanic of Its Time’
Blue Water Ventures International
Blue Water Ventures International

On June 14, 1838, the steamship Pulaski was sailing off the coast of North Carolina, headed for Baltimore, when one of its boilers exploded, killing numerous passengers and causing colossal damage to the ship. It sank in less than an hour, taking two-thirds of its passengers with it. In January 2018, divers finally found the wreckage, and their latest expedition has brought back numerous new treasures, according to The Charlotte Observer, including a gold pocket watch that stopped just a few minutes after the boiler reportedly blew up.

The Pulaski disaster, which the Observer refers to as “the Titanic of its time,” was notable not just for its high death toll, but for whom it was carrying when it went down. The luxury steamship’s wealthy passengers included former New York Congressman William Rochester and prominent Savannah banker and businessman Gazaway Bugg Lamar, then one of the richest men in the region. At the time, the North Carolina Standard called the sinking “the most painful catastrophe that has ever occurred upon the American coast.”

An engraving showing the 'Pulaski' exploding
An 1848 illustration of the Pulaski explosion
Charles Ellms, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Divers from Blue Water Ventures International and Endurance Exploration Group (which owns the rights to the site) have located a number of artifacts that support the belief that the wreck they found is, in fact, what’s left of the Pulaski.

While they have yet to find the engraved ship’s bell (the main object used to authenticate a wreck), divers identified a few artifacts engraved with the name Pulaski, as well as numerous coins that were all produced prior to 1838. The 150 gold and silver coins discovered thus far are worth hundreds of thousands of dollars today. They’ve also discovered silverware, keys, thimbles, and the ship's anchor.

A close-up of the gold pocket watch
Blue Water Ventures International

And in their most recent expedition, the divers found a unique gold watch that further supports the claim that this ship is the Pulaski. The hands of the engraved solid gold pocket watch on a gold chain—a piece only the wealthiest of men could afford—are stopped at 11:05, just five minutes after the boiler reportedly exploded.

The excavation of the remains of the ship will hopefully illuminate more of its story. Already, it has changed what we know about the ship’s final night: The wreck was discovered 40 miles off the North Carolina coast, a bit farther than the 30 miles estimated in initial newspaper reports of the disaster.

The investigators hope to eventually find evidence that will allow them to pinpoint why the deadly explosion occurred. While such explosions weren’t rare for steamships at the time, the crew may have pushed the ship beyond its limits in an attempt to reach its destination faster, causing the boiler to burst. Expeditions to the wreckage are ongoing.

[h/t The Charlotte Observer]

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Eater, YouTube
Watch How Ocean Water Gets Turned Into Table-Ready Salt
Eater, YouTube
Eater, YouTube

Turning the sea into edible salt is more time-consuming and laborious than you might think, as this video from Eater's series How to Make It taught us.

Eater's video team and chef Katie Pickens learned all about salt from Amagansett Sea Salt, a company that hand-harvests salt from the coast of Long Island. Pickens and Steve Judelson, her salt guide from Amagansett, collected 100 gallons of ocean water, using buckets to haul it in from the shallows.

Then, they drove it to the Amangansett facilities to filter and dry it. The salty water must be filtered several times to rid it of sediment and other floating objects and organisms you might not want to add to your food. But not all of the algae and plankton in the water get eliminated—some of that stuff actually improves the salt's taste. “That’s where a lot of the flavor comes from,” Judelson says.

Next, the filtered salt water is laid out to dry on long, covered beds in a field. In the summer, it takes about three weeks for the salt to crystalize and be ready to harvest, while in the winter, it might take as long as three months.

Watch the magic in the video below.

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