10 Things You Might Not Know About Daylight Saving Time

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iStock

Most parts of the country will be losing an hour this weekend (or "springing forward," if your glass is half-full) when clocks are reset for Daylight Saving Time. And while this means there will be some appreciated extra sunlight in the evenings, early risers are likely already dreading Sunday morning. Here are 10 things you should know before making the biannual change.

1. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN WAS HALF JOKING WHEN HE SUGGESTED IT.

Portrait of Benjamin Franklin
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More than a century before Daylight Saving Time (DST) was adopted by any major country, Benjamin Franklin proposed a similar concept in a satirical essay. In a piece called "An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost of Light," published in The Journal of Paris in 1784, he argued:

All the difficulty will be in the first two or three days; after which the reformation will be as natural and easy as the present irregularity [...] Oblige a man to rise at four in the morning, and it is more than probable he will go willingly to bed at eight in the evening; and, having had eight hours sleep, he will rise more willingly at four in the morning following.

In one prophetic passage, he pitched the idea as a money-saver (though at the time people would have been conserving candle wax rather than electricity). To enforce the out-there plan, Franklin suggested taxing shutters, rationing candles, banning non-emergency coach travel after dark, and firing cannons at sunrise to rouse late-sleepers. While his essay clearly brought up some practical points, Franklin may have originally written it as an excuse to poke fun at the French for being lazy. He wrote that the amount of sunlight that goes wasted each morning would likely come as a shock to readers who "have never seen any signs of sunshine before noon."

2. OFFICIAL CREDIT FOR THE IDEA GOES TO A BUG COLLECTOR.

Collection of New Zealand moths and butterflies
Collection of New Zealand moths and butterflies by George Vernon Hudson (1898), Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

The first serious case for DST came from a peculiar place. While working at a post office by day, an entomologist named George Vernon Hudson, who did most of his bug hunting at night, soon became frustrated by how early the sun set during the summer months. He reasoned that springing the clocks forward would allow more daylight for bug collecting—along with other evening activities. The clocks could be switched back in the winter when people (and bugs) were less likely to be found outdoors.

When the idea was proposed to a scientific society in New Zealand in 1895 it was panned for being pointless and overly complicated. Just two decades later, Daylight Saving Time would begin its spread across the developed world.

3. WWI PUSHED DAYLIGHT SAVING INTO LAW.

Women coal heavers driving a horse-driven cart loaded with sacks of coal during the First World War.
Women coal heavers driving a horse-driven cart loaded with sacks of coal during the First World War.
Topical Press Agency, Getty Images

In 1916, Germany became the first country to officially adopt Daylight Saving Time. It was born out of an effort to conserve coal during World War I, and Britain, along with many other European nations, was quick to follow the Germans' lead. It wasn't until 1918 that the time change spread to the U.S. A year after entering the war, America began practicing DST as an electricity-saving measure. Most countries, including the U.S., ceased nationwide observation of the switch following wartime. Until, that is …

4. IT GAINED RENEWED POPULARITY DURING THE ENERGY CRISIS.

A telephone operator works by hurricane lamp because of energy crisis restrictions in 1974.
A telephone operator works by hurricane lamp because of energy crisis restrictions in 1974.
Peter King/Fox Photos, Getty Images

Although it was already being practiced in many states, the U.S. reconsidered nationwide DST in the 1970s, when, once again, the argument pivoted back to energy conservation. The oil embargo of 1973 had kicked off a nationwide energy crisis and the government was looking for ways to reduce public consumption. Year-round Daylight Saving Time was imposed in the beginning of 1974 to save energy in the winter months. Not everyone was enthusiastic about the change: Some of the harshest critics were parents suddenly forced to send their children to school before sunrise.

5. IT MAY ACTUALLY BE AN ENERGY WASTER.

Thermostat on a yellow wall
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Despite Daylight Saving Time's origins as an energy saving strategy, research suggests it might actually be hurting the cause. One 2008 study conducted in Indiana found that the statewide implementation of DST two years earlier had boosted overall energy consumption by one percent. While it's true that changing the clocks can save residents money on lighting, the cost of heating and air conditioning tends to go up. That extra hour of daylight is only beneficial when people are willing to go outside to enjoy it.

6. IT'S ALSO A HEALTH HAZARD.

Woman looking tired and unwell in bed
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Even if DST was good for your energy bill, that wouldn't negate the adverse impact it can have on human health. Numerous studies show that the extra hour of sleep we lose by springing ahead can affect us in dangerous ways. An increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and susceptibility to illness have all been linked to the time change.

7. BUT THERE ARE SOME BENEFITS.

Neighborhood at sunset.
iStock

Though people love to complain about it, Daylight Saving Time isn't all bad news. One notable benefit of the change is a decrease in crime. According to one study published in 2015, daily incidents of robbery dropped by seven percent following the start of DST in the spring. This number was heavily skewed by a 27 percent dip in robberies during the well-lit evening hours.

8. IT'S NOT OBSERVED NATIONWIDE.

The moon sets over sandstone formations near Round Rock on the Navajo Indian Reservation, Arizona.
The moon sets over sandstone formations near Round Rock on the Navajo Indian Reservation, Arizona.
David McNew, Getty Images

DST has been widely accepted across the country, but it's still not mandated by federal law. U.S. residents resistant to springing forward and falling back each year might consider moving to Arizona. The state isn't exactly desperate for extra sunlight, so every spring they skip the time jump. This leaves the Navajo Nation, which does observe the change, in a peculiar situation. The reservation is fully located within Arizona, and the smaller Hopi reservation is fully located within the Navajo Nation. The Hopi ignores DST like the rest of Arizona, making the Navajo Nation a Daylight Saving doughnut of sorts, suspended one hour in the future for half the year.

9. IT STARTS AT 2 A.M. FOR A REASON.

The moon and clouds.
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Daylight Saving Time doesn't begin at the stroke of midnight like you might expect it to. Rather, the time change is delayed until most people (hopefully) aren't awake to notice it. By waiting until two in the morning to give or take an hour, the idea is that most workers with early shifts will still be in bed and most bars and restaurants will already be closed.

10. THE CANDY INDUSTRY LOBBIED FOR AN EXTENSION.

Bowl of candy pumpkins.
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Until recently, losing an hour of daylight in the fall presented a problem for the candy industry. That's because Daylight Saving Time traditionally ended on the last Sunday in October, a.k.a. before Halloween night. Intense lobbying to push back the date went on for decades. According to one report, candy lobbyists even went so far as to place tiny candy pumpkins on the seats of everyone in the Senate in 1986. A law extending DST into November finally went into effect in 2007.

The 25 Happiest Cities in America

Carlo Allegri/Getty Images
Carlo Allegri/Getty Images

Even if you love your job, your home, and the people in your life, it's hard to be truly happy if you can't stand where you live. Your geographic location can have a significant bearing of many parts of your life, including your income potential, your health, and the activities you do outside of work. To see which city has the happiest citizens, WalletHub crunched some numbers.

The personal finance site looked at a number of different metrics, with categories including community and environment, income and employment, and emotional and physical well-being, to determine the happiest cities in the U.S. Pulling from published psychology research, WalletHub found that Plano, Texas is the happiest of the 182 cities that were analyzed. It's followed by Irvine, California; Madison, Wisconsin; Fremont, California; and Huntington Beach, California. Cities in sunny California show up frequently on the list, with 14 cities from the state making the top 50.

You can check out the top 25 below, along with an interactive map of all the cities. And if you're not interested in city life, here's a list of America's happiest states.

Source: WalletHub
  1. Plano, Texas

  1. Irvine, California

  1. Madison, Wisconsin

  1. Fremont, California

  1. Huntington Beach, California

  1. Fargo, North Dakota

  1. Grand Prairie, Texas

  1. San Jose, California

  1. Scottsdale, Arizona

  1. San Francisco, California

  1. Bismarck, North Dakota

  1. Overland Park, Kansas

  1. Santa Rosa, California

  1. Austin, Texas

  1. Sioux Falls, South Dakota

  1. Pearl City, Hawaii

  1. Glendale, California

  1. San Diego, California

  1. St. Paul, Minnesota

  1. Charleston, South Carolina

  1. Gilbert, Arizona

  1. Anaheim, California

  1. Raleigh, North Carolina

  1. Cape Coral, Florida

  1. Cedar Rapids, Iowa

10 Clever Moments of TV Foreshadowing You Might Have Missed

Gene Page, AMC
Gene Page, AMC

Spoiler alert! Sometimes TV shows shock their audiences with mind-blowing twists and surprises, but the writers are often clever enough to foreshadow these events with very subtle references. Here are 10 of them.

**Many spoilers ahead.**

1. The Walking Dead

During season five of The Walking Dead, Glenn (Steven Yeun) picks up a baseball bat a few times in the Alexandria Safe-Zone. He was also almost killed by one at Terminus at the beginning of the season. Two seasons later, Negan (Jeffrey Dean Morgan) brutally kills Glenn with his barbed-wire baseball bat (a.k.a. Lucille) during the season seven premiere.

2. Breaking Bad

In Breaking Bad's second season finale, a Boeing 737 crashes over Albuquerque, New Mexico. While the event was hinted at throughout the season during the black-and-white teasers at the beginning of each episode, the titles of certain episodes predicted the crash altogether. The titles “Seven Thirty-Seven,” “Down,” “Over,” and “ABQ” spell out the phrase “737 Down Over ABQ,” which is the airport code for the Albuquerque International Sunport.

3. Game Of Thrones

In “The Mountain and the Viper,” a season 4 episode of Game of Thrones, Petyr "Littlefinger" Baelish (Aidan Gillen) tells his stepson, Robin Arryn (Lino Facioli), “People die at their dinner tables. They die in their beds. They die squatting over their chamber pots. Everybody dies sooner or later. And don’t worry about your death. Worry about your life. Take charge of your life for as long as it lasts.”

Throughout that same season, viewers see King Joffrey Baratheon (Jack Gleeson) die at a dinner table during his wedding and watch Tyrion Lannister (Peter Dinklage) strangle his former lover, Shae (Sibel Kekilli), in bed, before killing his father, Tywin (Charles Dance), while he’s sitting on a toilet.

4. Arrested Development

Throughout seasons 1 and 2 of Arrested Development, there are a number of references that foretell Buster Bluth (Tony Hale) losing his hand. In “Out on a Limb,” Buster is sitting on a bus stop bench with an ad for Army Officers, but the way he’s sitting hides most of the ad, so it reads “Arm Off” instead. Earlier in season 2, Buster says “Wow, I never thought I’d miss a hand so much,” when he sees his long lost hand-shaped chair in his housekeeper’s home.

5. Buffy The Vampire Slayer

In season 4 of Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Willow (Alyson Hannigan) comes out as gay and begins a relationship with Tara (Amber Benson). However, in the episode “Doppelgangland” in season 3, a vampire version of Willow appears after a spell is accidentally cast. After Buffy (Sarah Michelle Gellar) and Angel (David Boreanaz) capture the vampire Willow, the real Willow takes a look at her vampire-self and comments, "That's me as a vampire? I'm so evil and skanky. And I think I'm kinda gay!"

6. Futurama

In the very first episode of Futurama, "Space Pilot 3000," Fry (Billy West) is accidentally frozen and wakes up 1000 years later. Just before he falls into the cryotube, in a blink-and-you'll-miss-it moment, you can see a small shadowy figure under a desk in the Applied Cryogenics office. In the season four episode “The Why of Fry,” it was revealed that Nibbler (Frank Welker) was hiding in the shadows. He planned to freeze Fry in the past, so that he could save the universe in the future. According to co-creator Matt Groening, “What we tried to do is we tried to lay in a lot of little secrets in this episode that would pay off later.”

7. American Horror Story: Coven

American Horror Story: Coven follows a coven of witches in Salem, Massachusetts. When Fiona (Jessica Lange), the leader of the witches, is stricken with cancer, she believes a new witch who can wield the Seven Powers will come and take her place. Fiona then begins to kill every witch she believes will take her place until the new Supreme reveals herself.

During the opening credits of each episode in season 3, Sarah Paulson’s title card appears with the Mexican female deity Santa Muerte (Holy Death), the Lady of the Seven Wonders. And as it turned out, Paulson’s character, Cordelia, became the new Supreme witch at the end of the season.

8. Mad Men

At the end of Mad Men's fifth season, ad agency partner Lane Pryce (Jared Harris) committed suicide by hanging himself in his office. While it was a shock to the audience, the show's writers hinted at his death throughout the entire season.

In the season 5 premiere, Lane jokes "I'll be here for the rest of my life!" while he’s on the telephone in his office. Later, in episode five, Don Draper doodles a noose during a meeting, while Lane wears a scarf around his neck in a bar to support his soccer club. Early in episode 12, Pete Campbell (Vincent Kartheiser) mentions that the agency’s life insurance policy still pays out, even in the event of a suicide.

9. How I Met Your Mother

In How I Met Your Mother's season 6 episode, “Bad News,” Marshall (Jason Segel) and Lily (Alyson Hannigan) are waiting for test results that will tell them whether or not they can have children. While we’re led to believe the title of the episode reflects their test results, it actually refers to the news that Marshall’s father, Marvin Eriksen Sr. (Bill Fagerbakke), had passed away after suffering a heart attack.

Keen-eyed viewers knew this news already because the writers of How I Met Your Mother foreshadowed the death two seasons earlier in the episode “The Fight.” At the beginning of the episode, Marshall said that lightsaber technology is real and will be on the market in about three to five years from now. By the end of the episode, a flash forward reveals what Thanksgiving looks like at the Eriksen family’s home in Minnesota; Marshall’s father is not shown or referenced during the holiday meal.

10. True Detective

During season 1 of True Detective, detectives Rust Cohle and Marty Hart are trying to solve a murder investigation, as they try to identify the mysterious “Yellow King.” The color yellow is used when the detectives are on the right track, but the detectives already met the killer in episode three, "The Locked Room."

When the pair went to the Light of the Way Academy, posted on the school’s sign was a very clever hidden message that read “Notice King,” which pointed to the school's groundskeeper as the killer.

This article has been updated for 2019.

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