Brain Scans Show 4 Different Types of Depression

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Scientists say they’ve found neurological evidence of four different subtypes of depression—a discovery that may someday help doctors select the best treatment for their depressed patients. The research was published in the journal Nature Medicine.

Depression is an exceptionally slippery beast. Unlike ailments located elsewhere in the body, mental illnesses are classified and diagnosed not by concrete physical signs, or biomarkers, but by patients’ behavior. There are a lot of problems with this approach, including the fact that a lot of different illnesses can cause the same symptoms—and that the same illness can cause different symptoms in different people.

What we call “depression” is an experience that likely has many different causes, co-author Conor Liston of Weill Cornell Medical College told Scientific American. “The fact that we lump people together like this has been a big obstacle in understanding the neurobiology of depression.”

Liston and his colleagues analyzed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans from 17 different research sites around the world. They took in scans from 1188 people, about 40 percent of whom had depression, and were able to look closely at an astounding 258 brain regions in each person.

The team had expected to find some differences between the brains of people with depression and without. They found those, but they also found differences within the group of depressed people. Differences in brain activity and connectivity revealed four distinct subtypes among people with depression.

Most excitingly, these brain-activity subtypes matched up with different medical profiles. Patients in subtypes 1 and 2 described feeling more fatigue, while people in subtypes 3 and 4 had trouble feeling pleasure.

The subtypes also responded differently to treatment techniques. People in subtype 1, for example, were more likely to experience relief with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), a non-pharmaceutical method that uses electromagnetic impulses to stimulate a sluggish brain.

More research is needed, but these findings are both heartening and promising, Liston says. Depression “is not just one biological thing.”

[h/t Scientific American]

General Mills Is Recalling More Than 600,000 Pounds of Gold Medal Flour Over E. Coli Risk

jirkaejc/iStock via Getty Images
jirkaejc/iStock via Getty Images

The FDA recently shared news of a 2019 product recall that could impact home bakers. As CNN reports, General Mills is voluntarily recalling 600,000 pounds of its Gold Medal Unbleached All-Purpose Flour due to a possible E. coli contamination.

The decision to pull the flour from shelves was made after a routine test of the 5-pound bags. According to a company statement, "the potential presence of E. coli O26" was found in the sample, and even though no illnesses have been connected to Gold Medal flour, General Mills is recalling it to be safe.

Escherichia coli O26 is a dangerous strain of the E. coli bacterium that's often spread through commercially processed foods. Symptoms include abdominal cramps and diarrhea. Most patients recover within a week, but in people with vulnerable immune systems like young children and seniors, the complications can be deadly.

To avoid the potentially contaminated batch, look for Gold Medal flour bags with a "better if used by" date of September 6, 2020 and the package UPC 016000 196100. All other products sold under the Gold Medal label are safe to consume.

Whether or not the flour in your pantry is affected, the recall is a good reminder that consuming raw flour can be just as harmful as eating raw eggs. So when you're baking cookies, resist having a taste until after they come out of the oven—or indulge in one of the many edible cookie dough products on the market instead.

[h/t CNN]

Doctors at a British Hospital Are Now Prescribing Houseplants for Depression

Halfpoint/iStock via Getty Images
Halfpoint/iStock via Getty Images

You don’t have to take a trip to the countryside to reap the mental health benefits of being around nature—a single plant might just do the trick (as long as you can keep it alive).

Fast Company reports that the Cornbrook Medical Practice in Manchester, England, is one of the first in the country to prescribe houseplants to help treat anxiety and depression. It’s part of a horticultural therapy program led by a local nonprofit called Sow the City, which leads initiatives to foster community gardens in Manchester.

It’s just as much about building a sense of community through gardening as it is about the therapeutic advantages of caring for your own house plants. “There’s evidence that people who are socially isolated have worse health outcomes,” Sow the City director Jon Ross told Fast Company. The organization has also assisted Cornbrook Medical Practice in establishing its own herb garden, which patients are welcome to help maintain. Ross and his team work closely with doctors at different offices to optimize each garden for its particular clientele—sometimes, that means building a small, flora-filled sanctuary that’s just for rest and relaxation.

Other times, it’s a fully-fledged vegetable garden. For a “Hospital Beds” program at another hospital, Sow the City installed raised vegetable beds where long-term mental illness patients can soak in some sunlight, socialize with each other, and take pride in seeing the fruits (and vegetables) of their labors flourish. There’s an added physical health benefit, too: The patients get to eat the produce. “We really don’t have good food in our public hospitals,” Ross said.

Sow the City also makes sure that no green thumbs are necessary to participate in any gardening party. Its members populate the gardens with already-healthy, easy-to-tend plants, and they’ll even train patients on how to care for them.

If you’re thinking a garden might improve your own quality of life—doctor’s orders or not—here are 10 easy-to-grow plants for first-time gardeners.

[h/t Fast Company]

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