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13 Rules Regarding Proper Email Etiquette from Around the World

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Last month, France enacted a new labor law that gives anyone who works at a company with 50 or more employees the "right to disconnect" from their email. That means that employers actually have to actively enact policies discouraging people from sending or responding to messages outside of typical business hours.

While that ruling may sound like a utopian pipe dream to the many Americans for whom work communication infiltrates early mornings, late nights, and even weekends, it wasn’t such a big leap for the French, who have long valued work-life balance.

Generally, email culture varies widely around the world, from the response times you can expect to the phrasing and tone used. So, if you plan to communicate with colleagues, new clients, or sources from other countries, we've rounded up some examples of email etiquette and other quirks to remember to help ensure smooth communication.

1. IN INDIA OR OTHER "HIGH-CONTEXT" CULTURES LIKE JAPAN OR CHINA, PEOPLE ARE LESS LIKELY TO SAY "NO."

You won’t find many direct declines peppering emails from Indians. People will throw out a "maybe" or "yes, but" to imply "no" without actually saying it. This allows both parties to "save face," an important cultural concept where both parties avoid an embarrassment that could come from a refusal. For example, if you ask an India-based colleague to Skype at what would be 7 p.m. their time, they may reply with "yes" but then mention that they will push back their dinner plans as a way to signal that the time isn’t actually convenient—that's your cue to suggest an earlier time.

2. IF AN INDIAN WRITER HAS SOME "DOUBTS," FEAR NOT.

When you send over a suggestion or a business plan and an Indian colleague responds that they have some "doubts" on the issue, they could very well just mean that they have questions. There are Hindi and Tamil words that effectively mean both, so someone may inadvertently write the former, which comes across as much more negative, when they really mean the latter.

3. BE CAREFUL HOW YOU ADDRESS SOMEONE WHO EMAILS FROM CHINA.

In China, people state their names with their surname first, followed by their given name. It would be rude to call someone only by his or her last name, so a Westerner would have to make sure to switch the order before adding a title (Mr., Ms, etc). However, Chinese people will sometimes preemptively use the Western format when emailing Western companies, which would lead to confusion if the recipient tries to swap the names. When in doubt about someone’s name, ask.

4. AND IN CHINA, EVEN BUSINESS EMAILS MAY BE "CUTE."

While many Americans see emoticons as unprofessional, the Chinese generally don’t. Porter Erisman, who worked at the Chinese e-commerce giant Alibaba for many years and wrote the book Alibaba’s World about his experience, says that even senior managers would include "all sorts of cute smiley faces and animations" in their emails. "At first it seemed a little strange to me, but by the time I left the company, even I was peppering my internal emails with little emoticons everywhere," he tells mental_floss. "It got to the point that when new Western colleagues would enter the company, I would encourage them to 'cutify' their emails a little bit to come across more human and friendly."

5. KOREANS TYPICALLY BEGIN AN EMAIL WITH A GENERAL OBSERVATION AS A FORM OF POLITENESS.

An email from a Korean associate might begin with what seems like a completely unrelated message. For example, a Korean-style email might go something like, "Dear Ms. Smith. This is Joe Schmo. The rainy season in Korea is now upon us. I hope you have a good umbrella. I’m contacting you because ... " as one Reddit user explains it.

6. KOREANS WILL ALSO SOMETIMES END AN EMAIL WITH "THE END."

It is routine for a Korean to conclude an email with the equivalent of "the end" without it meaning that communication should stop, according to Steven Bammel, a consultant on Korean business practices. Koreans may also close an email with "work hard" or "suffer a lot," which are as much a standard, conversational closer as "take it easy" might be for an American (but it shows the Korean emphasis on the importance of hard work and competitiveness).

7. GERMANS KEEP IT FORMAL.

In Germany, it's customary to begin emails with a greeting that is equivalent to "Dear Sir / Madam" even within the same office. Other little quirks: Germans start the sentence after their greeting with a lowercase letter and frequently don't use a comma between their sign-offs and signature.

8. YOU SHOULD NEVER ADDRESS A RUSSIAN BY JUST THEIR FIRST NAME UNLESS EXPLICITLY INVITED TO DO SO.

The formality is seen as a necessary sign of respect. You should also expect any business negotiation to move very slowly, particularly because many Russians see compromise as a sign of weakness.

9. THE JAPANESE SKEW APOLOGETIC WHEN MAKING REQUESTS.

If you're asking a Japanese collaborator a question or for a favor, you should make sure to thoroughly acknowledge the effort it will require for them to help you and apologize accordingly. For example, use phrases like, "Sorry to interrupt you while you are busy" or "I'm terribly sorry for the inconvenience, but thank you …"

10. MOST OTHER COUNTRIES WRITE THE DATE IN A WAY THAT WOULD CONFUSE AMERICANS.

In most European and South American countries, as well as Australia and various African and Asian countries, people will use a "day/month/year" format instead of the "month/day/year" format that Americans are used to. While the difference can be easy to spot if someone requests a deadline of "14/4/17," an email referencing "9/4/17" could have you thinking that you have to wait several months for something to be decided or delivered. When in doubt, always clarify!

11. ITALIANS MAY CALL YOU "DOTTORE," REGARDLESS OF WHETHER OR NOT YOU HAVE A MEDICAL DEGREE.

The word "dottore" or "medico" can be used to refer to a doctor in Italian, but the former takes on a different meaning when used in correspondence. Italians will use "Dottore" or "Dottoressa" as a respectful way to address people. "To deserve the title of 'Dottore,' you need only to have a university education—nothing to do with a degree in medicine!" Italian businesswoman Daniela Roggero, who works in global training and HR development, explains to mental_floss.

She also advises that you should be open to including details about your life in an email with Italian colleagues.

"We like to share personal situations, feelings, references to our family and so on even in work communication," Roggero says. “Also we love to start (mostly informal) emails with something funny, like 'You thought I had disappeared but here I am again!' or things like that."

12. PAY ATTENTION TO WHETHER YOU'RE USING ACTIVE OR PASSIVE VOICE WHEN EMAILING ASSOCIATES IN THE PHILIPPINES.

Filipinos will often show respect to someone of an equal or superior business rank by speaking or writing in the passive voice, as in "The rest of the information will be sent tomorrow" versus "I will send you the rest of the information tomorrow." Generally, people only use the active voice when communicating with those of lower rank. You can score points by adhering to the appropriate structure.

13. DO YOUR RESEARCH TO KNOW WHEN TO EXPECT A RESPONSE.

While Americans generally expect a fast turn-around time when communicating through email, other cultures have a much longer acceptable window for responses. Get used to several days or a week between messages when you're operating on Brazilian time, for example.

Similarly, people in most countries don't utilize "out of office" automated responses as much as Americans do, since immediate responses aren't expected. If you're doing a lot of international communicating and set a vacation transponder for the Monday and Friday that you're taking off for a long weekend, you will likely come across as a workaholic.

All images via iStock.

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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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