The fourth moonwalk in human history occurred on February 5, 1971. The Apollo 14 mission was a big one, in part because the disasters suffered by Apollo 13's crew had shaken (and then reaffirmed) public confidence in the space program. Apollo 14 was a do-over of Apollo 13, but with a different crew. Commander Alan Shepard—who had been the first American in space—was on the crew. By 1971, he was the oldest US astronaut to visit space, aged 47.
When Apollo 14 reached the moon, it had trouble landing at the Fra Mauro highlands. The astronauts ran into trouble docking the Kitty Hawk command module with the Antares lunar lander. When that finally worked (after firing the thrusters from each craft to force them together), the Antares lander's radar had trouble calculating distance to the moon upon descent. The glitches were solved just in time to make a landing. When he arrived on the lunar surface, Shepard said, "It's been a long way, but we're here."
The next day, toward the end of the second EVA (extravehicular activity) and history's fifth-ever moonwalk, Shepard proceeded to try something unprecedented: lunar golf. Shepard had smuggled a makeshift six-iron in a sock, along with two golf balls. The club was a little odd, as it was a six-iron head modified by a Houston golf pro to screw onto a rock collecting implement provided by NASA. Shepard was forced to golf one-handed due to his bulky EVA suit. His first shot was awful ("I'm gonna try a little sand-trap shot here...Got more dirt than ball!"), but the second traveled an estimated 200 yards (despite Shepard's excited statement "miles and miles and miles!"). The whole thing happened on live TV, complete with banter from Houston on his first "slice"—here's a clip:
4 Expert Tips on How to Get the Most Out of August's Total Solar Eclipse
BY Nicolas Rivero
August 15, 2017
Richard Bouhet // Getty
As you might have heard, there’s a total solar eclipse crossing the U.S. on August 21. It’s the first total solar eclipse in the country since 1979, and the first coast-to-coast event since June 8, 1918, when eclipse coverage pushed World War I off the front page of national newspapers. Americans are just as excited today: Thousands are hitting the road to stake out prime spots for watching the last cross-country total solar eclipse until 2045. We’ve asked experts for tips on getting the most out of this celestial spectacle.
1. DON’T FRY YOUR EYES—OR BREAK THE BANK
To see the partial phases of the eclipse, you will need eclipse glasses because—surprise!—staring directly at the sun for even a minute or two will permanently damage your retinas. Make sure the glasses you buy meet the ISO 12312-2 safety standards. As eclipse frenzy nears its peak, shady retailers are selling knock-off glasses that will not adequately protect your eyes. The American Astronomical Society keeps a list of reputable vendors, but as a rule, if you can see anything other than the sun through your glasses, they might be bogus. There’s no need to splurge, however: You can order safe paper specs in bulk for as little as 90 cents each. In a pinch, you and your friends can take turns watching the partial phases through a shared pair of glasses. As eclipse chaser and author Kate Russo points out, “you only need to view occasionally—no need to sit and stare with them on the whole time.”
2. DON’T DIY YOUR EYE PROTECTION
There are plenty of urban legends about “alternative” ways to protect your eyes while watching a solar eclipse: smoked glass, CDs, several pairs of sunglasses stacked on top of each other. None works. If you’re feeling crafty, or don’t have a pair of safe eclipse glasses, you can use a pinhole projector to indirectly watch the eclipse. NASA produced a how-to video to walk you through it.
3. GET TO THE PATH OF TOTALITY
Bryan Brewer, who published a guidebook for solar eclipses, tells Mental Floss the difference between seeing a partial solar eclipse and a total solar eclipse is “like the difference between standing right outside the arena and being inside watching the game.”
During totality, observers can take off their glasses and look up at the blocked-out sun—and around at their eerily twilit surroundings. Kate Russo’s advice: Don’t just stare at the sun. “You need to make sure you look above you, and around you as well so you can notice the changes that are happening,” she says. For a brief moment, stars will appear next to the sun and animals will begin their nighttime routines. Once you’ve taken in the scenery, you can use a telescope or a pair of binoculars to get a close look at the tendrils of flame that make up the sun’s corona.
Only a 70-mile-wide band of the country stretching from Oregon to South Carolina will experience the total eclipse. Rooms in the path of totality are reportedly going for as much as $1000 a night, and news outlets across the country have raised the specter of traffic armageddon. But if you can find a ride and a room, you'll be in good shape for witnessing the spectacle.
4. PRESERVE YOUR NIGHT VISION
Your eyes need half an hour to fully adjust to darkness, but the total eclipse will last less than three minutes. If you’ve just been staring at the sun through the partial phases of the eclipse, your view of the corona during totality will be obscured by lousy night vision and annoying green afterimages. Eclipse chaser James McClean—who has trekked from Svalbard to Java to watch the moon blot out the sun—made this rookie mistake during one of his early eclipse sightings in Egypt in 2006. After watching the partial phases, with stray beams of sunlight reflecting into his eyes from the glittering sand and sea, McClean was snowblind throughout the totality.
Now he swears by a new method: blindfolding himself throughout the first phases of the eclipse to maximize his experience of the totality. He says he doesn’t mind “skipping the previews if it means getting a better view of the film.” Afterward, he pops on some eye protection to see the partial phases of the eclipse as the moon pulls away from the sun. If you do blindfold yourself, just remember to set an alarm for the time when the total eclipse begins so you don’t miss its cross-country journey. You'll have to wait 28 years for your next chance.
The inventors of Twitter could never have imagined how their creation would change the world. The social media platform has become the stage upon which some of the most important dramas—and pettiest comedies—of the last few years have played out. And now it'll help beam one lucky person's message into interstellar space, thanks to NASA's #MessageToVoyager contest.
The decades since have seen years of astonishing firsts from the two little probes. Voyager 2 has cruised past and sent back images from Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Just five years ago, Voyager 1 became the first craft to enter interstellar space.
In celebration of the 40th anniversary of the missions, NASA wants to give the people of Earth the opportunity to send a new message. The agency will transmit the single winning tweet into the area of deep space Voyager 1 now occupies.
To participate, compose a message of up to 60 characters. That includes letters, numbers, spaces, and punctuation. Tag your submission with #MessageToVoyager and post it to Twitter by August 15. You can also share it on Instagram, Facebook, Google+, or Tumblr.
Representatives from NASA, JPL, and the Voyager team will narrow down the entries, and then hold a public vote for the winner.
For full contest rules, check out NASA's #MessageToVoyager website.