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"Travels" by John Mandeville, 1459 via Wikimedia // Public Domain

50 Bizarre Passages from Medieval Europe’s Bestselling Travel Book

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"Travels" by John Mandeville, 1459 via Wikimedia // Public Domain

The Travels of Sir John Mandeville was a medieval bestseller. First published in the mid-14th century and translated into at least eight languages, the book was popular for more than four centuries and was closely read by explorers such as Sir Walter Raleigh and Christopher Columbus. Part travel guide, part Christian polemic, part armchair anthropology, the text traces the purported travels of a knight who, for 30 years, explored Europe, the Holy Land, India, Ethiopia, and beyond.

And most of its contents were entirely fabricated.

Travels is ripe with bloated exaggerations (Mount Ararat is seven miles high) and careless assumptions (camels don’t eat much; therefore, they must live off nothing but air). But as Mandeville ventured farther from continental Europe—into the unknown land medieval folks called “The Antipodes”—his account becomes a little, um, weirder.

There are dragons and cyclops, centaurs, and men with the heads of dogs. There are giants and jumbo-snails and dwarves who live off the smell of apples. A skeptical Sir Walter Raleigh eventually called Mandeville the “greatest fabler of the world.” (Which is funny, because in his own travel book, Discovery of Guiana, Raleigh used Mandeville's idea of a race of headless people with faces on their chests.)

Wikimedia // Public Domain

But Raleigh was onto something. Mandeville was a master at lying, both about his travels and his very identity. As editors Tamarah Kohanski and C. David Benson write in a 2007 introduction to Travels, “The general scholarly consensus today is that ‘Sir John Mandeville, knight of St. Albans’ was probably not a knight, not named Mandeville, not English, and perhaps never traveled much at all.” Mandeville was likely just an anonymous writer who cribbed text from dozens of old travel books and mythologies. It took about 600 years for his venerated reputation to crumble into that of an imposter, plagiarist, and fabulist.

It’s hard to know exactly how gullible Mandeville's original readers were (medieval travel books were often suspected of wild exaggeration even then). All we know is that his book—full of what Mandeville called “diverse folks, and of diverse manners and laws, and of diverse shapes of men”—is one of the most whimsical travel books published in English. We read through it and whittled it down to some of the weirdest passages, listed below.

DIVERSE PEOPLE

A sciapod. Image credit: Wikimedia // Public Domain

1. A man with goat legs // Egypt: This monster … had two horns trenchant on his forehead; and he had a body like a man unto the navel, and beneath he had the body like a goat.

2. One-legged people who use their oversized foot as a shade umbrella (a.k.a.: Sciapods) // Ethiopia: In that country be folk that have but one foot, and they go so blyve [quickly] that it is marvel. And the foot is so large, that it shadoweth all the body against the sun.

3. Dwarves who subsist on the aroma of apples // Island Pytan: The folk of that country … be as dwarfs, but not so little as be the Pigmies. These men live by the smell of wild apples. And when they go any far way, they bear the apples with them; for if they had lost the savour of the apples, they should die anon.

4. Mouthless dwarves who eat through straws and speak sign language // An island near Dondun: In another isle there be little folk, as dwarfs. And they be two so much as the pigmies. And they have no mouth; but instead of their mouth they have a little round hole, and when they shall eat or drink, they take through a pipe or a pen or such a thing, and suck it in, for they have no tongue; and therefore they speak not, but they make a manner of hissing as an adder doth, and they make signs one to another as monks do, by the which every of them understandeth other.

5. People with elephantine ears // Another island near Dondun: In another isle be folk that have great ears and long, that hang down to their knees.

Wikimedia // Public domain

6. Stone-faced women with killer looks // An island near the “Vale Perilous”: [There] be full cruel and full evil women of nature. And they have precious stones in their eye[s]. And they be of that kind, that if they behold any man with wrath, they slay him anon with the beholding, as doth the basilisk.

7. Gold-digging pygmies who hate birds // The land of Chan: That river goeth through the land of Pigmies, where that the folk be of little stature, that be but three span long ... These men be the best workers of gold, silver, cotton, silk and of all such things, of any other that be in the world. And they have oftentimes war with the birds of the country that they take and eat.

8. Cannibals who keep it in the family // Isle of Dondun: In that isle be folk of diverse kinds, so that the father eateth the son, the son the father, the husband the wife, and the wife the husband. ... they chop all the body in small pieces, and pray all his friends to come and eat of him that is dead.

9. Horned men who speak pig // A desert in Paradise: In that desert be many wild men, that be hideous to look on; for they be horned, and they speak nought, but they grunt, as pigs.

10. Men with leopard beards // Albany: And the men have thin beards and few hairs, but they be long; but unnethe [with difficulty] hath any man passing fifty hairs in his beard, and one hair sits here, another there, as the beard of a leopard or of a cat.

11. Gentlemen with generously droopy family jewels // Crues, India: But there is so great heat ... [that] men’s ballocks hang down to their knees for the great dissolution of the body. And men of that country, that know the manner, let bind them up, or else might they not live, and anoint them with ointments made therefore, to hold them up.

12. Hermaphrodites // Another island near Dondun: And in another isle be folk that be both man and woman ... And they have but one pap [nipple] on the one side, and on that other none … They get children, when they use the member of man; and they bear children, when they use the member of woman.

13. People with a pancake for a face // Another island near Dondun: And in another isle be folk that have the face all flat, all plain, without nose and without mouth. But they have two small holes, all round, instead of their eyes, and their mouth is plat [flat] also without lips.

14. People who desperately need a shave // Beaumare Isle: The folk be all skinned rough hair, as a rough beast, save only the face and the palm of the hand. These folk go as well under the water of the sea, as they do above the land all dry.

15. A land populated entirely by women // Amazonia: Beside the land of Chaldea is the land of Amazonia, that is the land of Feminye. And in that realm is all women and no man; not, as some men say, that men may not live there, but for because that the women will not suffer no men amongst them to be their sovereigns.

16. People who use their oversized upper lip as a blanket // Another Island near Dondun: And in another isle be folk of foul fashion and shape that have the lip above the mouth so great, that when they sleep in the sun they cover all the face with that lip.

17. Polydactyly people who travel on their knees // Another island near Dondun: And in another isle be folk that go always upon their knees full marvellously. And at every pace that they go, it seemeth that they would fall. And they have in every foot eight toes.

18. Feathered ape-men // Another island near Dondun: And in another isle be folk that go upon their hands and their feet as beasts. And they be all skinned and feathered, and they will leap as lightly into trees, and from tree to tree, as it were squirrels or apes.

19. People with dog heads (a.k.a: Cynocephalus) // Nacumera Isle: All the men and women of that isle have hounds’ heads … And they be full reasonable and of good understanding, save that they worship an ox for their God.

DIVERSE PLACES AND CUSTOMS

20. A free-love proto-communist utopia // Lamary: In that land is full great heat. And the custom there is such, that men and women go all naked. ... And they wed there no wives, for all the women there be common and they forsake no man. ... And also all the land is common; for all that a man holdeth one year, another man hath it another year; and every man taketh what part that him liketh. And also all the goods of the land be common, corns and all other things: for nothing there is kept in close, ne nothing there is under lock, and every man there taketh what he will without any contradiction, and as rich is one man there as is another.

21. Obsessive government transparency // Cathay: And under the emperor’s table sit four clerks that write all that the emperor saith, be it good, be it evil; for all that he saith must be holden, for he may not change his word, ne revoke it.

22. A nation that feasts on chubby children // Lamary: Thither go merchants and bring with them children to sell to them of the country, and they buy them. And if they be fat they eat them anon. And if they be lean they feed them till they be fat, and then they eat them. And they say, that it is the best flesh and the sweetest of all the world.

23. Fashionably oppressive hats for unfashionably oppressive marriages // Cathay: And all those that be married have a counterfeit made like a man’s foot upon their heads, a cubit long, all wrought with great pearls, fine and orient, and above made with peacocks’ feathers and of other shining feathers; and that stands upon their heads like a crest, in token that they be under man’s foot and under subjection of man.

24. A city obscured entirely by darkness // Kingdom of Abchaz: For a province of the country ... is all covered with darkness, without any brightness or light; so that no man may see ne hear, ne no man dare enter into him.

25. Making broth with dirty dishes // Cathay: And when they have eaten, they put their dishes unwashen into the pot or cauldron with remnant of the flesh and of the broth till they will eat again.

26. And animal repellent made of snails // Land of Lomb: They anoint their hands and their feet [with a juice] made of snails and of other things made therefore, of the which the serpents and the venomous beasts hate and dread the savour; and that maketh them flee.

27. Dubious healthcare // Caffolos: Men of that country when their friends be sick they hang them upon trees, and say that it is better that birds, that be angels of God, eat them, than the foul worms of the earth.

28. Even more dubious “friendships”// Caffolos: From that isle men go to another isle, where the folk be of full cursed kind. For they nourish great dogs and teach them to strangle their friends when they be sick.

29. Women who shave // Land of Lomb: And the women drink wine, and men not. And the women shave their beards, and the men not.

STRANGE FRUITS

30. Courage-building lemons // Isle of Silha: They anoint their arms and their thighs and legs with an ointment made of a thing that is clept [called] lemons, that is a manner of fruit like small pease; and then have they no dread of no cockodrills [crocodiles], ne of none other venomous vermin.

31. An ocean made entirely out of gravel // The land of Prester John: For in his country is the sea that men clepe [call] the Gravelly Sea, that is all gravel and sand, without any drop of water, and it ebbeth and floweth in great waves as other seas do.

32. Age-enhancing trees // A desert near the Isle of Beaumare: And men say that the folk that keep those trees, and eat of the fruit and of the balm that groweth there, live well four hundred year or five hundred year, by virtue of the fruit and of the balm

33. Oversized grapes // Caldilhe: And there be vines that bear so great grapes, that a strong man should have enough to do for to bear one cluster with all the grapes.

Wikimedia // Public Domain

34. Wooly trees // Bacharia: In that land be trees that bear wool, as though it were of sheep, whereof men make clothes and all things that may be made of wool.

35. Fruits full of hot surprises // Arabia: And there beside grow trees that bear full fair apples, and fair of colour to behold; but whoso breaketh them or cutteth them in two, he shall find within them coals and cinders.

36. Like, a lot of surprises // Land of Cathay: And there groweth a manner of fruit ... And when they be ripe, men cut them a-two, and men find within a little beast, in flesh, in bone, and blood, as though it were a little lamb without wool. And men eat both the fruit and the beast. And that is a great marvel.

FANTASTIC BEASTS

A dragon from a 15th century edition of the Travels. Image credit: British Library via Europeana // Public Domain

37. Sushi-loving cyclops // An island near Dondun: In one of these isles be folk of great stature, as giants. And they be hideous for to look upon. And they have but one eye, and that is in the middle of the front. And they eat nothing but raw flesh and raw fish.

38. Man-eating giants // Vale Perilous: After this ... is a great isle, where the folk be great giants of twenty-eight foot long, or of thirty foot long. … And they eat more gladly man’s flesh than any other flesh.

39. Even taller man-eating giants // Beyond Vale Perilous: In an isle beyond that were giants of greater stature, some of forty-five foot, or of fifty foot long, and, as some men say, some of fifty cubits long. … And men have seen, many times, those giants take men in the sea out of their ships, and brought them to land, two in one hand and two in another, eating them going, all raw and all quick.

40. 60-foot-long crocodiles // Silha Island: In that land is full much waste, for it is full of serpents, of dragons and of cockodrills [crocodiles], that no man dare dwell there. These cockodrills be serpents, yellow and rayed above, and have four feet and short thighs, and great nails as claws or talons. And there be some that have five fathoms in length, and some of six and of eight and of ten. [A fathom is six feet.]

41. Two-headed geese // Silha Island: In that country and others thereabout there be wild geese that have two heads.

42. Chickens covered in wool // Mancy, India: In that country be white hens without feathers, but they bear white wool as sheep do here.

43. Centaurs // Another island near Dondun: And in another isle be folk that have horses’ feet. And they be strong and mighty, and swift runners; for they take wild beasts with running, and eat them.

44. Serpents that sniff out illegitimate children // Sicily: And in Sicily there is a manner of serpent, by the which men assay and prove, whether their children be bastards or no, or of lawful marriage: for if they be born in right marriage, the serpents go about them, and do them no harm, and if they be born in avoutry [adultery], the serpents bite them and envenom them.

45. Pungent panther skins that can blind a man // Inside a palace in the city of Caydon: And all the walls be covered within of red skins of beasts that men clepe [called] panthers, that be fair beasts and well smelling; … Those skins be as red as blood, and they shine so bright against the sun, that unnethe [hardly] no man may behold them.

46. Dragons // Beirut: From thence men come by a city that is called Beyrout, where Saint George slew the dragon; and it is a good town, and a fair castle therein…

47. A camel-chameleon hybrid // Arabia: And there be also in that country many camles; that is a little beast as a goat, that is wild, and he liveth by the air and eateth nought, ne drinketh nought, at no time. And he changeth his colour often-time, for men see him often sithes [many times], now in one colour and now in another colour; and he may change him into all manner colours that him list, save only into red and white.

48. Jumbo sheep // The Perilous Valley: And among those giants be sheep as great as oxen here, and they bear great wool and rough. Of the sheep I have seen many times.

49. Gigantic snails // Calonak: There be also in that country a kind of snails that be so great, that many persons may lodge them in their shells, as men would do in a little house.

50. Whatever this terrifying thing is // Arabia: There be also many other beasts, full wicked and cruel, that be not mickle [much] more than a bear, and they have the head like a boar, and they have six feet, and on every foot two large claws, trenchant; and the body is like a bear, and the tail as a lion.

You can read all of The Travels of Sir John Mandeville here.

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Ernest Hemingway’s Guide to Life, In 20 Quotes
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Central Press/Getty Images

Though he made his living as a writer, Ernest Hemingway was just as famous for his lust for adventure. Whether he was running with the bulls in Pamplona, fishing for marlin in Bimini, throwing back rum cocktails in Havana, or hanging out with his six-toed cats in Key West, the Nobel and Pulitzer Prize-winning author never did anything halfway. And he used his adventures as fodder for the unparalleled collection of novels, short stories, and nonfiction books he left behind, The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms, Death in the Afternoon, For Whom the Bell Tolls, and The Old Man and the Sea among them.

On what would be his 118th birthday—he was born in Oak Park, Illinois on July 21, 1899—here are 20 memorable quotes that offer a keen perspective into Hemingway’s way of life.

ON THE IMPORTANCE OF LISTENING

"I like to listen. I have learned a great deal from listening carefully. Most people never listen."

ON TRUST

"The best way to find out if you can trust somebody is to trust them."

ON DECIDING WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT

"I never had to choose a subject—my subject rather chose me."

ON TRAVEL

"Never go on trips with anyone you do not love."

Ernest Hemingway Photograph Collection, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston. [1], Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTELLIGENCE AND HAPPINESS

"Happiness in intelligent people is the rarest thing I know."

ON TRUTH

"There's no one thing that is true. They're all true."

ON THE DOWNSIDE OF PEOPLE

"The only thing that could spoil a day was people. People were always the limiters of happiness, except for the very few that were as good as spring itself."

ON SUFFERING FOR YOUR ART

"There is nothing to writing. All you do is sit down at a typewriter and bleed."

ON TAKING ACTION

"Never mistake motion for action."

ON GETTING WORDS OUT

"I wake up in the morning and my mind starts making sentences, and I have to get rid of them fast—talk them or write them down."

Photograph by Mary Hemingway, in the Ernest Hemingway Photograph Collection, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston., Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

ON THE BENEFITS OF SLEEP

"I love sleep. My life has the tendency to fall apart when I'm awake, you know?"

ON FINDING STRENGTH 

"The world breaks everyone, and afterward, some are strong at the broken places."

ON THE TRUE NATURE OF WICKEDNESS

"All things truly wicked start from innocence."

ON WRITING WHAT YOU KNOW

"If a writer knows enough about what he is writing about, he may omit things that he knows. The dignity of movement of an iceberg is due to only one ninth of it being above water."

ON THE DEFINITION OF COURAGE

"Courage is grace under pressure."

ON THE PAINFULNESS OF BEING FUNNY

"A man's got to take a lot of punishment to write a really funny book."

By Ernest Hemingway Photograph Collection, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston. - JFK Library, Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

ON KEEPING PROMISES

"Always do sober what you said you'd do drunk. That will teach you to keep your mouth shut."

ON GOOD VS. EVIL

"About morals, I know only that what is moral is what you feel good after and what is immoral is what you feel bad after."

ON REACHING FOR THE UNATTAINABLE

"For a true writer, each book should be a new beginning where he tries again for something that is beyond attainment. He should always try for something that has never been done or that others have tried and failed. Then sometimes, with great luck, he will succeed."

ON HAPPY ENDINGS

"There is no lonelier man in death, except the suicide, than that man who has lived many years with a good wife and then outlived her. If two people love each other there can be no happy end to it."

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12 Fantastic Facts About A Wrinkle in Time
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istock (blank book) / Taeeun Yoo (cover art)

Madeleine L’Engle’s acclaimed science fantasy novel A Wrinkle in Time has been delighting readers since its 1962 release. Whether you’ve never had the chance to read this timeless tale or haven’t picked it up in a while, here are some facts that are sure to get you in the mood for a literary journey through the universe—not to mention its upcoming big-screen adaptation.

1. THE AUTHOR’S PERSISTENCE PAID OFF.

She’s a revered writer today, but Madeleine L’Engle’s early literary career was rocky. She nearly gave up on writing on her 40th birthday. L’Engle stuck with it, though, and on a 10-week cross-country camping trip she found herself inspired to begin writing A Wrinkle in Time.

2. EINSTEIN SPARKED L'ENGLE'S INTEREST IN QUANTUM PHYSICS AND TESSERACTS.

L’Engle was never a strong math student, but as an adult she found herself drawn to concepts of cosmology and non-linear time after picking up a book about Albert Einstein. L’Engle adamantly believed that any theory of writing is also a theory of cosmology because “one cannot discuss structure in writing without discussing structure in all life." The idea that religion, science, and magic are different aspects of a single reality and should not be thought of as conflicting is a recurring theme in her work.

3. L’ENGLE BASED THE PROTAGONIST ON HERSELF.

L’Engle often compared her young heroine, Meg Murry, to her childhood self—gangly, awkward, and a poor student. Like many young girls, both Meg and L’Engle were dissatisfied with their looks and felt their appearances were homely, unkempt, and in a constant state of disarray.

4. IT WAS REJECTED BY MORE THAN TWO DOZEN PUBLISHERS.

L’Engle weathered 26 rejections before Farrar, Straus & Giroux finally took a chance on A Wrinkle in Time. Many publishers were nervous about acquiring the novel because it was too difficult to categorize. Was it written for children or adults? Was the genre science fiction or fantasy?

5. L’ENGLE DIDN'T KNOW HOW TO CATEGORIZE THE BOOK, EITHER.

To compound publishers’ worries, L’Engle famously rejected these arbitrary categories and insisted that her writing was for anyone, regardless of age. She believed that children could often understand concepts that would baffle adults, due to their childlike ability to use their imaginations with the unknown.

6. MEG MURRY WAS ONE OF SCIENCE FICTION'S FIRST GREAT FEMALE PROTAGONISTS ...

… and that scared publishers even more. L’Engle believed that the relatively uncommon choice of a young heroine contributed to her struggles getting the book in stores since men and boys dominated science fiction.

Nevertheless, the author stood by her heroine and consistently promoted acceptance of one’s unique traits and personality. When A Wrinkle in Time won the 1963 Newbury Award, L’Engle used her acceptance speech to decry forces working for the standardization of mankind, or, as she so eloquently put it, “making muffins of us, muffins like every other muffin in the muffin tin.” L’Engle’s commitment to individualism contributed to the very future of science fiction. Without her we may never have met The Hunger Games’s Katniss Everdeen or Divergent’s Tris Prior.

7. THE MURKY GENRE HELPED MAKE THE BOOK A SUCCESS.

Once A Wrinkle in Time hit bookstores, its slippery categorization stopped being a drawback. The book was smart enough for adults without losing sight of the storytelling elements kids love. A glowing 1963 review in The Milwaukee Sentinel captured this sentiment: “A sort of space age Alice in Wonderland, Miss L’Engle’s book combines a warm story of family life with science fiction and a most convincing case for nonconformity. Adults who still enjoy Alice will find it delightful reading along with their youngsters.”

8. THE BOOK IS ACTUALLY THE FIRST OF A SERIES.

Although the other four novels are not as well known as A Wrinkle in Time, the “Time Quintet” is a favorite of science fiction fans. The series, written over a period of nearly 30 years, follows the Murry family’s continuing battle over evil forces.

9. IT IS ONE OF THE MOST FREQUENTLY BANNED BOOKS OF ALL TIME.

Oddly enough, A Wrinkle in Time has been accused of being both too religious and anti-Christian. L’Engle’s particular brand of liberal Christianity was deeply rooted in universal salvation, a view that some critics have claimed “denigrates organized Christianity and promotes an occultic world view.” There have also been objections to the use of Jesus Christ’s name alongside figures like Buddha, Shakespeare, and Gandhi. Detractors feel that grouping these names together trivializes Christ’s divine nature.

10. L’ENGLE LEARNED TO SEE THE UPSIDE OF THIS CONTROVERSY.

The author revealed how she felt about all this sniping in a 2001 interview with The New York Times. She brushed it aside, saying, “It seems people are willing to damn the book without reading it. Nonsense about witchcraft and fantasy. First I felt horror, then anger, and finally I said, 'Ah, the hell with it.' It's great publicity, really.''

11. THE SCIENCE FICTION HAS INSPIRED SCIENCE FACTS.

American astronaut Janice Voss once told L’Engle that A Wrinkle in Time inspired her career path. When Voss asked if she could bring a copy of the novel into space, L’Engle jokingly asked why she couldn’t go, too.

Inspiring astronauts wasn’t L’Engle’s only out-of-this-world achievement. In 2013 the International Astronomical Union (IAU) honored the writer’s memory by naming a crater on Mercury’s south pole “L’Engle.”

12. A STAR-STUDDED MOVIE ADAPTATION WILL HIT THEATERS IN 2018.

Although L’Engle was famously skeptical of film adaptations of the novel, Oscar-nominated filmmaker Ava DuVernay (13th; Selma) is bringing a star-filled version of the book to the big screen next year. Oprah Winfrey, Reese Witherspoon, Chris Pine, Mindy Kaling, and Zach Galifianakis are among the film's stars. It's due in theaters on March 9, 2018.

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