8 Ways Domestic Cats Are a Serious Threat to Nature

Who doesn’t love a Grumpy Cat video or sneezing kittens? But offline, domestic cats represent a threat to the natural world—and a much more serious one than you might think. Here’s a look at some of the environmental risks cats pose that might encourage you to keep Kitty inside.


Thanks to their isolation, islands generally boast high levels of biodiversity and endemic species found nowhere else. Island species evolve based on a very specific set of circumstances; on islands without large predators, for example, some birds lose the ability to fly because they simply don’t need it. This makes the cat problem particularly acute on islands, where free-ranging cats have caused or contributed to 33 of the modern bird, mammal, and reptile extinctions recorded by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List.


Felines down under have become a major pain: A recent study in Biological Conservation finds that feral cats roam 99.8 percent of Australia. This means that at any given time, there are somewhere between 2.1 to 6.3 million cats ranging around the continent, ignoring any and all posted signs about environmentally protected areas. Since Australia is the only continent other than Antarctica where wildlife evolved without wild cat species, its wild creatures are particularly vulnerable. John Woinarski of Charles Darwin University, the deputy director of the National Environmental Science Programme’s Threatened Species Recovery Hub and the study’s co-author, tells mental_floss, “Australia has the worst record of extinctions of native mammal species over the last two centuries.” Approximately 30 species have gone extinct. “Introduced cats were a significant factor in most of these extinctions, and feral cats continue to be one of the most serious threats to many of Australia’s threatened animal species,” he says.

In fact, some of Australia’s endangered species survive only within specialized cat-proof exclosures or on cat-free islands. According to a 2012 government plan, species at risk include the endangered woylie, night parrot, bridled nail-tail and black-footed rock wallabys, and the vulnerable greater bilby. To combat the feline threat, the country’s Threatened Species Commission recently launched an ambitious plan to cull feral cats using baits, traps, and even trained cat-finding dogs.


New Zealand has a number of rare endemic species, including the iconic flightless kiwi. The island also has an estimated 2.5 million feral cats. It’s a problematic equation. Cats have already contributed to the extinction of nine native bird species and have affected 33 endangered bird species. The National Cat Management Strategy Group (NCMSG), which includes the Royal New Zealand Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Local Government New Zealand and the Morgan Foundation, set a goal of eliminating feral cats by 2025. Government officials have been quick to point out that no one is limiting cat ownership and the former Prime Minister, John Key, has a pet cat.

 "We all agree on what we are trying to achieve,” Geoff Simmons, spokesperson for Morgan Foundation, an NCMSG partner, told Radio New Zealand, “which is making sure all cats are loved pets and are looked after well, and that we minimize the stray and feral population and ensure that the cats that we do own have the least possible impact on our environment."

The government also plans to eliminate all invasive vertebrate predators, including rats and brushtail possums, by 2050. Worldwide, more than 1,000 islands have been cleared of invasive species, including more than 100 around New Zealand. But the largest island ever successfully cleared, Australia’s Macquarie Island, is only about 49 square miles; in contrast, New Zealand is 103,483 square miles. To accomplish this daunting task, the government will turn to new methods, including drones and genetic biocontrol.


In the United States, an estimated 60 to 100 million cats range free, and the number of domestic cats has tripled during the past 40 years. Scientists from the Smithsonian Institution and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service estimate that domesticated cats—both free-roaming pets and feral—kill as many as 4 billion birds and 22 billion small mammals in the U.S. each year. This makes them “likely the single greatest source of anthropogenic mortality for U.S. birds and mammals,” according to the Smithsonian. While controlling feral cats poses a daunting problem, simply keeping pet cats indoors at least reduces the slaughter. The Humane Society of the United States has developed tips to help indoor cats stay happy, and suggest that you always neuter even indoor animals, because…


Female cats can reproduce as young as four months old, and on average have two to three litters per year of four to six kittens each. One cat can produce as many as 100 kittens in her lifetime, and one pair of cats and their kittens can account for 420,000+ kittens in just seven years (it’s an exponential thing).


Peter Marra, director of the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center and co-author of Cat Wars: The Devastating Consequences of a Cuddly Killer, tells mental_floss that cats are known to carry plague, rabies, and the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. All are zoonotic diseases, carried by animals and capable of jumping to people. Toxoplasma gondii only reproduces in cats, Marra said, producing virtually indestructible oocysts—cysts containing a zygote formed from an egg and sperm. “They persist for years, in frozen soil, in saltwater environments. In the U.S., about 20 percent of the human population is infected, and globally, about a third of the population.” There is no cure.

While most infected people seem to have no symptoms, recent research links the parasite with behavioral changes, including depression and bipolar disorder, Marra reports. For example, one recent study showed infection causes disruption of a major neurotransmitter in the brain. Infections in pregnant women can cause death or serious health issues in the fetus; the parasite damages the eyes of some 3000 infants in the U.S. each year. Toxoplasmosis can cause fever, fatigue, headaches, blindness, and, in people with compromised immune systems, death. Like a ticking time bomb, the parasite can hide in brain tissue, putting an infected person at risk if the immune system later becomes compromised.

Toxoplasmosis also affects wildlife, representing a serious threat to highly endangered Hawaiian monk seals and to sea otters.


Despite the evidence lined up against cats, pet owners have a hard time accepting that their felines may causing problems. In the UK, which has more than 10 million domestic cats, a recent study found that cat owners did not recognize the risk their pets pose to wildlife. “Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats' impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information,” the study’s authors concluded.

Solving the problem of cat predation on wildlife obviously will require cooperation of pet owners. So it’s important to note: While one individual cat’s predation may not be an issue, the sheer number of cats equals a big problem. This is especially true since predation by cats is often not a normal ecosystem interaction (in other words, domestic cats are not part of a healthy natural ecosystem).


In Cat Wars, Marra tells the story of Stephens Island, off the south island of New Zealand, where cats drove an endemic, flightless wren to extinction in—wait for it—roughly one year. A lighthouse keeper named David Lyall arrived on the island in January 1894. A pregnant female cat arrived about the same time, likely the island’s first feline. An amateur ornithologist, Lyall studied the dead birds that this free-roaming cat brought to the lighthouse. Based on his prepared specimens, noted ornithologist Walter Rothschild described a new species, the Stephens Island Wren. Unfortunately, by that time the bird had disappeared. Subsequent lighthouse keepers began killing feral cats and had the island once again cat-free by 1925—but it was too late for the endemic wren. 

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Big Questions
Why Can't Dogs Eat Chocolate?
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Even if you don’t have a dog, you probably know that they can’t eat chocolate; it’s one of the most well-known toxic substances for canines (and felines, for that matter). But just what is it about chocolate that is so toxic to dogs? Why can't dogs eat chocolate when we eat it all the time without incident?

It comes down to theobromine, a chemical in chocolate that humans can metabolize easily, but dogs cannot. “They just can’t break it down as fast as humans and so therefore, when they consume it, it can cause illness,” Mike Topper, president of the American Veterinary Medical Association, tells Mental Floss.

The toxic effects of this slow metabolization can range from a mild upset stomach to seizures, heart failure, and even death. If your dog does eat chocolate, they may get thirsty, have diarrhea, and become hyperactive and shaky. If things get really bad, that hyperactivity could turn into seizures, and they could develop an arrhythmia and have a heart attack.

While cats are even more sensitive to theobromine, they’re less likely to eat chocolate in the first place. They’re much more picky eaters, and some research has found that they can’t taste sweetness. Dogs, on the other hand, are much more likely to sit at your feet with those big, mournful eyes begging for a taste of whatever you're eating, including chocolate. (They've also been known to just swipe it off the counter when you’re not looking.)

If your dog gets a hold of your favorite candy bar, it’s best to get them to the vet within two hours. The theobromine is metabolized slowly, “therefore, if we can get it out of the stomach there will be less there to metabolize,” Topper says. Your vet might be able to induce vomiting and give your dog activated charcoal to block the absorption of the theobromine. Intravenous fluids can also help flush it out of your dog’s system before it becomes lethal.

The toxicity varies based on what kind of chocolate it is (milk chocolate has a lower dose of theobromine than dark chocolate, and baking chocolate has an especially concentrated dose), the size of your dog, and whether or not the dog has preexisting health problems, like kidney or heart issues. While any dog is going to get sick, a small, old, or unhealthy dog won't be able to handle the toxic effects as well as a large, young, healthy dog could. “A Great Dane who eats two Hershey’s kisses may not have the same [reaction] that a miniature Chihuahua that eats four Hershey’s kisses has,” Topper explains. The former might only get diarrhea, while the latter probably needs veterinary attention.

Even if you have a big dog, you shouldn’t just play it by ear, though. PetMD has a handy calculator to see just what risk levels your dog faces if he or she eats chocolate, based on the dog’s size and the amount eaten. But if your dog has already ingested chocolate, petMD shouldn’t be your go-to source. Call your vet's office, where they are already familiar with your dog’s size, age, and condition. They can give you the best advice on how toxic the dose might be and how urgent the situation is.

So if your dog eats chocolate, you’re better off paying a few hundred dollars at the vet to make your dog puke than waiting until it’s too late.

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7 Fun Facts for World Elephant Day
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Happy World Elephant Day! Celebrate the occasion with some facts about everyone's favorite gentle giant. 



The University of Sussex's Karen McComb told National Geographic that elephants "become excited and agitated if they come across a dead elephant," and, in particular, will investigate skulls and tusks. McComb teamed up with researchers at the Amboseli Elephant Research Project in Kenya to study the behavior, showing wild elephants a range of objects that included skulls. They found that the elephants examined skulls—and tusks in particular—of their own kind twice as long as other skulls, and examined tusks six times as long as they did pieces of wood. They were even able to recognize elephant skulls with the tusks removed, but didn't show preference for certain elephant skulls over others, which suggests they didn't know which skulls belonged to their own relatives. "Animals that are intensely social in life may be most likely to display an interest in their dead," McComb told National Geographic. "But what goes on in their minds while they are doing this is a total mystery."



Forget about mice scaring off elephants: When farmers need to keep elephants away from their crops, they should use bees. Researchers in Kenya discovered that even the recorded sound of buzzing bees was enough to make elephants retreat—and cause them to emit low-frequency sound, inaudible to humans, that warns other elephants. "It's impossible to cover Africa in electric fences," Lucy King, author of the paper, told the Huffington Post. "The infrastructure doesn't exist in many places and it would restrict animals' movement." But something like a bee fence—hives strung on strong wires a certain distance apart that would move when elephants walked into them, disturbing the hives—"could be a better way to direct elephants away from farmers' crops," she said.



Human adults and babies often use pointing as a way to nonverbally get a message across, but not many other animals grasp the concept. But according to a two-month study of 11 tame African elephants, these pachyderms might be able to: When presented with two identical buckets and pointed in the direction of the one containing food, elephants picked up on the cue fairly consistently: Elephants had a success rate of 67.5 percent (1-year-old humans have a success rate of 72.7 percent). But an earlier study of Asian elephants indicated that they don’t notice pointing gestures, which is a bit of a mystery.



Koshik, an elephant in a South Korean zoo, developed the ability to imitate the sounds of five words he's heard from his trainer—annyeong (hello), anja (sit down), aniya (no), nuwo (lie down), and joa (good)—by sticking his trunk in his mouth. The scientists who first noticed Koshik’s ability speculate that he learned to “talk” because he was lonely.



It's Latin for "finger walking," and what it means is that elephants walk on their toes (there are five of them, as well a sixth false toe). According to the book Mammal Anatomy: An Illustrated Guidemost of the animals' weight "rests on a broad pad of elastic tissue behind the toes" which "acts as a shock absorber and prevents the skeleton from jolting too much when the animals walk. It also allows elephants to move surprisingly quietly despite their size."



If you thought being pregnant for nine months was bad, be glad you're not an elephant, which can be pregnant for up to 680 days, according to the BBC. All that time in the oven has a benefit, though: Elephant calves are born with highly-developed brains, capable of learning their herds’ complex social structures and ready to put their trunks to use.



Unfortunately, elephant poaching remains a very big problem: An estimated 35,000 elephants are killed annually, their tusks sold illegally in the ivory market. Do the math, and that comes out to nearly 96 elephants every day. Find out what you can do to help elephants and stop poaching at


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