CLOSE

The Deepest Shipwreck Ever Found

by Aliya Whiteley

The oceans still hold many secrets. We're only just beginning to find ways to explore the deepest trenches, using technological advances to look at the strange creatures and landscapes that inhabit the total darkness found thousands of feet below the surface.

But though they've been difficult to access, there are also human artifacts at those depths—objects that have sunk to lie, undisturbed, for many years. Humans have been making boats since prehistoric times; who knows how many wrecks now lie in the deep?

The question of just how many wrecks lie in the deep is difficult to answer, but according to Guinness World Records, the deepest shipwreck that has been identified so far is a German blockade runner from World War II—the SS Rio Grande. In early January 1944, it was sunk by two U.S. ships in the South Atlantic Ocean. It lies at a depth of about 18,900 feet—more than 3.5 miles below the surface—and was discovered on November 28, 1996, using side-scanning sonar technology. Two days later, the company responsible for the find, Blue Water Recoveries, confirmed the wreck using a remotely operated vehicle.

It’s impossible to even guess at how many shipwrecks might yet lie in the deepest parts of the oceans (the Mariana Trench reaches a depth of about 36,000 feet). Just to give some perspective, more than 150 ships sank in January 1944 alone.

Not all sunken ships are wartime casualties, of course. One of the oldest shipwrecks found thus far was a cargo ship that was discovered off the coast of southern Turkey in 1982. The Uluburun wreck is 3300 years old. The cargo it carried has been recovered by divers, and included copper, tin, glass, ebony, weapons, food, elephant tusks, hippopotamus teeth, tortoise shell, and amber beads. Some personal items from the crew were also recovered, including a scarab made of gold that bears the seal of Nefertiti, wife of the pharaoh Akhenaten. It now resides in the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. More recently, divers in Greece have found wrecks dating as far back as 525 BCE.

It’s staggering to imagine how many crafts, and how many people, must have been claimed by the sea over the centuries—that technology is now, finally, allowing us to find.

nextArticle.image_alt|e
Scientific Reports, Fernando Ramirez Rozzi
arrow
Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
Humans Might Have Practiced Brain Surgery on Cows 5000 Years Ago
Scientific Reports, Fernando Ramirez Rozzi
Scientific Reports, Fernando Ramirez Rozzi

In the 1970s, archaeologists discovered a site in France containing hundreds of cow skeletons dating back 5000 to 5400 years. The sheer number wasn't surprising—human agriculture in that part of the world was booming by 3000 BCE. What perplexed scientists was something uncovered there a few decades later: a cow skull bearing a thoughtfully drilled hole. Now, a team of researchers has released evidence that suggests the hole is an early example of animal brain surgery.

Fernando Ramírez Rozzi, a paleontologist with the French National Center for Scientific Research, and Alain Froment, an anthropologist at the Museum of Mankind in Paris, published their findings in the journal Nature Scientific Reports. After comparing the opening to the holes chiseled into the skulls of humans from the same era, they found the bones bore some striking similarities. They didn't show any signs of fracturing from blunt force trauma; rather, the hole in the cow skull, like those in the human skulls, seemed to have been carved out carefully using a tool made for exactly that purpose. That suggests that the hole is evidence of the earliest known veterinary surgery performed by humans.

Trepanation, or the practice of boring holes into human skulls, is one of the oldest forms of surgery. Experts are still unsure why ancient humans did this, but the level of care that went into the procedures suggests that the surgery was likely used to treat sick patients while they were still alive. Why a person would perform this same surgery on a cow, however, is harder to explain.

The authors present a few theories, the first being that these ancient brain surgeons were treating a sick cow the same way they might treat a sick human. If a cow was suffering from a neural disease like epilepsy, perhaps they though that cutting a hole in its head would relieve whatever was agitating the brain. The cow would have needed to be pretty special to warrant such an effort when there were hundreds of healthy cows living on the same plot of land, as evidenced by the skeletons it was found with.

Another possible explanation was that whoever operated on the cow did so as practice to prepare them for drilling into the heads of live humans one day. "Cranial surgery requires great manual dexterity and a complete knowledge of the anatomy of the brain and vessel distribution," the authors write in the study. "It is possible that the mastery of techniques in cranial surgery shown in the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods was acquired through experimentation on animals."

Either way, the bovine patient didn't live to see the results of the procedure: The bone around the hole hadn't healed at all, which suggests the cow either died during surgery or wasn't alive to begin with.

nextArticle.image_alt|e
Stefan Sauer, AFP/Getty Images
arrow
Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
13-Year-Old Amateur Archaeologist Discovers the Buried Treasure of a Danish King
Stefan Sauer, AFP/Getty Images
Stefan Sauer, AFP/Getty Images

In January, amateur archaeologist René Schön and his 13-year-old student Luca Malaschnitschenko were scouring a field on an island in the Baltic Sea when something small and silver triggered their metal detector. What they initially thought was aluminum trash turned out to be a coin from a 10th-century treasure hoard that once belonged to a Danish king, AP reports.

Schön and Malaschnitschenko discovered the site on the eastern German island of Ruegen, but it wasn't until mid-April that state archaeologists uncovered the hoard in its entirety. Both of the amateur archaeologists were invited back to take part in the final dig, which spanned 4300 square feet.

The treasure trove includes pearls, jewelry, a Thor's hammer, and about 100 silver coins, with the oldest dating back to 714 CE and the most recent to 983 CE. Experts believe the collection once belonged to the Viking-born Danish king Harald "Harry" Bluetooth, who abandoned his Norse faith and brought Christianity to Denmark.

Pile of silver coins.
Stefan Sauer, AFP/Getty Images

Threatened by a rebellion led by his son, the king fled Denmark in the late 980s—around the same time the silver hoard was buried—and took refuge in Pomerania, on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. He died there in 987.

Harry Bluetooth derived his nickname from his bluish dead tooth. Today his legacy lives on in the Swedish Bluetooth technology that bears his name. The symbol for the tech also uses the runic characters for his initials: HB.

According to the archaeologists who worked there, the dig site represents the largest trove of Bluetooth coins ever discovered in the southern Baltic region.

[h/t AP]

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios