CLOSE

The Deepest Shipwreck Ever Found

by Aliya Whiteley

The oceans still hold many secrets. We're only just beginning to find ways to explore the deepest trenches, using technological advances to look at the strange creatures and landscapes that inhabit the total darkness found thousands of feet below the surface.

But though they've been difficult to access, there are also human artifacts at those depths—objects that have sunk to lie, undisturbed, for many years. Humans have been making boats since prehistoric times; who knows how many wrecks now lie in the deep?

The question of just how many wrecks lie in the deep is difficult to answer, but according to Guinness World Records, the deepest shipwreck that has been identified so far is a German blockade runner from World War II—the SS Rio Grande. In early January 1944, it was sunk by two U.S. ships in the South Atlantic Ocean. It lies at a depth of about 18,900 feet—more than 3.5 miles below the surface—and was discovered on November 28, 1996, using side-scanning sonar technology. Two days later, the company responsible for the find, Blue Water Recoveries, confirmed the wreck using a remotely operated vehicle.

It’s impossible to even guess at how many shipwrecks might yet lie in the deepest parts of the oceans (the Mariana Trench reaches a depth of about 36,000 feet). Just to give some perspective, more than 150 ships sank in January 1944 alone.

Not all sunken ships are wartime casualties, of course. One of the oldest shipwrecks found thus far was a cargo ship that was discovered off the coast of southern Turkey in 1982. The Uluburun wreck is 3300 years old. The cargo it carried has been recovered by divers, and included copper, tin, glass, ebony, weapons, food, elephant tusks, hippopotamus teeth, tortoise shell, and amber beads. Some personal items from the crew were also recovered, including a scarab made of gold that bears the seal of Nefertiti, wife of the pharaoh Akhenaten. It now resides in the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. More recently, divers in Greece have found wrecks dating as far back as 525 BCE.

It’s staggering to imagine how many crafts, and how many people, must have been claimed by the sea over the centuries—that technology is now, finally, allowing us to find.

Original image
arrow
Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
Found: A Sunken German World War I-Era Submarine
Original image
SMU Central University Libraries, Flickr/Public Domain

During World War I, one of Germany's most formidable weapons was the U-boat, an advanced military submarine with torpedoes that sank countless Allied merchant and cargo ships. But while deadly, these submersibles weren't invincible, as evidenced by the recent discovery of a sunken German U-boat in the North Sea.

As ABC News reports, researchers located the UB II-type dive boat—a smaller submarine that typically plagued coastal waters—off the coast of Belgium, around 82 to 98 feet below the North Sea. The 88-foot vessel appears to have struck a mine with its upper deck, judging by damage suffered to its front.

The submarine is remarkably intact. Two of its torpedo tubes were destroyed, but one of them is still in good condition. The ship itself remained sealed, and may serve as a watery grave for up to 23 crew members.

The U-boat's final resting place hasn't been announced, as to prevent looting or damage, according to the BBC. Meanwhile, Belgian officials have contacted the German ambassador to see how they should proceed with any potential remains.

This isn't the first time a World War I-era U-boat has been found in Belgian waters. Experts have catalogued 11 such discoveries so far, but this one is reported to be the best preserved. The Chicago Tribune reports that since 18 U-boats were stationed in Bruges between 1915 and 1918, and 13 of them were destroyed, there might be even more of these kinds of finds to come.

[h/t ABC News]

Original image
Cotswold Archaeology
arrow
Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
Amateur Archaeologists in England Unearth Rare Roman Mosaic
Original image
Cotswold Archaeology

For the past three years, amateur archaeologists and historians in southern England have been working side-by-side with volunteers to excavate several seemingly related local Roman sites. Now, just two weeks before the dig's scheduled conclusion, they've made a fantastic discovery: a rare 4th-century CE mosaic that is being hailed as "the most important of its type in Britain in more than half a century," according to The New York Times.

Dating to roughly 380 CE, the mosaic was unearthed near the village of Boxford in Berkshire. The project—which included a rotating assembly of 55 members—involved local interest groups like the Boxford History Project and the Berkshire Archaeological Research Group, and was overseen by Cotswold Archaeology, a company that helps builders preserve archaeological finds. Funding was provided by the Heritage Lottery Fund, which gives grants to heritage projects across the UK.

In the project's first two years, the group members discovered a large Roman villa, a bathhouse, and a farmstead. In 2017, they began excavating the main villa, a site that yielded pottery, jewelry, coins, and other ancient objects. None of these artifacts, however, were as spectacular as the mosaic, which volunteers unearthed in a moment of serendipity shortly before funding for the dig ended.

Revealed sections of the artwork depict scenes featuring Bellerophon, a mythological Greek hero, along with other fabled figures. Bellerophon is famous in legends for capturing the winged horse Pegasus and for defeating the Chimera, a fire-breathing creature with a lion's head, a goat's body, and a serpent's tail.

Citizen archaeologists in Boxford, England unearth a Roman mosaic thought to date from 380 CE.
Cotswold Archaeology

"The range and style of imagery is very rare in the UK, where simple geometric patterns are the norm," Duncan Coe, a principal heritage consultant with Cotswold Archaeology, tells Mental Floss. "The combination of artwork and inscriptions is unique in this country. The range of imagery is also unique, with at least two scenes from the story of Bellerophon, a character from Greek mythology, augmented by Hercules and the Centaur, Cupid and telamones [male statues used as a column]—and we only have half of the mosaic revealed so far."

Excavators uncovered nearly 20 feet of the mosaic, but ultimately reburied it to deter looters and prevent damage. Members of Boxford's local archaeological community hope to secure funding and return to the site—now dubbed the Boxford villa—to dig up the entire scene.

A Roman mosaic thought to date from 380 CE, unearthed by citizen archaeologists in Boxford England.
Cotswold Archaeology

In addition to teaching experts about the villa's owners—who were evidently sophisticated and wealthy—and Boxford's ancient heritage, the newly discovered mosaic isn't just any ordinary artwork, according to Coe: "This isn't just an isolated mosaic, but a small, but very important, part of a bigger jigsaw that advances our understanding of what was happening in southern England just before the Roman government abandoned Britain," he says.

[h/t The New York Times]

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios