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Phil Noble - WPA Pool/Getty Images
Phil Noble - WPA Pool/Getty Images

Why Don’t Royals Use a Last Name?

Phil Noble - WPA Pool/Getty Images
Phil Noble - WPA Pool/Getty Images

Among the many upsides to being British royalty, there is this: You never have to use a last name. For one thing, everyone already knows who you are. There’s only one Queen, for instance, so it’s not like Elizabeth has to specify which one she is.

However, the British royal family does have a last name, as Business Insider reminds us. The British royal family’s last name is technically Windsor, but that’s a relatively new development.

Before 1917, royals were usually known by the territory they ruled or the Royal House of which they were a member, as the Royal Family’s website explains. For example: The full name of Queen Victoria’s eldest son, King Edward VII, was Albert Edward Saxe-Coburg-Gotha—a mouthful he inherited from his father, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

In 1917, though, Edward’s son, George V, was presented with a conundrum: His surname sounded somewhat German, which was an unwelcome association during World War I, so he named his family after Windsor Castle. Since then, any descendants of Queen Victoria (aside from married women) bear the last name Windsor.

In 1960, to make things more confusing, Queen Elizabeth II and her husband, Prince Philip, decided to add their own spin to the Windsor name, distinguishing their descendants from the rest of the royal family. So her children and their children can use Mountbatten-Windsor as their surname on official documents such as marriage and birth certificates. (Fans of Netflix's The Crown caught a glimpse of the discussions that went into the surname decision, though the series didn't tell the full story.)

Kings and queens are welcome to change the last names of their family at will, since it’s a matter of precedent rather than an official decree. And royals sometimes adopt other names when it’s convenient. Princes Harry and William used Wales as their last name while serving in the military, adopting their father’s designation as the Prince of Wales.

With such a complicated naming protocol, it’s no wonder most Royal Family members go by their titles instead.

[h/t Business Insider]

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Why do people have such a hard time staying awake after Thanksgiving dinner? Most people blame tryptophan, but that's not really the main culprit. And what is tryptophan, anyway?

Tryptophan is an amino acid that the body uses in the processes of making vitamin B3 and serotonin, a neurotransmitter that helps regulate sleep. It can't be produced by our bodies, so we need to get it through our diet. From which foods, exactly? Turkey, of course, but also other meats, chocolate, bananas, mangoes, dairy products, eggs, chickpeas, peanuts, and a slew of other foods. Some of these foods, like cheddar cheese, have more tryptophan per gram than turkey. Tryptophan doesn't have much of an impact unless it's taken on an empty stomach and in an amount larger than what we're getting from our drumstick. So why does turkey get the rap as a one-way ticket to a nap?

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Alcohol: What Homer Simpson called the cause of—and solution to—all of life's problems is also a central nervous system depressant.

Overeating: Same deal as fats. It takes a lot of energy to digest a big feast (the average Thanksgiving meal contains 3000 calories and 229 grams of fat), so blood is sent to the digestive process system, leaving the brain a little tired.

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The balloons for this year's Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade range from the classics like Charlie Brown to more modern characters who have debuted in the past few years, including The Elf On The Shelf. New to the parade this year are Olaf from Disney's Frozen and Chase from Paw Patrol. But how does the retail giant choose which characters will appear in the lineup?

Balloon characters are chosen in different ways. For example, in 2011, Macy’s requested B. Boy after parade organizers saw the Tim Burton retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art. (The company had been adding a series of art balloons to the parade lineup since 2005, which it called the Blue Sky Gallery.) When it comes to commercial balloons, though, it appears to be all about the Benjamins.

First-time balloons cost at least $190,000—this covers admission into the parade and the cost of balloon construction. After the initial year, companies can expect to pay Macy’s about $90,000 to get a character into the parade lineup. If you consider that the balloons are out for only an hour or so, that’s about $1500 a minute.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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