5 Cratered Facts About Mercury

An enhanced-color composite image of Mercury's Caloris basin. Lavas appear orange, and blue areas are likely the original basin floor. Image Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington

 

by Alex Carter

Mercury is the closest planet to the sun, and you would be forgiven for thinking it’s just a boring lump of rock. After all, there’s nothing interesting on it like aliens or places to drink. Still, Mercury is probably a more interesting place than you think...

1. IT HAS WATER ICE.

Although you would be forgiven for thinking Mercury, being the closest planet to the Sun, is one of the hottest places in the solar system, it in fact is subject to enormous temperature fluctuations. Some regions reach 800°F, but without an atmosphere to retain heat, Mercury’s poles and nightside of the planet plunge well below even the coldest temperatures recorded on Earth. With some regions never getting above -279°F, conditions are perfect for ice to form. Mercury’s regolith is home to possibly a trillion tons of ice, which would make it one of the wettest places in the solar system.

Fitting, then, that the ancient Chinese called it the Water Star.

2. IT ONCE HAD AN IMAGINARY FRIEND CALLED VULCAN.

In the 19th century, scientists were smug in the knowledge that they knew everything there was to know. There were of course a couple of curiosities that they could not understand, one being the precession in the orbit of Mercury. That is to say, Mercury goes around the Sun in an ellipse rather than in a circle, and the ellipse changed the direction it was pointing from time to time. It was thought that there must be a new planet between Mercury and the sun that was changing its orbit—the planet Vulcan. But despite trying, the planet could not be observed.

Albert Einstein eventually disproved the theory of Vulcan via the general theory of relativity. Rather than looking for an external cause, Einstein showed that Mercury was doing exactly what it should do, and that gravity was just acting in ways no one had known it could. Mercury is so close to the Sun that not only is it pulled around the Sun, space itself is too. Were it not for Mercury demonstrating this effect, Einstein probably would not have been so readily believed.

Incidentally, the other curiosity was the photoelectric effect, which needed quantum mechanics to explain. That, not relativity, was what Einstein won his Nobel Prize for.

3. IT CONTAINS THE BIGGEST HUMANMADE CRATER IN SPACE.

After six years orbiting the planet, NASA’s MESSENGER probe ran out of fuel in 2014 and could no longer correct its course. As its orbit decayed, it got closer to the planet, and much faster. The resulting crash into Mercury a year later occurred at more than 8000 mph and left a crater more than 50 feet wide. That makes it easily the biggest humanmade crater anywhere in the universe … apart from those on Earth, obviously.

4. ITS DAY IS LONGER THAN ITS YEAR.

Mercury orbits so close to the Sun that the conventional ideas of days and years don’t really make much sense. Mercury’s rotation (remember, rotation on a planet's axis causes its days) and orbit (which causes its years) are linked through gravity more tightly than Earth. In fact, Mercury rotates three times on its axis every two years. This makes each Mercury day—as in sunrise to sunset and back to sunrise—last two of its years. It’s a weird day, too: The Sun rises, goes backwards in the sky to set, rises again, then finally sets a year later. The next year, from the perspective of Mercury, the Sun would appear to move in the opposite direction.

5. IT MAY SMELL AWFUL.

Mercury’s small size means it has no permanent atmosphere, just a thin layer called an exosphere; its gravity is too weak to hold onto any gas in the wake of the strong solar wind. However, it does have a remarkably strong magnetic field, which means it keeps a hold of whatever ions come its way. There are a lot of ions in that part of space.

So while planets such as Earth are nice and oxygen filled, Mercury’s atmosphere contains the kind of things planets normally don’t hang on to, including ions of magnesium, calcium, sodium (you may remember from chemistry class that those are the ones that explode in water), as well as unusual ions of water. Mercury may smell like wet, metallic burps. 

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Frederick M. Brown, Getty Images
Stephen Hawking’s Memorial Will Beam His Words Toward the Nearest Black Hole
Frederick M. Brown, Getty Images
Frederick M. Brown, Getty Images

An upcoming memorial for Stephen Hawking is going to be out of this world. The late physicist’s words, set to music, will be broadcast by satellite toward the nearest black hole during a June 15 service in the UK, the BBC reports.

During his lifetime, Hawking signed up to travel to space on Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic spaceship, but he died before he ever got the chance. (He passed away in March.) Hawking’s daughter Lucy told the BBC that the memorial's musical tribute is a “beautiful and symbolic gesture that creates a link between our father's presence on this planet, his wish to go into space, and his explorations of the universe in his mind.” She described it as "a message of peace and hope, about unity and the need for us to live together in harmony on this planet."

Titled “The Stephen Hawking Tribute,” the music was written by Greek composer Vangelis, who created the scores for Blade Runner and Chariots of Fire. It will play while Hawking’s ashes are interred at Westminster Abbey, near where Isaac Newton and Charles Darwin are buried, according to Cambridge News. After the service, the piece will be beamed into space from the European Space Agency’s Cebreros Station in Spain. The target is a black hole called 1A 0620-00, “which lives in a binary system with a fairly ordinary orange dwarf star,” according to Lucy Hawking.

Hawking wasn't the first person to predict the existence of black holes (Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity accounted for them back in the early 1900s), but he spoke at length about them throughout his career and devised mathematical theorems that gave credence to their existence in the universe.

Actor Benedict Cumberbatch, a friend of the Hawking family who portrayed the late scientist in the BBC film Hawking, will speak at the service. In addition to Hawking's close friends and family, British astronaut Tim Peake and several local students with disabilities have also been invited to attend.

[h/t BBC]

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IKEA
IKEA's New Collection for Tiny Apartments Is Inspired by Life on Mars
IKEA
IKEA

Living in a city apartment can feel claustrophobic at times. As Co.Design reports, the Swedish furniture brand IKEA took this experience to the extreme when designers visited a simulated Mars habitat as research for their latest line of housewares aimed at urbanites.

The new collection, called Rumtid, is tailored to fit the cramped spaces that many people are forced to settle for when apartment-hunting in dense, expensive cities. The designers knew they wanted to prioritize efficiency and functionality with their new project, and Mars research provided the perfect inspiration.

At the Mars Society's Mars Desert Research Station in Utah, scientists are figuring out how to meet the needs of potential Mars astronauts with very limited resources. Materials have to be light, so that they require as little rocket fuel as possible to ferry them to the red planet, and should ideally run on renewable energy.

IKEA's designers aren't facing quite as many challenges, but spending a few days at the simulated Martian habitat in Utah got them thinking on the right track. The team also conducted additional research at the famously snug capsule hotels in Tokyo. The Rumtid products they came up with include an indoor terrarium shaped like a space-age rocket, a set of colorful, compact air purifiers, and light-weight joints and bars that can be snapped into modular furniture.

The collection isn't ready to hit IKEA shelves just yet—the chain plans to make Rumtid available for customers by 2020. In the meantime, the designers hope to experiment with additional science fiction-worthy ideas, including curtains that clean the air around them.

Air purifiers designed for urban living.

Furniture joints on bubble wrap on black table.

Modular furniture holding water bag.

[h/t Co.Design]

All images courtesy of IKEA.

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