Masayuki Shintaku et. al., 2017
Masayuki Shintaku et. al., 2017

Doctors Find a Tiny Brain Growing Inside a Teenager's Ovary

Masayuki Shintaku et. al., 2017
Masayuki Shintaku et. al., 2017

Surgeons in search of one patient’s appendix found a little more than they bargained for. The teenager’s ovaries bore two large cysts, one of which contained a miniature skull and a “well-formed” brain. The surgeons described their findings in the journal Neuropathology.

The 16-year-old girl had been diagnosed with acute appendicitis and was brought in for emergency surgery. But after cutting into her abdomen, the doctors found more problems: two cystic tumors, one roughly the size of a golf ball and the other as big as a baseball. They took note of the cysts’ location and size, then completed the girl’s appendectomy and stitched her back up. Remarkably, she recovered just fine and reported no symptoms. 

Three months later, they opened her up again, this time to remove the tumors. Inside the large cyst were more gruesome surprises: clumps of hair, a thin, skull-like plate of bone, and a surprisingly organized brain-like object.

Familiar-looking structures found inside the mini-brain. Image Credit: Masayuki Shintaku et. al., 2017

The thought of a tumor full of hair or bone is hardly unheard of, although it is fairly unsettling. These teratomas (from the Greek téras, or monster) are what happens when reproductive cells go rogue. Under healthy circumstances, they’ll deploy and become an embryo, differentiating into various body parts, such as bones, organs, teeth, and hair. But sometimes they just start growing, all on their own, making monstrous spare parts nobody needs or wants. Teratomas are typically found on or near a person’s reproductive organs, and they’re usually harmless (aside from the nightmares).

The most common teratoma contents are hair, teeth, and tissue that would, in a real embryo, one day become part of the central nervous system. 

What makes this case different is the sophistication of the brain tissue inside the teratoma. The teeny organ was pretty far along, and had even separated into parts similar to those found in a fully developed brain. 

The surgeons patched the patient up again and sent her on her way. Three years later, they attempted to check up to see how she was doing, but she didn’t respond. We can’t really blame her. 

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The Surprising Reason Why Pen Caps Have Tiny Holes at the Top
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If you’re an avid pen chewer, or even just a diehard fan of writing by hand, you’re probably well acquainted with the small hole that tops off most ballpoint pen caps, particularly those classic Bic Cristal pens. The reason it’s there has nothing to do with pen function, it turns out. As Science Alert recently reported, it’s actually designed to counter human carelessness.

Though it’s arguably unwise—not to mention unhygienic—to chomp or suck on a plastic pen cap all day, plenty of people do it, especially kids. And inevitably, that means some people end up swallowing their pen caps. Companies like Bic know this well—so they make pen caps that won’t impede breathing if they’re accidentally swallowed.

This isn’t only a Bic requirement, though the company’s Cristal pens do have particularly obvious holes. The International Organization for Standardization, a federation that sets industrial standards for 161 countries, requires it. ISO 11540 specifies that if pens must have caps, they should be designed to reduce the risk of asphyxiation if they’re swallowed.

It applies to writing instruments “which in normal or foreseeable circumstances are likely to be used by children up to the age of 14 years.” Fancy fountain pens and other writing instruments that are clearly designed for adult use don’t need to have holes in them, nor do caps that are large enough that you can’t swallow them. Any pen that could conceivably make its way into the hands of a child needs to have an air hole in the cap that provides a minimum flow of 8 liters (about 2 gallons) of air per minute, according to the standard [PDF].

Pen cap inhalation is a real danger, albeit a rare one, especially for primary school kids. A 2012 study [PDF] reported that pen caps account for somewhere between 3 and 8 percent of “foreign body aspiration,” the official term for inhaling something you’re not supposed to. Another study found that of 1280 kids (ages 6 to 14) treated between 1997 and 2007 for foreign body inhalation in Beijing, 34 had inhaled pen caps.

But the standards help keep kids alive. In that Beijing study, none of the 34 kids died, and the caps were successfully removed by doctors. That wasn’t always the case. In the UK, nine children asphyxiated due to swallowing pen caps between 1970 and 1984. After the UK adopted the international standard for air holes in pen caps, the number of deaths dropped precipitously [PDF]. Unfortunately, it’s not foolproof; in 2007, a 13-year-old in the UK died after accidentally swallowing his pen cap.

Even if you can still breathe through that little air hole, getting a smooth plastic pen cap out of your throat is no easy task for doctors. The graspers they normally use to take foreign bodies out of airways don’t always work, as that 2012 case report found, and hospitals sometimes have to employ different tools to get the stubbornly slippery caps out (in that study, they used a catheter that could work through the hole in the cap, then inflated a small balloon at the end of the catheter to pull the cap out). The procedure doesn’t exactly sound pleasant. So maybe resist the urge to put your pen cap in your mouth.

[h/t Science Alert]

Carnivorous Hammerhead Flatworms Are Invading France

It’s no hammerhead shark, but the hammerhead flatworm has become a real menace in France. Or at least a menace to earthworms, as Earther reports.

Believed to be an invasive species from Asia, the hammerhead flatworm was only recently recorded in France, as is documented in a new study (titled "Giant worms chez moi!") published in the journal PeerJ. However, based on reports, photographs, and videos sent in by citizens across the country, scientists determined the pests have gone undetected for nearly 20 years. This came as a shock, especially because the worms can measure more than a foot in length.

In recent years, three species of the carnivorous worm have quietly taken over French gardens and have even been spotted in metropolitan areas. Some species immobolize their prey with tetrodotoxin, the same powerful neurotoxin that makes pufferfish so poisonous. The worms secrete digestive enzymes, allowing them to dissolve earthworms and slugs their size.

Jean-Lou Justine, co-author of the study, says their eating habits are a concern. "Earthworms are a major component of the soil biomass and a very important element in the ecology of soils," Justine tells Earther. "Any predator which can diminish the populations of earthworms is thus a threat to soil ecology."

Archie Murchie, an entomologist who was not involved in the study, told The Washington Post that the worms will continue to spread in step with global trade. The worms were also seen in overseas French territories, including one worm with a blue-green hue that is probably a newly detected species, Murchie tells the newspaper.

[h/t Earther]

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