No Sh*t: People Who Swear More May Also Be More Honest, Study Says

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iStock

There are two types of people in this world: those who abhor potty mouths, and those who have turned the use of four-letter words into an art form. If you lean toward the latter side, you’re probably not afraid to admit it—and now, thanks to a little help from science, we know why. As Medical Daily reports, a new, two-part study conducted by a team of international researchers from Stanford, University of Cambridge, Maastricht University, and Hong Kong University of Science and Technology suggests that people who can easily let loose with a string of obscenities are likely more honest as well.

For the first part of the study, the team conducted interviews with 276 subjects from across the U.S., recruited on Amazon Mechanical Turk, to get to the bottom of both their swearing habits—namely, their favorite curse words and how often they use them—and just how honest they are by asking them about blame-placing, game-playing, and other activities that help determine trustworthiness.

For the second part, the team analyzed the status updates of nearly 75,000 Facebook users, looking for linguistic indicators of deception, such as the use of third-person pronouns and more negative words, as determined by a 2003 report published in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. [PDF]

“The consistent findings across the studies suggest that the positive relation between profanity and honesty is robust, and that the relationship found at the individual level indeed translates to the society level,” the study [PDF] concluded.

While swearing may sound uncouth to some, the researchers see it more as an honest form of expression—not anger or malice—and determined that the more curse words that come out of a person’s mouth, the more truthful he or she is likely to be, as swearing itself is a form of candid talk.

"You might think if someone is swearing a lot, this is a negative social behavior," study co-author David Stillwell told the Daily Mail. “On the other hand, they are not filtering their language so they are probably also not putting their stories about what is going on through similar filters which might turn them into untruths."

It’s not the first time researchers have delved into dirty talk: A 2016 study published in Language Sciences [PDF] determined that people who swear a lot may possess a higher verbal intelligence, while a 2014 study showed that swearing can actually provide pain relief.

F*ck yeah!

[h/t: Medical Daily]

If You Want to Be a More Effective Writer, Stop Using Utilize and These Other 12 Words

iStock.com/Nattakorn Maneerat
iStock.com/Nattakorn Maneerat

If you want to become a better writer, it can be hard to know where to start. The good news is that you don't need to pad your vocabulary with $10 words to develop effective writing techniques. According to Lifehacker, an easy way to improve your writing is by replacing big, fancy words with language used in everyday conversations.

New York Times editor Dan Saltzstein recently tweeted some examples of words writers use to make their work sound more intelligent than it really is. Words like shuttered, commence, and utilize may look impressive on the page, but the extra syllables add nothing to your point. To make your writing sound more like your natural voice and less like a business email, Saltzstein recommends swapping in closed, begin, and use for the terms above.

You can also use this guideline to edit words out of your writing completely. Leading words like so, mostly, and oftentimes aren't always necessary and can be cut without changing the meaning of a sentence. When you're scanning a piece for leading words, also keep an eye out for adverbs. Its tempting to tack words like violently, quickly, or loudly behind your action words, but too many adverbs can weaken your writing. Wherever you use a verb and an adverb together, see if you can replace the phrase with a single, more specific verb (like shouted instead of said loudly).

Here are some words to upgrade the next time you're writing or editing.

1. Closed > shuttered
2. Begin > commence
3. Open > launch
4. Use > utilize
5. Let > enable
6. Many > myriad
7. Live > reside
8. Planned > preplanned
9. Before > prior to
10. Tiptoe > walk softly
11. Whisper > speak quietly
12. Need > want badly
13. Shout > say loudly

[h/t Lifehacker]

11 Suffixes That Gave Us New, Often Terrible Words

An American 'Bookmobile' mobile library circa 1955
An American 'Bookmobile' mobile library circa 1955
Vecchio/Three Lions/Getty Images

People love coining new words. And they love making good use of them—for a while anyway. Bromance, adultescence, and Frankenstorm are just a few of the creative blends that have recently made it big but probably won't stick around.

Sometimes, however, a coinage is so apt and useful that it does stick. When that happens, we sometimes get more than just one new word; we get a new kind of word ending, one that goes on to a long, productive career in word formation. Bookmobile was born in the 1920s and went on to spawn the likes of bloodmobile, Wienermobile, and pimpmobile. Workaholic is a creation of the 1940s that led to everything from chocoholic to sleepaholic to Tweetaholic. But not all of these creative endings have staying power. We don't hear much today from the bootlegger-inspired "-leggers" of the 1940s—the foodleggers, gasleggers, tireleggers, and meatleggers who were circumventing the law to deal in valuable rationed goods.

Here are 11 other word endings that have become productive to varying degrees. You can probably think of a lot more to add to this list. Will they stand the test of time?

1. -nomics

With its origins in the staid and straightforward Nixonomics and Reaganomics, this one has rather promiscuously attached itself to almost everything: burgernomics, beeronomics, sexonomics and so on. All the better for its reproductive advantage—elementary survivalnomics!

2. -athon

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, this one was "barbarously extracted" from marathon back in the 1930s, and it's proved its staying power since. Whether for a good cause or for no cause at all, our telethons, danceathons, bakeathons, drinkathons, complainathons and assorted other verbathons have made this past century something of an athonathon.

3. -gate

This mark of scandal became productive almost immediately after the break-in at the Watergate office complex was uncovered in the early '70s. Anywhere there's a lie, an impropriety, or a cover-up, -gate will find a foothold. It has even spread to other languages: see toallagate ("towelgate"), a term coined after the Mexican government was revealed to have purchased $400 towels for the presidential residences. (There's even a whole Wikipedia page devoted to –gate scandals.)

4. -splaining

Mansplaining, nerdsplaining, vegansplaining, catsplaining—seems like everybody's got some 'splaining to do these days.

5. -cation

It started with the staycation in the 1940s. Soon –cation no longer cared to preserve the rhyme with vacation, and it roamed free among our leisure pursuits: foodcation, golfcation, shopcation, sleepcation. It can also refer to a break from work. Did you enjoy a recent stormcation? Are you hoping for a few days of snowcation this winter? Or will that make you long for a kidcation?

6. -tainment

Edutainment, watertainment, agritainment, newstainment—why be boring when you can wordertain?

7. -itude

You better check your momitude, geekitude, dudeitude, snarkitude, drunkitude or New Yorkitude. And if it works for you, wear it with prideitude!

8. -tastic

It's cheesetastic! It's craft-tastic! It's awesometastic! Almost anything can be made fantastic with this ending. It can even bring out the unrecognized positive qualities of that which is grosstastic, sadtastic, or craptastic. Beware the –tastic meaning drift, however. Craptastic wavers between "so crappy it's great" and just "super crappy."

9. -licious

Babelicious, bootylicious, funalicious, partylicious, biblicious, yogalicious, mathalicious—if you like it, celebrate it with a –licious!

10. -pocalypse

Snowpocalypse! Heatpocalypse! Will the world end in firepocalypse or icepocalypse? This one seems to have begun in the domain of weather reports, but hysterical exaggeration has proved useful elsewhere. Have you not heard Rush Limbaugh's warning of Barackalypse? The e-reader's bringing of the bookpocalypse? See also: wordmageddon.

11. -gasm

This new word ending offers the … um … ultimate in excitement. Eargasm, joygasm, sportsgasm, teagasm, soupgasm, stylegasm, and yes, ectoplasmgasm.

A version of this story first ran in 2012.

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