Could Living Near a Highway Increase Your Risk of Dementia?

There are a number of reasons why it could be hazardous to live near a highway—noise and traffic ranking pretty high—but according to a new Canadian study in The Lancet, your risk of developing dementia could increase the closer you live to a major road.

In a study of more than 6 million people, researchers found a link between dementia development and a person's proximity to a major road, such as an interstate highway or parkway. People living less than 50 meters (164 feet) from a major road were 7 percent more likely to develop dementia than people who live more than 300 meters from one. The risk drops as you get further away, with a 4 percent higher chance at 50 to 100 meters away and a 2 percent higher chance at a distance of 101 to 200 meters. The study was conducted on people living in Ontario between 20 and 85 years old from 2001 to 2012.

“Our findings show the closer you live to roads with heavy day-to-day traffic, the greater the risk of developing dementia,” says Public Health Ontario epidemiologist Hong Chen, who co-led the study. “With our widespread exposure to traffic and the greater tendency for people to live in cities these days, this has serious public health implications.”

While the study found a link between highway proximity and risk of dementia, there's no concrete evidence as to why this actually happens. However, there have been studies done on the link between developing dementia and air pollution, which is an everyday hazard when living near a busy highway. As the study points out, though, the risk shrinks significantly as you move further away.

"There is a gradient of increased risk as you get closer to major roadways," study co-lead Ray Copes, chief of environmental and occupational health at Public Health Ontario, told CNN. "By the time you're 200 meters away, the risk is essentially down to baseline."

According to the World Health Organization, there are 47.5 million people living with dementia worldwide, with 7.7 million new cases diagnosed every year—the most common cause being Alzheimer's disease, which accounts for 60 to 70 percent of cases. The team also investigated whether there was any higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis when living near a highway but found no link.

[h/t New Scientist]

What’s the Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes?

The odds are pretty good that you know someone with diabetes. Affecting more than 30 million Americans, it's an incredibly common—and commonly misunderstood—condition.

The word diabetes comes from the Greek for "siphon"—a reference to the frequent and copious urination the condition can cause. The term was coined in the first century by ancient physician Aretaeus the Cappadocian, who vividly (and inaccurately) described the theory that "great masses of flesh are liquefied into urine."

Today we know a bit more about this illness, what causes it, and the forms it can take.

Diabetes is ultimately a hormone problem. The hormone in question is insulin, which helps the body convert glucose (sugar) into energy. Your pancreas releases a little dose of insulin into your bloodstream when you eat. The insulin tells certain cells to gobble up the glucose you've just added. The cells take in the sugar and put it to work.

Or at least that's how it's supposed to go. If you've got diabetes, the situation looks a little different.

Like rheumatoid arthritis or celiac disease, type 1 diabetes is the result of a person being attacked by their own immune system. In rheumatoid arthritis, the issue manifests in the joints; in celiac disease, it occurs in the gut; and in type 1 diabetes, it's the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas that are targeted by the immune system.

Little fluctuations in blood sugar that would breeze right through a healthy system can wreak havoc in the body of someone with type 1. People with type 1 must keep a very close eye on their glucose levels and take supplemental insulin, in shots or through a pen, port, pump, or inhaler, as blood sugar that goes too low or too high can cause serious complications and even death.

Type 2 diabetes is caused by an obstacle at the other end of the road. Someone with type 2 diabetes typically may have enough insulin to function, at least to start; the problem is that their body can't process it. Unused glucose builds up in the bloodstream and the body begins to need more and more insulin to see any effect.

Type 2 used to be known as adult-onset diabetes and type 1 as juvenile diabetes, but both kids and adults can and do develop both types. And while being overweight or obese does increase a person's risk of developing diabetes, thin people get it too. To complicate matters even further, researchers in Finland and Sweden recently identified five subgroups of diabetes, each with its own unique characteristics and risks for complications. Knowing which subgroup people fall into may improve treatment in the future.

And while we're myth-busting: The idea that diabetes is the product of eating too much sugar is a gross oversimplification. How you eat affects your body, of course, and a low-carb diet can help keep blood sugar in check, but diabetes can be caused by a lot of different factors, including genetics, medications, and other health conditions. (If you're on insulin, talk to a doctor before starting a low-carb diet, as low blood glucose levels can result if not done carefully.)

There's no common cure for diabetes—at least not yet. An artificial pancreas and other treatments for the immune system and pancreas cells are all in the works. In the meantime, both types can usually be managed with medication, diet changes, exercise, and a lot of doctor visits.

The Colorful Kit Helping Diabetic Kids Manage Their Injections With Temporary Tattoos

No kid looks forward to getting their shots, but for children living with type 1 diabetes, insulin injections are a part of everyday life. When Renata Souza Luque, a graduate from the Parsons School of Design in New York, saw how much of a toll the routine was taking on her 7-year-old cousin Thomas, she designed a product to make the process a little easier for kids like him. The result, Thomy, is a tool kit that aims to make insulin injections less intimidating to young diabetics, as Dezeen reports.

The brightly colored, easy-to-carry kit is designed for ages 4 and up, with an insulin pen specifically made to fit in a child’s hand. In addition to being easier for kids to hold and use, the Thomy pen is designed to be more fun than your average insulin injector. It has a thermochromic release valve, so that when it touches the patient’s skin, it begins to change color. The color-morphing doesn’t serve any medical purpose, but it provides kids with a distraction as they’re receiving the injection.

A purple insulin pen in an orange case
Renata Souza Luque

The kit also includes playful temporary tattoos to help kids figure out where their injections should go. Diabetics need to change the site of their injections regularly to prevent lumps of fat from developing under the skin, and for patients injecting themselves multiple times a day, keeping track of specific spots can be difficult. Kids can apply one of Thomy's temporary tattoos over their injection sites as a map for their shots. Each time they need an injection, they wipe off one of the tattoo's colored dots with alcohol and insert the needle in its place. When all the dots are gone, it's time to move on to a new area of the skin.

A child wipes at a temporary tattoo on his abdomen with a cloth.
Renata Souza Luque

Souza Luque originally created Thomy for her senior capstone project, and last year it was named a national finalist at the James Dyson Awards. Most recently, she presented the concept at the Design Indaba conference in Cape Town in late February.

[h/t Dezeen]


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