CLOSE
Original image
iStock

8 Facts About the Ankle

Original image
iStock

The humble ankle has had a remarkable history as an object of fetishization: Think Victorian sexual repression and high heels. Of course, its significance is also practical. Without ankles, there would be no sports or dance. Not only would nobody be able to score a touchdown, we wouldn't even be able to walk. Here are eight things you may not have known about this basic but crucial joint:

1. THE ANKLE IS COMPOSED OF JUST THREE MAIN BONES.

The true ankle joint is composed of three bones: the tibia, or the inside part of the ankle; the fibula, the outside part of the ankle, and the talus, underneath. These allow the flexion and extension of the foot, letting you make the up and down motions that you require to walk. Below the ankle joint is actually a second joint called the subtalar joint, which allows side-to-side motion of the foot. Altogether, the human foot and ankle contain 26 bones, 33 joints, and more than 100 muscles, tendons, and ligaments.

2. THE ANKLE JOINT IS NOTORIOUSLY WOBBLY.

Despite how often humans are on their feet, the ankle joint is small and unstable in the best of times because of its precarious anatomical structure. Most people will experience a tweaked, twisted or sprained ankle at least once in their lives.

3. ANKLE SPRAINS ARE THE MOST COMMON INJURY IN AMERICA.

When you couple the weak ankle joint with the vigorous activity it’s required to perform, it’s no surprise that ankle sprains account for nearly 2 million injuries every year, or 20 percent of all sports injuries in the United States.

4. NOT ALL OF THESE SPRAINS ARE SPORTS-RELATED.

Researchers from the University of Alabama at Birmingham reported an estimated 125,355 high heel-related injuries in U.S. Emergency Departments between 2002 and 2012. In 2011 alone, there were a reported 19,000 injuries from high heels. The injury rate was greatest for women in their 20s. Another survey from the College of Podiatry found that most women reported foot pain after one hour and six minutes of wearing high heels, and 20 percent of participants said that they felt pain after just 10 minutes of wear.

5. NEVER JUST "WALK OFF" AN ANKLE SPRAIN.

You can actually do significant damage if you’re walking on an untreated ankle sprain, according to the National Athletic Trainers’ Association. Treatments may range from rest, ice, and ibuprofen to casts, braces, and even surgery. Always seek a doctor’s care if you think you’ve sprained an ankle.

6. THE ANKLE WAS TOO EROTIC FOR PUBLIC VIEWING IN VICTORIAN ENGLAND.

A woman lifting her skirt to show her ankle was considered provocative in Victorian England. This is ironic, given that the Victorians were at the same time producers of copious pornography.

7. "PRETTIEST ANKLE" CONTESTS WERE POPULAR THROUGH THE 1930s.

While the Victorian era repressed women’s displays of their bodies, the 1930s were all about exposing the ankles. In fact, according to Mashable, in the UK “pretty ankle” competitions were popular events until about World War II.

8. YOU MIGHT WANT TO RETHINK AN ANKLE TATTOO.

Because the foot and ankle generally don’t have much fat or flesh, getting a tattoo on this skinny extremity can be extremely painful. Because of how much use your foot and ankle get, they also can take twice as much time to heal as other locations—but it could give you a leg up in an ankle competition.

Original image
YouTube
arrow
Animals
Why Do Female Spotted Hyenas Give Birth Through Their Pseudo-Penises?
Original image
YouTube

At the zoo, you can sometimes tell the difference between male and female animals by noting their physical size, their behavior, and yes, their nether regions. Hyenas, however, flip the script: Not only are lady spotted hyenas bigger and meaner than their male counterparts, ruling the pack with an iron paw, they also sport what appear to be penises—shaft, scrotum, and all.

"Appear" is the key word here: These 7-inch-long phalluses don't produce sperm, so they're technically really long clitorises in disguise. But why do female hyenas have them? And do they actually have to (gulp) give birth through them? Wouldn't that hurt … a lot?

The short answers to these questions are, respectively, "We don't know," "Yes," and "OW." Longer answers can be found in this MinuteEarth video, which provides the full lowdown on hyena sex. Don't say we didn't warn you.

Original image
Steve Wood/Express/Hulton Archive/Getty Images
arrow
science
Are Sex, Drugs, and Rock 'n' Roll Really Linked? Researchers Investigate
Original image
Steve Wood/Express/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Around the world, sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll are said to go hand-in-hand. But do they? As PsyPost reports, a pair of Pennsylvania psychologists recently dove into the empirical evidence tying the three together, asking college students to talk about their drug use, sex lives, and music preferences and talents to suss out whether people who play and enjoy rock music really do have more active sex lives and drug use.

Published in the journal Human Ethnology Bulletin, the study [PDF] of 467 students relied on self-reporting, which isn't typically the most reliable evidence—people are wont to exaggerate how often they've had sex, for instance—but the survey also asked them about their desires, posing questions like "If you could, how frequently would you have sex?" It also asked about how often the students drank and what drugs they had tried in their lifetimes. They also described their musical experience and what kind of music they listened to.

The results were mixed, but the researchers identified a relationship between liking faster, "harder" music and having more sex and doing more drugs. Acoustic indie rock aficionados weren't getting quite as wild as heavy metal fans. High-tempo-music lovers were more likely to have taken hallucinogenic drugs like LSD, for example, and tended to have had more sexual partners in the previous year than people who favored slower types of music. According to the study, previous research has found that attention-seeking people are more likely to enjoy "hard" music.

The study didn't have a diverse enough group either in age or in ethnicity to really begin to make sweeping generalizations about humans, especially since college students (the participants were between 18 and 25) tend to engage in more risky behaviors in general. But this could lay the groundwork for future research into the topic. Until then, it might be more accurate to change the phrase to "sex, drugs, and heavy metal."

[h/t PsyPost]

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios