15 of the World’s Funkiest Fungi


When it comes to the natural world, fungi are (truly) in a kingdom all their own. They help humans brew tasty beverages like beer, they recycle nutrients from dead plants and animals, and they provide nutrients for trees. Of course there are others that destroy food crops and kill any humans who accidentally ingest them. You never know what you’re going to get with fungus. In celebration of their weird and wonderful world, here are 15 fungi that will blow your mind (some of them in a literal sense).


Jerzy Opioła via Wikimedia Commons

Hidden underground in Malheur National Forest, Oregon lives a creature so large it makes the blue whale look small. Meet the Humongous Fungus, the world’s biggest living organism. This four-square-mile patch is mostly hidden from view (a few odd mushrooms pop up here and there), but its impact is, well, humungous: this type of fungus causes root disease and kills conifers across North America.


This blister-like fungus grows on decaying logs and fallen branches, looking flat and rougher in dry conditions and swollen after rain. Despite its unappetizing appearance, the fungus is edible—though you might want to add some seasoning.


One of the more disgusting-looking fungi of the world might cause concern for hikers who stumble across it. But the red liquid oozing out of it isn’t blood—it emerges due to guttation. This is a process that causes rapidly growing or metabolizing plants to excrete excess fluids. For the bleeding tooth fungus, the fluid happens to be bright red.


There are plenty of fungi that exhibit bioluminescence, but this particular species from Southeast Asia is the oldest known example. What makes it give off that eerie green glow? In 2015 scientists discovered a compound called hispidin, an antioxidant that undergoes a chemical reaction to create a glowing light.


Do you prefer your poultry in the form of nuggets, drumsticks—or maybe as fungus? This edible mushroom tastes like—you guessed it—chicken. It’s bright yellow and has no gills (the fine, black material you may have noticed on the underside of Portobello mushrooms). But watch out for a variation of this mushroom growing on conifers, since they’re a different species and might cause poisoning. 


Considering fungi are immobile, the superlative “fastest creature on Earth” might seem impossible. But when it comes to acceleration, the Dung Cannon is indeed the fastest organism: The fungus launches its crystalline spores at an acceleration rate of 1.7 million m/s2—faster than guns and even rocket ships. 


Moldy rice might not sound like an ideal element of a meal, but the mold Monascus purpureus actually makes a popular fermented food with possible medical uses. In addition to being eaten, red yeast rice is also sold as a supplement to decrease cholesterol


These mushrooms might look innocuous, but they pack a potent dose of psilocybin, a chemical that causes distorted perception, hallucinations, and intensified emotions. In 2001, scientists found 100,000 of the mushrooms growing along a racetrack in England, but more recently these fungi have made the news for their potential in treating mental illnesses like depression, anxiety and PTSD. 


Though this member of the puffball family resembles an anemone shell, it’s actually covered in detachable spiny warts. In urban areas it can be found near trampled ground and around curbs. It is edible, but foragers should be particularly careful, since lookalike species include the Pigskin Poison Puffball and the deadly Destroying Angel.


Given its name, you might think this is a harmful fungus to be avoided. But white-rot fungus (here on the left) is actually quite valuable for its use in bioremediation—cleaning land that’s been contaminated by heavy metals and chemicals. White-rot fungi can deteriorate pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and even crude oil.


This woodland fungus is a native of Australia and New Zealand that has since spread throughout the world. It grows around leaf litter, decaying stumps, and woodchips. Its “fingers” are smelly and meant to attract flies, which then carry its spores away with them. 


These mushrooms were cultivated in the 19th century and used to be popular in North America, although they fell out of favor until more recently when they’ve been cultivated in Brazil and Japan. The almond mushroom is also thought to combat cancer by stimulating the immune system, though there haven’t been enough studies yet to prove its efficacy. 


You’d think a slime mold would look, well, slimy, but in this case it’s actually more like hair. The furry brown strands are sporangia growing on top of thin, black stalks. For years, slime molds were thought to be fungi, but they’re actually multicellular amoebas whose spore structures mimic those of fungi. 


Chinese civilizations have cultivated reishi mushrooms for medicinal purposes for more than 2000 years. They treat everything from bacterial infections to cancer (though studies are ongoing to see just how effective the mushrooms actually are). But more recently, a mycologist has found an alternative use for them—as building material. Their root-like mycelium is strong, waterproof, and fire-resistant, discovered Philip Ross. The mycelium bricks were even used to build towers at MoMA PS1 in New York.


Coral fungi are aptly named for their resemblance to coral, and they grow all over the world. Red Coral Fungus is a beautiful pinkish color, which turns green when sprinkled with iron salts. It’s also eaten and sold in markets in Mexico and Guatemala.

People Listen (and Remember) Better With Their Right Ears, Study Finds

If you’re having trouble hearing in a noisy situation, you might want to turn your head. New research finds that people of all ages depend more on their right ear than their left, and remember information better if it comes through their right ear. The findings were presented at the annual meeting of the Acoustical Society of America in New Orleans on December 6.

Kids’ ears work differently than adults' do. Previous studies have found that children's auditory systems can’t separate and process information coming through both of their ears at the same time, and rely more on the auditory pathway coming from the right. This reliance on the right ear tends to decrease when kids reach their teens, but the findings suggest that in certain situations, right-ear dominance persists long into adulthood.

To study how we process information through both our ears, Auburn University audiologists brought 41 adult subjects (between the ages of 19 and 28) into the lab to complete dichotic listening tests, which involve listening to different auditory inputs in each ear. They were either supposed to pay attention only to the words, sentences, or numbers they heard in one ear while ignoring the other, or they were asked to repeat all the words they heard in both ears. In this case, the researchers slowly upped the number of items the test subjects were asked to remember during each hearing test.

Instructions for the audio test read 'Repeat back only the numbers you hear in the right ear.'
Sacchinelli, Weaver, Wilson and Cannon - Auburn University

They found that the harder the memory tests got, the more performance varied between the ears. While both ears performed equally when people were asked to remember only four or so words, when the number got higher, the difference between their abilities became more apparent. When asked to only focus on information coming through their right ear, people’s performance on the memory task increased by an average of 8 percent. For some people, the result was even more dramatic—one person performed 40 percent better while listening with only their right ear.

"Conventional research shows that right-ear advantage diminishes around age 13, but our results indicate this is related to the demand of the task,” one of the researchers, assistant professor Aurora Weaver, explained in a press release. In other words, when the going gets tough, the right ear steps up.

Pigeons Are Secretly Brilliant Birds That Understand Space and Time, Study Finds

Of all the birds in the world, the pigeon draws the most ire. Despite their reputation as brainless “rats with wings,” though, they’re actually pretty brilliant (and beautiful) animals. A new study adds more evidence that the family of birds known as pigeons are some of the smartest birds around, as Quartz alerts us.

In addition to being able to distinguish English vocabulary from nonsense words, spot cancer, and tell a Monet from a Picasso, pigeons can understand abstract concepts like space and time, according to the new study published in Current Biology. Their brains just do it in a slightly different way than humans’ do.

Researchers at the University of Iowa set up an experiment where they showed pigeons a computer screen featuring a static horizontal line. The birds were supposed to evaluate the length of the line (either 6 centimeters or 24 centimeters) or the amount of time they saw it (either 2 or 8 seconds). The birds perceived "the longer lines to have longer duration, and lines longer in duration to also be longer in length," according to a press release. This suggests that the concepts are processed in the same region of the brain—as they are in the brains of humans and other primates.

But that abstract thinking doesn’t occur in the same way in bird brains as it does in ours. In humans, perceiving space and time is linked to a region of the brain called the parietal cortex, which the pigeon brains lack entirely. So their brains have to have some other way of processing the concepts.

The study didn’t determine how, exactly, pigeons achieve this cognitive feat, but it’s clear that some other aspect of the central nervous system must be controlling it. That also opens up the possibility that other non-mammal animals can perceive space and time, too, expanding how we think of other animals’ cognitive capabilities.

[h/t Quartz]


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