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15 of the World’s Funkiest Fungi

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When it comes to the natural world, fungi are (truly) in a kingdom all their own. They help humans brew tasty beverages like beer, they recycle nutrients from dead plants and animals, and they provide nutrients for trees. Of course there are others that destroy food crops and kill any humans who accidentally ingest them. You never know what you’re going to get with fungus. In celebration of their weird and wonderful world, here are 15 fungi that will blow your mind (some of them in a literal sense).

1. SHOESTRING FUNGUS (ARMILLARIA OSTOYAE)

Jerzy Opioła via Wikimedia Commons

Hidden underground in Malheur National Forest, Oregon lives a creature so large it makes the blue whale look small. Meet the Humongous Fungus, the world’s biggest living organism. This four-square-mile patch is mostly hidden from view (a few odd mushrooms pop up here and there), but its impact is, well, humungous: this type of fungus causes root disease and kills conifers across North America.

2. BLACK WITCHES' BUTTER (EXIDIA GLANDULOSA)

This blister-like fungus grows on decaying logs and fallen branches, looking flat and rougher in dry conditions and swollen after rain. Despite its unappetizing appearance, the fungus is edible—though you might want to add some seasoning.

3. BLEEDING TOOTH FUNGUS (HYDNELLUM PECKII)

One of the more disgusting-looking fungi of the world might cause concern for hikers who stumble across it. But the red liquid oozing out of it isn’t blood—it emerges due to guttation. This is a process that causes rapidly growing or metabolizing plants to excrete excess fluids. For the bleeding tooth fungus, the fluid happens to be bright red.

4. GLOW IN THE DARK MUSHROOMS (MYCENA CHLOROPHOS)

There are plenty of fungi that exhibit bioluminescence, but this particular species from Southeast Asia is the oldest known example. What makes it give off that eerie green glow? In 2015 scientists discovered a compound called hispidin, an antioxidant that undergoes a chemical reaction to create a glowing light.

5. CHICKEN OF THE WOODS (LAETIPORUS SULPHUREUS)

Do you prefer your poultry in the form of nuggets, drumsticks—or maybe as fungus? This edible mushroom tastes like—you guessed it—chicken. It’s bright yellow and has no gills (the fine, black material you may have noticed on the underside of Portobello mushrooms). But watch out for a variation of this mushroom growing on conifers, since they’re a different species and might cause poisoning. 

6. DUNG CANNON (PILOBOLUS CRYSTALLINUS)

Considering fungi are immobile, the superlative “fastest creature on Earth” might seem impossible. But when it comes to acceleration, the Dung Cannon is indeed the fastest organism: The fungus launches its crystalline spores at an acceleration rate of 1.7 million m/s2—faster than guns and even rocket ships. 

7. RED YEAST RICE (MONASCUS PURPUREUS)

Moldy rice might not sound like an ideal element of a meal, but the mold Monascus purpureus actually makes a popular fermented food with possible medical uses. In addition to being eaten, red yeast rice is also sold as a supplement to decrease cholesterol

8. WAVY-CAPPED MAGIC MUSHROOMS (PSILOCYBE CYANESCENS)

These mushrooms might look innocuous, but they pack a potent dose of psilocybin, a chemical that causes distorted perception, hallucinations, and intensified emotions. In 2001, scientists found 100,000 of the mushrooms growing along a racetrack in England, but more recently these fungi have made the news for their potential in treating mental illnesses like depression, anxiety and PTSD. 

9. GEM-STUDDED PUFFBALL (LYCOPERDON PERLATUM)

Though this member of the puffball family resembles an anemone shell, it’s actually covered in detachable spiny warts. In urban areas it can be found near trampled ground and around curbs. It is edible, but foragers should be particularly careful, since lookalike species include the Pigskin Poison Puffball and the deadly Destroying Angel.

10. WHITE-ROT FUNGUS (PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM)

Given its name, you might think this is a harmful fungus to be avoided. But white-rot fungus (here on the left) is actually quite valuable for its use in bioremediation—cleaning land that’s been contaminated by heavy metals and chemicals. White-rot fungi can deteriorate pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and even crude oil.

11. DEVIL'S FINGERS (CLATHRUS ARCHERI)

This woodland fungus is a native of Australia and New Zealand that has since spread throughout the world. It grows around leaf litter, decaying stumps, and woodchips. Its “fingers” are smelly and meant to attract flies, which then carry its spores away with them. 

12. ALMOND MUSHROOM (AGARICUS SUBRUFESCENS)

These mushrooms were cultivated in the 19th century and used to be popular in North America, although they fell out of favor until more recently when they’ve been cultivated in Brazil and Japan. The almond mushroom is also thought to combat cancer by stimulating the immune system, though there haven’t been enough studies yet to prove its efficacy. 

13. SLIME MOLD (STEMONITIS AXIFERA)

You’d think a slime mold would look, well, slimy, but in this case it’s actually more like hair. The furry brown strands are sporangia growing on top of thin, black stalks. For years, slime molds were thought to be fungi, but they’re actually multicellular amoebas whose spore structures mimic those of fungi. 

14. REISHI MUSHROOMS (GANODERMA LUCIDUM

Chinese civilizations have cultivated reishi mushrooms for medicinal purposes for more than 2000 years. They treat everything from bacterial infections to cancer (though studies are ongoing to see just how effective the mushrooms actually are). But more recently, a mycologist has found an alternative use for them—as building material. Their root-like mycelium is strong, waterproof, and fire-resistant, discovered Philip Ross. The mycelium bricks were even used to build towers at MoMA PS1 in New York.

15. RED CORAL FUNGUS (RAMARIA ARAIOSPORA)

Coral fungi are aptly named for their resemblance to coral, and they grow all over the world. Red Coral Fungus is a beautiful pinkish color, which turns green when sprinkled with iron salts. It’s also eaten and sold in markets in Mexico and Guatemala.

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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Why Your iPhone Doesn't Always Show You the 'Decline Call' Button
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When you get an incoming call to your iPhone, the options that light up your screen aren't always the same. Sometimes you have the option to decline a call, and sometimes you only see a slider that allows you to answer, without an option to send the caller straight to voicemail. Why the difference?

A while back, Business Insider tracked down the answer to this conundrum of modern communication, and the answer turns out to be fairly simple.

If you get a call while your phone is locked, you’ll see the "slide to answer" button. In order to decline the call, you have to double-tap the power button on the top of the phone.

If your phone is unlocked, however, the screen that appears during an incoming call is different. You’ll see the two buttons, "accept" or "decline."

Either way, you get the options to set a reminder to call that person back or to immediately send them a text message. ("Dad, stop calling me at work, it’s 9 a.m.!")

[h/t Business Insider]

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