7 Filtered Facts About the Unappreciated Spleen

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iStock

The human body is an amazing thing. For each one of us, it’s the most intimate object we know. And yet most of us don’t know enough about it: its features, functions, quirks, and mysteries. Our series The Body explores human anatomy part by part. Think of it as a mini digital encyclopedia with a dose of wow.

1. IT'S SHAPED LIKE A SHOE.

The spleen is shoe-shaped, and it’s the largest organ in the lymphatic system at a whopping 5 inches, weighing as much as 6 ounces. The organ is situated between the fundus of the stomach and the diaphragm, and connected by one little ligament to your left kidney, too.

2. IT'S A BLOOD FILTER.

Your spleen is in charge of filtering blood as it moves through your body to control the production of red blood cells. It also defines the donut-like shape of red blood cells, which must squeeze through an opening in the spleen known as the interendothelial slit. This reshapes the cells before they pass back into the blood stream—or, if they are old, misshapen, or diseased, blocks them from returning.  

3. IT'S A POWERHOUSE INFECTION FIGHTER.

As recently as 2009, researchers discovered that the spleen plays host to a special cache of immune cells called monocytes. If the human body suffers a serious trauma, such as a heart attack, wound, or big infection, the spleen sends those monocytes into the blood stream to fight off infection.

4. ITS LOCATION IS BOTH IDEAL AND DANGEROUS.

From Anatomy of the Human Body by Henry Gray via Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

 
The spleen is neatly tucked up under the left side of the rib cage, where it’s protected by those lateral bones. But this also means a broken rib could pierce the fragile organ and rupture it. If the organ is breached, usually during a traumatic injury like a car accident, it has to be removed immediately. Because the spleen has so many blood vessels, a person would otherwise bleed to death.

5. YOU CAN LIVE WITHOUT IT.

Unlike, say, your stomach or lungs, the spleen is not considered a “vital” organ, which simply means that it can be surgically removed and you’ll be mostly fine, though potentially prone to more infections.

6. THERE HAVE BEEN SPLEEN TRANSPLANTS.

A handful of these procedures have been done with some success on humans to boost infection-fighting power, but they are rare, and are usually transplanted in patients who have already lost their own spleens.

7. NO ONE LIKES A SPLEENFUL PERSON.

In medieval times, people believed your spleen was the source of “morose feelings and bad temper.” The connotation entered into common speech (via Latin, splen)—no one would want to be around you if you were spleenful, though spleenless was a prized way to be. Today, the word spleen is still in Webster’s Dictionary meaning “feelings of ill-will or anger, often suppressed.”

10 Facts About Your Tonsils

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iStock/Neustockimages

Most of us only become aware of our tonsils if they become swollen or infected. But these masses of lymphatic tissue in the mouth and throat are important immunological gatekeepers at the start of the airways and digestive tract, grabbing pathogens and warding off diseases before they reach the rest of your body. Here are some essential answers about these often-overlooked tissues—like what to do when your tonsils are swollen, and whether you should get your tonsils removed.

1. People actually have four kinds of tonsils.

The term tonsils usually refers to your palatine tonsils, the ones that can be seen at the back of your throat. But tonsillar tissue also includes the lingual tonsil (located in the base of the tongue), tubal tonsils, and the adenoid tonsil (often just called adenoids). "Collectively, these are referred to as Waldeyer's ring," says Raja Seethala, the director of head and neck pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and a member of the College of American Pathologists Cancer Committee.

2. Tonsils are one of the body's first responders to pathogens.

The tonsils are a key barrier to inhaled or ingested pathogens that can cause infection or other harm, Seethala tells Mental Floss. "These pathogens bind to specialized immune cells in the lining—epithelium—to elicit an immune response in the lymphoid T and B cells of the tonsil," he says. Essentially, they help jumpstart your immune response.

3. Adenoid tonsils can obstruct breathing and cause facial deformities.

If the adenoid tonsils are swollen, they can block breathing and clog up your sinus drainage, which can cause sinus and ear infections. If adenoids are too big, it forces a person to breathe through their mouth. In children, frequent mouth breathing has the potential to cause facial deformities by stressing developing facial bones. "If the tonsils are too large and cause airway obstruction, snoring, or obstructive sleep apnea, then removal is important," says Donald Levine, an ear, nose, and throat specialist in Nyack, New York. Fortunately, the adenoids tend to get smaller naturally in adulthood.

4. As many of us know, sometimes tonsils are removed.

Even though your tonsils are part of your immune system, Levine tells Mental Floss, "when they become obstructive or chronically infected, then they need to be removed." The rest of your immune system steps in to handle further attacks by pathogens. Another reason to remove tonsils besides size, Levine says, is "chronic tonsillitis due to the failure of the immune system to remove residual bacteria from the tonsils, despite multiple antibiotic therapies."

5. Tonsillectomies have been performed for thousands of years ...

Tonsil removal is believed to have been a phenomenon for three millennia. The procedure is found in ancient Ayurvedic texts, says Seethala, "making it one of the older documented surgical procedures." But though the scientific understanding of the surgery has changed dramatically since then, "the benefits versus harm of tonsillectomy have been continually debated over the centuries," he says.

6. ... and they were probably quite painful.

The first known reported case of tonsillectomy surgery, according to a 2006 paper in Otorhinolaryngology, is by Cornélio Celsus, a Roman "encylopaediest" and dabbler in medicine, who authored a medical encyclopedia titled Of Medicine in the 1st century BCE. Thanks to his work, we can surmise that a tonsillectomy probably was an agonizing procedure for the patient: "Celsus applied a mixture of vinegar and milk in the surgical specimen to hemostasis [stanch bleeding] and also described his difficulty doing that due to lack of proper anesthesia."

7. Tonsil removal was performed for unlikely reasons.

The same paper reveals that among some of the more outlandish reasons for removing tonsils were conditions like "night enuresis (bed-wetting), convulsions, laryngeal stridor, hoarseness, chronic bronchitis, and asthma."

8. An early treatment for swollen tonsils included frog fat.

As early practitioners struggled to perfect techniques for removing tonsils effectively, another early physician, Aetius de Amida, recommended "ointment, oils, and corrosive formulas with frog fat to treat infections."

9. Modern tonsillectomy is much more sophisticated.

A common technique today for removing the tonsils, according to Levine, is a far cry from the painful early attempts. Under brief general anesthesia, Levine uses a process called coblation. "[It's] a kind of cold cautery, so there is almost no bleeding, less post operative pain, and quicker healing. You can return to normal activities 10 days later," Levine says.

10. Sexually-transmitted HPV can cause tonsil cancer.

The incidence of tonsillar cancers is increasing, according to Seethala. "Unlike other head and neck cancers, which are commonly associated with smoking and alcohol, tonsillar cancers are driven by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)," he says. "HPV-related tonsillar cancer can be considered sexually transmitted."

26 Amazing Facts About the Human Body

Mental Floss via YouTube
Mental Floss via YouTube

At some point in your life, you've probably wondered: What is belly button lint, anyway? The answer, according to Mental Floss editor-in-chief Erin McCarthy, is that it's "fibers that rub off of clothing over time." And hairy people are more prone to getting it for a very specific (and kind of gross-sounding) reason. A group of scientists who formed the Belly Button Biodiversity Project in 2011 have also discovered that there's a whole lot of bacteria going on in there.

In this week's all-new edition of The List Show, Erin is sharing 26 amazing facts about the human body, from your philtrum (the dent under your nose) to your feet. You can watch the full episode below.

For more episodes like this one, be sure to subscribe here.

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