When Theodore Roosevelt Tried to Reform the English Language

Getty Images
Getty Images

A number of famous names have been involved in reforming the English spelling system over the centuries, but probably one of the most unexpected names on that list is Theodore Roosevelt. Known for his uncompromising stance on many issues, in the early 1900s Roosevelt used the full power of his position to try to force through several hundred new spelling reforms in an attempt to make the language—and the cost of printing government documents—more economical. Despite even the president’s involvement, however, in the end Roosevelt’s war on spelling collapsed before it was able to have any lasting effect on our spelling.

FRANKLIN, WEBSTER, AND THE WAR ON WORDS

Probably the most famous spelling reformer in the history of American English, if not the English language as a whole, is Noah Webster. He famously proposed a number of potential simplifications of the English language in his Compendious Dictionary in 1806, and then again in his American Dictionary of the English Language in 1828. Webster’s proposals, however, were actually inspired by the earlier work of Benjamin Franklin, whose idea for reforming the English language involved both adopting a purely phonetic spelling system and dropping the letters C, J, Q, W, X, and Y from the alphabet entirely, to be replaced by six less potentially ambiguous letters of his own design.

Franklin devised his phonetic alphabet as far back as 1768, when he wrote a letter to a friend to explain that “if we go on as we have done a few Centuries longer, our words will gradually cease to express Sounds; they will only stand for things, as the written words do in the Chinese Language.” Although Franklin’s ultimate goal of increasing literacy and making English easier to learn was commendable, his friend, Mary "Polly" Stevenson, was unimpressed with his proposal. Using Franklin’s invented alphabet for her reply, she pointed out that using a purely phonetic alphabet meant cutting the ties between spelling and etymology, and would make differentiating between words that sound the same all but impossible. Webster, however, was more enthusiastic.

In 1786, he sent his own plan for a purely phonetic alphabet to Franklin, hoping to win his support in establishing it as a national standard. Franklin responded positively, saying, “I think the Reformation not only necessary but practicable.” The founding father suggested that, since he had already done a great deal of work on the subject (and due to inherent difficulties in discussing such things in letter format), the two should meet up to discuss a path forward. But in reality, Franklin no doubt envisaged the enormous difficulty in implementing such a scheme nationwide.

The idea was eventually abandoned, and Webster—driven by a desire to sever ties between the English used in Great Britain and the English used in the newly independent United States—was left to pursue much less radical changes. Although not all of the spelling reforms he went on to suggest may have hit the mark (his preference for the spellings tung, soop, aker, dawter, porpess, beleev, and masheen leave a lot to be desired), Webster was more successful when it came to the likes of dropping the extraneous letters of colour, waggon, and publick, and simplifying the spelling of words like plough and aeon—changes that continue to divide British and American English today.

PITMAN SHORTHAND AND BRIGHAM YOUNG'S ALPHABET

Other attempts to reform the language followed on both sides of the Atlantic throughout the 19th century. In the 1830s, the British schoolteacher Isaac Pitman published a series of pamphlets arguing for a reform of the English language; his research eventually led to his invention of a shorthand writing system. In 1842, a French scholar named Auguste Thibaudin proposed an insanely complicated alphanumeric system—albeit one that would work across all languages that used the Roman alphabet—in which different vowel sounds were replaced with the numbers from 1 to 9 and six additional symbols. Even Mormon Church leader Brigham Young got in on the act in 1854, advocating that his followers use a “Deseret Alphabet” developed by a committee at the University of Deseret (now the University of Utah). And following the formation of the Spelling Reform Association in 1876, in 1898 America’s National Education Association put its weight (with varying degrees of success) behind the adoption of 12 of the SRA’s suggested reforms in all educational material nationwide: program, tho, altho, thoro, thorofare, thru, thruout, catalog, prolog, decalog, demagog, and pedagog.

But perhaps the last major attempt to reform the English spelling system came almost a century after the publication of Webster’s Compendious Dictionary, and it was this final attempt that gained the support of President Roosevelt—and the most powerful and well-known American writers and figures of the day.

CARNEGIE AND THE SIMPLIFIED SPELLING BOARD

The Simplified Spelling Board was founded in 1906 by the Scottish-born steel magnate and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie had long had an interest in language and the arts (he funded and gave his name to more than 2500 libraries worldwide), and, prompted by the various attempts at simplifying the language in the 1800s, soon turned his attention to spelling reform after the turn of the century. Given his background in business and overseas trade, Carnegie saw the potential for English to become, as The New York Times put it, “the world language of the future,” and saw a single global language common to everyone as a stepping stone to world peace. But in this respect, he believed, English was being held back by its “contradictory and difficult spelling.”

In response, Carnegie funded the establishment of a board of experts tasked with reforming the language to make it easier to learn and more economical, both linguistically and financially—removing all the unnecessary letters from all the words in the language could, after all, save a considerable amount of ink and paper.

As the Board’s first published circular explained in 1906:

[The present English spelling system] wastes a large part of time and effort given to the instruction of our children, keeping them, for example, from one to two years behind the schoolchildren of Germany … Moreover, the printing, typewriting and handwriting of the useless letters which our spelling prescribes … wastes every year millions of dollars, and time and effort worth millions more.

Carnegie set aside $15,000 per year (eventually raised to an eye-watering $25,000) for five years to fund the project, equivalent to well over $2 million today. He secured a plush office space on Madison Avenue in New York, and there assembled a group of 30 writers, language experts, scholars, and public figures—among them Melvil Dewey (of the Dewey Decimal System) and David Josiah Brewer (Associate Justice of the Supreme Court). According to its chairman, Columbia University’s professor of dramatic literature Brander Matthews, the principal aim of the Simplified Spelling Board was merely to accelerate the kinds of language changes that were likely to occur over time anyway, regardless of the Board’s involvement. To that end, they were to focus in particular on dropping unneeded or unpronounced letters—or, as Professor Matthews put it, a kind of “simplification by omission.”

Their first task was merely to advocate further the 12 spelling reforms put forward by the Spelling Reform and National Education Associations in 1898, which entailed lobbying several influential writers and publications (The New York Times among them) to utilize the reforms in their work. But having set to work themselves, it wasn’t long before the Board had soon assembled its own selection of 300 such reforms, which they published in full at the end of March 1906.

KIST, MIST, PAST: THE BOARD'S SUGGESTED REFORMS

Many of the Board’s own suggestions had already been proposed by Webster, or else were already establishing themselves as perfectly acceptable spelling variations in American English, like center, checks, esthetic, theater, and sulfurous; the use of S instead of C in words like offense and defense; and the dropping of the extraneous E's in the likes of judgment, lodgment, and acknowledgment. Many of the Board’s choices were likewise relatively understandable alterations, aimed merely at simplifying troublesome words. So the G was lost from apothegm, and the vowel clusters in words like archaeology, subpoena, and diaeresis were reduced. Other suggestions, however, were more radical.

Purr and burr were to be clipped to pur and bur. Out went the letter A in the middle of deth. Steadfast became stedfast. Hard S's were to be changed to Z's, so that surprise, compromise, and partisan became surprize, compromize, and partizan. Rhyme became rime. Phoenix became phenix. Gazelle became gazel. And, perhaps most bizarrely of all, the straightforward –ed endings of a number of words were to be uncompromisingly replaced with –t, so that as well as kist, addrest, propt, wrapt, clapt, flipt, and dipt, the word passed became past and the word missed became mist, regardless of any potential confusion that might cause.

Despite several questionable choices and troublesome shortcomings like these, the Board’s suggestions were initially well received by the press and were even advocated by the New York Board of Education for use in the city’s schools. But the biggest step forward came several months after the list was published, on August 27, 1906: Reportedly without contacting the Board first, President Roosevelt issued an executive order forcing all future publications of the Government Printing Office to adopt the new spelling system in its entirety. The move was an immense, if somewhat unexpected, coup for the success of the Board’s project—but, as it turned out, it was one that would eventually lead to its collapse.

BACKLASH AND THE AFTERMATH: THE RESPONSE TO RUSEVELT'S RULES

Roosevelt’s characteristically no-nonsense and swift-acting approach was nothing new (he passed more than 1000 executive orders during his presidency; Barack Obama has signed around 250). But his steamroller approach to the language and to spelling reform did not go down well, both at home and abroad. A wave of satirical cartoons and damning newspaper editorials ensued on both sides of the Atlantic, all of them mocking the President’s apparent war on language.

"Nuthing escapes Mr. Rucevelt. No subject is tu hi fr him to takl, nor tu lo for him tu notis. He makes tretis without the consent of the Senit. He inforces such laws as meet his approval, and fales to se those that do not soot him. He now assales the English langgwidg, constitutes himself as a sort of Frensh academy, and will reform the spelling in a way tu soot himself."

—The Louisville Courier-Journal, 1906

The Baltimore Sun questioned whether President Roosevelt would now spell his name “Rusevelt.” The New York Times reported that “Roosevelt’s spelling order has done him more harm than perhaps any other act of his since he became president.” In Britain, the feeling was even more vitriolic: the Pall Mall Gazette labeled him “an anarchist,” while the Saturday Review called America “The Home of the Free and the Paradise of the Half-Educated.” The London Evening Standard raged, “How dare this Roosevelt fellow … dictate to us how to spell a language which was ours while America was still a savage and undiscovered country!” Even Roosevelt’s wife, Edith, joked that the president only supported the reform because he didn’t know “how to spell anything.”

In the face of all this criticism, the Supreme Court chose to ignore Roosevelt’s decree—but the President remained steadfast, even going so far as to employ the spelling system he was so staunchly advocating in his annual address to Congress in 1906, in which he wrote of naval recruits being “put thru” too quickly to senior grades at “regimental posts scattered thruout the country.” But it was all for nothing: On December 13, 1906, the House of Representatives voted 142–25 to banish the suggested spelling reforms from their publications, and dictated instead that all United States government documents “should observe and adhere to the standard of orthography prescribed in generally accepted dictionaries of the English language.” Roosevelt was defeated.

Despite a protest by Professor Matthews, the president immediately repealed his executive order, stating that it was “evidently worse than useless to go into an undignified contest” against Congress, but concluded finally that, “I am mighty glad I did the thing anyhow.” Mark Twain was just as disappointed, and wrote to Carnegie to say that “I am sory as a dog, for I do love revolutions and violense.” Carnegie didn’t lose faith immediately, though. He continued funding the group through 1915 when, $300,000 poorer, he wrote to Matthews to explain that he was withdrawing its funding: “I think I have been patient long enuf,” he wrote. “I have a much better use for twenty-five thousand dollars a year.”

Both Roosevelt and Carnegie died in 1919, after which the Board struggled to secure more funding. Their last act was to publish a Handbook of Simplified Spelling, written wholly in their reformed English, in 1920, before they finally disbanded later that year. Although a number of the Board’s suggested reforms remain in place today, on the whole the project failed to have much of a lasting effect on the language—despite having the backing of a president.

Theodore Roosevelt: A Timeline of the 26th President's Life

Hulton Archive/Getty Images
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

The first season of our new podcast, History Vs., is all about Theodore Roosevelt: author, rancher, naturalist, and 26th president. (Make sure to subscribe if you haven't already!) As you're listening, follow along with this timeline.

Sources: Timeline of Theodore Roosevelt's Life, Library of Congress; Timeline, Theodore Roosevelt Center; Timeline, Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site.

1855

January 18, 1855

TR's oldest sister, Anna Roosevelt, a.k.a. Bamie or Bye, is born.

1858

October 27, 1858

Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. is born to Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. (Thee) and Martha Bulloch Roosevelt (Mittie) at 28 E. 20th Street in New York City.

1860

February 28, 1860

TR's brother, Elliott Roosevelt, is born.

1861

September 27, 1861

TR's sister, Corinne Roosevelt, is born.

1865

April 25, 1865

Theodore and Elliott watch Abraham Lincoln’s funeral procession from the window of their grandfather’s New York City mansion.

1869

May 1869

The Roosevelt family—including the kids, Anna (Bamie or Bye), Theodore, Elliott, and Corinne—take a trip to Europe.

1870

March 1870

The Roosevelts return from their trip abroad.

Thee issues a challenge to his son to build his body; Theodore accepts and gets to work.

Thee helps found the American Museum of Natural History.

TR begins "The Roosevelt Museum of Natural History."

1871

TR receives his first pair of glasses.

1872

The Roosevelts travel to Egypt and the Holy Land.

TR receives a gun for his 14th birthday.

1873

Theodore, Elliott, and Corrine live with a family in Dresden, Germany, for five months.

November 5, 1873

The Roosevelts return home to New York.

1874

The Roosevelts spend their first summer in Oyster Bay, the future location of TR's Sagamore Hill Estate.

1876

Theodore enters Harvard.

1877

President Rutherford B. Hayes nominates Thee for the position of Collector of Customs to the Port of New York. The Senate rejects the nomination.

July 1877

TR writes The Summer Birds of the Adirondacks.

1878

February 9, 1878

Thee dies of stomach cancer.

September 7, 1878

Roosevelt spends time with Bill Sewall in Maine.

October 18, 1878

Theodore meets Alice Hathaway Lee, his future wife.

1880

June 30, 1880

Theodore graduates from Harvard (magna cum laude).

October 27, 1880

Theodore marries Alice Hathaway Lee (whose nickname is “Sunshine”) on his 22nd birthday.

December 1880

Theodore enters law school at Columbia. (He later drops out.)

1881

August 1881

Roosevelt summits the Matterhorn while honeymooning with Alice.

November 9, 1881

Theodore is elected to the New York State Assembly, representing the 21st district.

1882

TR’s first book, The Naval War of 1812, is published.

August 1882

TR joins the National Guard; is a second lieutenant.

1883

January 1, 1883

TR is elected Speaker of the Republican Assembly.

September 1883

Theodore travels to the Dakota Badlands to hunt bison and purchases a stake in a ranch there.

November 1883

TR is re-elected to the NY State assembly.

1884

February 12, 1884

Alice gives birth to a healthy baby girl and names her Alice Lee.

February 14, 1884

Mittie dies of typhoid fever; a few hours later, Alice Hathaway Lee dies of Bright’s disease.

February 16, 1884

Alice and Mittie have a double funeral and are buried in Brooklyn’s Green-Wood Cemetery.

February 17, 1884

TR and Alice’s daughter is christened.

March 1884

TR commissions a home to be built in Long Island for his daughter Alice; it will become Sagamore Hill.

June 1884

Roosevelt serves as a delegate at the Republican National Convention in Chicago.

Late 1884

TR sells his home in New York City and leaves for the Dakotas, leaving Alice—whom he calls “Baby Lee”—in the care of his oldest sister, Bamie. He establishes Elkhorn Ranch in the Dakotas.

October 1884

TR briefly returns to New York to work on the Blaine presidential campaign; heads back to Elkhorn in November.

December 1884

TR helps to organize the Little Missouri River Stockmen’s Association, but returns to New York for Christmas.

1885

March 1885

TR’s book, Hunting Trips of a Ranchman, is published.

April 1885

Returns to the Dakotas; has a bar fight in Mingusville (now Wibaux, Montana).

May 1885

Participates in the spring cattle roundup, which lasts 32 days.

June 1885

Returns to New York, where Sagamore Hill is completed.

November 1885

Secretly begins courting his childhood sweetheart, Edith Kermit Carow.

1886

TR becomes secretly engaged to Edith, after which he returns to the Badlands.

Spring 1886

Roosevelt, along with Bill Sewall and Wilmot Dow, pursue—and apprehend—three thieves who had stolen TR's boat from his Elkhorn Ranch. After he caught the bandits, he marched them overland, though extremely rugged areas, to face justice in Dickinson, North Dakota.

September 1886

TR returns to New York.

TR is nominated for mayor of New York on the Republican ticket, but later loses the election to Abram S. Hewitt.

December 2, 1886

TR and Edith marry in London.

A terrible winter—one of the worst in recorded history—begins in the Dakotas.

1887

March 1887

TR and Edith return to New York after their European honeymoon.

TR’s book on Thomas Hart Benton is published.

April 1887

TR visits the Dakotas to determine how much cattle he lost over the winter; half of his herd is gone. He begins to sell off his interests.

May 1887

Baby Alice comes to live with TR and Edith in Sagamore Hill.

September 13, 1887

Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. (Ted) is born.

1888

Three books of TR’s are published: Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail, Gouverneur Morris, and Essays on Practical Politics.

1889

May 1889

Roosevelt is appointed to the Civil Service Commission and moves to Washington, D.C.

The first two volumes of TR’s four-volume series, The Winning of the West, are published.

October 10, 1889

Kermit Roosevelt, TR and Edith’s second child, is born.

1891

August 13, 1891

Ethel Carow, TR and Edith’s third child, is born.

1893

The Wilderness Hunter is published.

1894

The third volume of The Winning of the West is published.

April 10, 1894

Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt, TR and Edith’s fourth child, is born.

August 14, 1894

TR's brother, Elliott, dies.

1895

TR and Henry Cabot Lodge’s book, Hero Tales from American History, is published.

TR accepts a position on New York City’s board of police commissioners.

June 23, 1895

TR deploys 2000 officers to enforce the Excise Law in saloons across New York.

September 1895

Thirty thousand mostly German or German-Americans parade down Lexington Avenue to oppose TR’s enforcement of the Excise Law.

1896

The fourth volume of The Winning of the West is published.

1897

American Ideals and Some American Game are published.

April 1897

President William McKinley appoints TR Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Navy.

November 19, 1897

Quentin Roosevelt, TR and Edith’s fifth child, is born.

1898

May 1898

T. R. resigns his post as assistant secretary of the Navy to fight in the Spanish-American War. He is lieutenant colonel of the first U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment to fight in the war.

June 22, 1898

T.R. and the Rough Riders land in Cuba.

June 30, 1898

TR is given command of the Rough Riders and is made a colonel.

July 1, 1898

TR and the Rough Riders charge up Kettle Hill.

August 15, 1898

The Rough Riders come back to New York and are quarantined in Montauk.

November 8, 1898

TR is elected governor of New York.

1899

TR’s book The Rough Riders is published.

1900

TR publishes two books: A biography of Oliver Cromwell and The Strenuous Life.

November 1900

William McKinley is elected for a second term; TR is his vice president.

1901

March 4, 1901

McKinley and TR are inaugurated.

September 6, 1901

President William McKinley is shot in Buffalo, New York.

September 14, 1901

McKinley dies after being shot; TR is sworn in as president in Buffalo, New York.

October 16, 1901

Booker T. Washington dines with TR and his family in the White House. It was the first time a black person had eaten at the same table as a president, and it caused a scandal.

1902

February 18, 1902

TR orders the Justice Department to bring an anti-trust suit against Northern Securities; the court rules in 1904 that Northern Securities must dissolve.

May 1902

TR authorizes the creation of Crater Lake National Park in Oregon.

September 3, 1902

TR bruises his leg in a carriage accident and develops an infection that would lead to emergency surgery.

October 1902

TR mediates a labor dispute between mine workers and the coal industry, threatening to send troops to take over the mines if a resolution isn’t reached. (Thankfully, one is.)

November 14, 1902

Roosevelt goes on a hunting trip in Mississippi, where he refuses to shoot a bear tied to a tree. The event leads to the creation of the Teddy Bear.

December 1902

The president tells Germany that the United States will take action if Germany invades Venezuela to collect on debts. Later, he helps settle the dispute.

1903

March 14, 1903

Via an executive order, TR establishes Pelican Island in Florida, a bird reservation and the first time the government set aside land devoted to protecting wildlife.

May 1903

TR and John Muir go camping in Yosemite.

November 18, 1903

Panama Canal Treaty is signed.

1904

November 8, 1904

TR wins his reelection bid for president, defeating Democratic nominee Alton B. Parker by a wide margin. Roosevelt had 336 electoral votes to Parker’s 140.

December 6, 1904

Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.

1905

February 1, 1905

TR signs the act that facilitates the creation of the National Forest Service.

March 4, 1905

TR’s second presidential inauguration ceremony is held.

March 17, 1905

TR attends the wedding of his niece, Eleanor Roosevelt, to Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

June 2, 1905

TR creates the first federal game preserve in Wichita Forest, Oklahoma.

July 8, 1905

TR’s daughter Alice sets sail for Asia with Taft and other diplomatic delegates.

August 9, 1905

TR publishes Outdoor Pastimes of an American Hunter.

August 25, 1905

TR takes a ride in the USS Plunger off Long Island.

August 29, 1905

TR’s attempts to mediate talks between Russia and Japan to bring peace between the two countries are successful.

September 5, 1905

Signing of the Portsmouth Treaty, which ends the Russo-Japanese War.

1906

January 1906

TR brokers successful talks between Germany and France over their respective influence in Morocco.

February 17, 1906

TR’s daughter Alice marries Republican Congressman Nicholas Longworth on the White House lawn.

June 8, 1906

TR signs the Antiquities Act.

June 30, 1906

TR’s push to regulate the meatpacking and food industries culminates with the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act, which oversee quality standards for consumer goods.

August 1906

TR dishonorably discharges a regiment of black soldiers accused of killing a white bartender and wounding a white police officer in Brownsville, Texas. An investigation later revealed they had likely been framed and 14 men were allowed to reenlist.

November 1906

TR becomes the first president to travel to a foreign country while in office, visiting Panama to check on the construction of the Panama Canal.

December 1906

TR wins the Nobel Peace Prize for his role in ending the conflict between Russia and Japan. He is the first American to win a Nobel Prize of any kind.

1907

TR publishes Good Hunting.

January 1, 1907

TR sets a world record when he shakes 8513 hands.

December 16, 1907

TR’s notion to impress the rest of the world with military power results in the Great White Fleet, a naval spectacle with 16 ships and 14,000 sailors that spends the next 14 months touring the globe.

1908

January 11, 1908

TR designates the Grand Canyon in Arizona as a National Monument.

June, 1908

After TR decides not to pursue a third term, the Republican party nominates William Howard Taft as their presidential candidate.

1909

March 1909

TR joins the editorial staff of the small weekly news magazine The Outlook.

Roosevelt leaves the White House as William Howard Taft is sworn in as president.

April 1909

Roosevelt begins a yearlong safari in Mombasa in British East Africa accompanied by his son Kermit. By the end of the expedition, he has killed 296 animals.

April 1909

Roosevelt publishes Outlook Editorials.

1910

March 1910

TR publishes African Game Trails, American Problems, The New Nationalism, and African and European Addresses.

March 1910

TR embarks on a tour of Europe, including Budapest, Paris, and Brussels.

August 1910

TR visits 16 states on a speaking tour to promote his New Nationalism, which argues against special privileges for businesses in government and advocates equal rights for all citizens.

December 1910

Roosevelt travels to Norway to accept his Nobel Peace Prize.

1911

October 27, 1911

William Howard Taft’s Justice Department accuses J.P. Morgan’s U.S. Steel of violating the Sherman Act, breaking TR’s promise to Morgan that U.S. Steel wouldn’t be prosecuted.

1912

February 1912

TR throws his hat in the ring, announcing that he's running for president as a Republican.

June 1912

Republicans nominate incumbent President William Howard Taft as their party candidate.

August 5, 1912

The new National Progressive party, which is nicknamed the “Bull Moose” party, makes its official debut at a convention in Chicago.

August 7, 1912

TR is nominated to be the National Progressive party’s candidate for president.

October 14, 1912

John Schrank shoots TR in the chest when he comes to Milwaukee to deliver a campaign speech. Roosevelt finishes the speech before seeking medical treatment.

November 1912

TR receives the largest number of votes of any third-party candidate, but loses the presidential election to Democrat Woodrow Wilson.

1913

Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography, History as Literature and Other Essays, and Progressive Principles are published.

October 1913

TR travels to South America for lecture tour.

Late 1913

TR sets off on a harrowing expedition to chart the River of Doubt in Brazil’s Amazon Rainforest; the first part of the expedition takes place over land.

1914

February 27, 1914

The expedition starts down the River of Doubt.

April 1914

TR completes the journey in the Amazon and the river is dubbed Rio Roosevelt or Rio Teodoro after him.

May 1914

Roosevelt returns home to New York and publishes the books Through the Brazilian Wilderness and Life-Histories of African Game Animals.

September 1914

Following the start of World War I, TR calls for "a world league for the peace of righteousness," foreshadowing the League of Nations.

1915

America and the World War by Theodore Roosevelt is published.

April - May, 1915

TR is the defendant in a libel suit brought by Republican machine boss William Barnes. TR wins.

1916

TR publishes Fear God and Take Your Own Part and A Booklover’s Holidays in the Open.

1917

TR’s four sons join the military to fight in World War I, and his daughter Ethel becomes a Red Cross nurse.

May 19, 1917

Wilson refuses TR's request to take a volunteer force—the Rough Riders 2.0—to the Western front of WWI.

1918

July 14, 1918

TR’s son Quentin dies after his plane is shot down over France.

November 1918

The Great Adventure by Theodore Roosevelt is published.

TR spends more than a month in the hospital being treated for recurring abscesses.

1919

January 3, 1919

TR dictates an editorial to the Kansas City Star on the proposed League of Nations.

January 5, 1919

TR dictates an article to the Metropolitan voicing support for women’s suffrage.

January 6, 1919

Theodore Roosevelt, 60, dies in his sleep at 4:15 a.m. after a pulmonary embolism.

January 8, 1919

Theodore Roosevelt is buried at Youngs Memorial Cemetery in Oyster Bay.

A Handy Map of All the Royal Residences in the UK

Frogmore House, Prince Harry and Meghan Markle's primary estate on the grounds of Windsor Castle.
Frogmore House, Prince Harry and Meghan Markle's primary estate on the grounds of Windsor Castle.

Somewhere along the way, you probably learned that Buckingham Palace is home to the ruler of the United Kingdom and many unflinching, fancily clad guards. And, if you watch The Crown or keep a close eye on royal family news, you might recognize the names of other estates like Windsor Castle and Kensington Palace.

But what about Gatcombe Park, Llwynywermod, or any of the other royal residences? To fill in the gaps of your knowledge, UK-based money-lending site QuickQuid created a map and corresponding illustrations of all 20 properties, and compiled the need-to-know details about each place.

quickquid map of royal family residences
QuickQuid

Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip kept eight estates for themselves, and divvied up the rest among their children and grandchildren, some of whom have purchased their own properties, too. Though Buckingham Palace is still considered the official residence of the Queen, she now splits most of her time between Windsor Castle and other holiday homes like Balmoral Castle in Scotland and Sandringham House, which Prince Philip is responsible for maintaining.

quickquid illustration of royal family residences
QuickQuid

Windsor shares its grounds with two other properties: Prince Harry and Meghan Markle’s home, Frogmore House, and the Royal Lodge, where Prince Andrew (the Queen’s second youngest child) lives.

illustration of frogmore house
QuickQuid

Southwest of Windsor is Highgrove House, Prince Charles’s official family home with wife Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall. They also own Birkhall in Scotland, Clarence House in London, Tamarisk House on the Isles of Scilly, and the aforementioned Llwynywermod in Wales. Much like the Queen herself does, Charles and Camilla basically have a different house for each region they visit.

illustration of highgrove house
QuickQuid

In 2011, the Queen gave Anmer Hall—which is on the grounds of Sandringham House—to Prince William and Kate Middleton as a wedding gift, but they’ve recently relocated to Kensington Palace so Prince George could attend school in London.

Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip’s only daughter, Anne, resides in Gatcombe Park with her daughter, Zara Tindall. Anne also owns St. James’s Palace in London, where her niece (Princess Beatrice of York) and her mother’s cousin (Princess Alexandra) sometimes live.

Lastly there's Edward, Elizabeth and Philip's youngest son, who lives with his wife in Bagshot Park, which architectural historian Nikolaus Pevsner called “bad, purposeless, [and] ugly.”

illustration of bagshot park
QuickQuid

If you’re feeling particularly cramped in your tiny one-bedroom apartment (or even regular-sized house) after reading about the royal family’s overabundance of real estate, take solace in the knowledge that at least you’ll never have to follow their strict fashion rules.

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER