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AI System Composes Beatles-Style Pop Song

Sony CSL Research Laboratory has taken a major step towards making human musicians obsolete. Inverse reports that researchers at Sony have released a catchy pop song inspired by The Beatles but composed by an artificial intelligence system called Flow Machines.

In order to create the song, which is called "Daddy's Car," researchers set up a database of sheet music by a range of musicians, in a range of styles. A human composer selected the style of the song—in this case, the 1960s pop stylings of The Beatles—while Flow Machines composed the melody and harmony. A human musician then produced and mixed the song. Sony plans to officially release "Daddy's Car," which can be heard above, on a pop album composed entirely by artificial intelligence sometime in 2017.

[h/t Inverse]

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The Evolution of "Two" in the Indo-European Language Family
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The Indo-European language family includes most of the languages of Europe as well as many languages in Asia. There is a long research tradition that has shown, though careful historical comparison, that languages spanning a huge linguistic and geographical range, from French to Greek to Russian to Hindi to Persian, are all related to each other and sprung from a common source, Proto-Indo-European. One of the techniques for studying the relationship of the different languages to each other is to look at the similarities between individual words and work out the sound changes that led from one language to the next.

This diagram, submitted to Reddit by user IronChestplate1, shows the word for two in various Indo-European languages. (The “proto” versions, marked with an asterisk, are hypothesized forms, built by working backward from historical evidence.) The languages cluster around certain common features, but the words are all strikingly similar, especially when you consider the words for two in languages outside the Indo-European family: iki (Turkish), èjì (Yoruba), ni (Japanese), kaksi (Finnish), etc. There are many possible forms two could take, but in this particular group of languages it is extremely limited. What are the chances of that happening by accident? Once you see it laid out like this, it doesn’t take much to put *dwóh and *dwóh together.

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Beyond Plumbing: 19 Other Jobs on Mario's Resume
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Nintendo made news this week by subtly announcing that Mario is no longer a plumber. In fact, they're really downplaying his whole plumbing career. On the character's Japanese-language bio, the company says, "He also seems to have worked as a plumber a long time ago."

But Mario has always had plenty of jobs on the side. Here's a look at his resume:

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