CLOSE
Original image
Tanaka S, Sagara H, Kunieda.

Water Bears’ DNA Makes Them Practically Indestructible

Original image
Tanaka S, Sagara H, Kunieda.

Burn it. Freeze it. Chuck it into space. Water bear don’t care. The water bear, also known as the tardigrade or moss piglet, is one of the weirdest and toughest creatures on the planet. Now new research published in the journal Nature Communications suggests we might someday be able to borrow its resilience to use in our own flimsy, floppy bodies.

Tardigrades are extremophiles—that is, they can keep trucking in unbelievably hostile environments, from scorching deserts to the vacuum of space. This astonishing near-indestructibility has, understandably, made them especially appealing to scientists, who have been working for years to pick apart the genetic basis of the microscopic creatures’ badassery. But the more we learn about these creatures, the weirder they seem to get.

In 2015, a group of researchers reported one possible source of the tardigrade’s toughness: burglary. While looking at the genome of the tardigrade species Hypsibius dujardini, the team said they found all kinds of genes that belonged to other organisms, including fungi and bacteria. Horizontal gene transfer (when one organism swipes genes from another) is not unheard of, but H. dujardini appeared to have taken it to the next level, with a full 17 percent of its genes yoinked from other species.

Even for the moss piglet, this seemed kind of, well, extreme. When other scientists tried to replicate the original team’s results, they found only tiny amounts of horizontal gene transfer—about 1 or 2 percent. They said the original team’s samples had likely been contaminated. #tardigate ensued. The tardigrade remained a tiny, scrappy enigma.

Scientists kept at it. The latest research, published today, may have cracked some of the mystery. Researchers in Japan examined the genome of an especially hardy water bear named Ramazzottius varieornatus. In comparing the tardigrade’s genetic codes with those of worms and flies, they found way more genes related to surviving stressful conditions.

In the video below, by researcher Daiki D. Horikawa, you can see R. varieornatus encounter one stressful condition: a lack of water. The tardigrade dries out and shrinks up, seemingly dead. But it isn't. Given a drop of water, it plumps right up, stretches its little legs, and begins to move around.

Then the team took the study to the next level. They found a resilience-boosting protein they called Damage suppressor (Dsup) that appears to be completely unique to tardigrades. Then they inserted Dsup into human cells, which then became more resistant to damage from x-ray radiation.

There’s a lot here to get excited about, says Sujai Kumar, a genome informatician at the University of Edinburgh and a co-author on the #tardigate-triggering study. “The Japanese team's genome sequencing methodology is exemplary,” he tells mental_floss. The depth and breadth of their investigation have yielded a huge quantity of information that will continue to help other researchers unravel the tardigrade mystery.

Even better, Kumar says, were the Japanese researchers’ “really cool” studies in human cells. “Although not quite at the level of a superheroine origin story,” he says, “this is a great example of a gene from an extremotolerant species conferring a 'super power' to a human cell, and is an exciting finding.”

Know of something you think we should cover? Email us at tips@mentalfloss.com.

Original image
iStock
arrow
Animals
Owning a Dog May Add Years to Your Life, Study Shows
Original image
iStock

We've said that having a furry friend can reduce depression, promote better sleep, and encourage more exercise. Now, research has indicated that caring for a canine might actually extend your lifespan.

Previous studies have shown that dog owners have an innate sense of comfort and increased well-being. A new paper published in Scientific Reports and conducted by Uppsala University in Sweden looked at the health records of 3.4 million of the country's residents. These records typically include personal data like marital status and whether the individual owns a pet. Researchers got additional insight from a national dog registry providing ownership information. According to the study, those with a dog for a housemate were less likely to die from cardiovascular disease or any other cause during the study's 12-year duration.

The study included adults 40 to 80 years old, with a mean age of 57. Researchers found that dogs were a positive predictor in health, particularly among singles. Those who had one were 33 percent less likely to die early than those who did not. Authors didn't conclude the exact reason behind the correlation: It could be active people are more likely to own dogs, that dogs promoted more activity, or that psychological factors like lowered incidences of depression might bolster overall well-being. Either way, having a pooch in your life could mean living a longer one.

[h/t Bloomberg]

Original image
iStock
arrow
Big Questions
Why Don't We Eat Turkey Tails?
Original image
iStock

Turkey sandwiches. Turkey soup. Roasted turkey. This year, Americans will consume roughly 245 million birds, with 46 million being prepared and presented on Thanksgiving. What we don’t eat will be repurposed into leftovers.

But there’s one part of the turkey that virtually no family will have on their table: the tail.

Despite our country’s obsession with fattening, dissecting, and searing turkeys, we almost inevitably pass up the fat-infused rear portion. According to Michael Carolan, professor of sociology and associate dean for research at the College for Liberal Arts at Colorado State University, that may have something to do with how Americans have traditionally perceived turkeys. Consumption was rare prior to World War II. When the birds were readily available, there was no demand for the tail because it had never been offered in the first place.

"Tails did and do not fit into what has become our culinary fascination with white meat," Carolan tells Mental Floss. "But also from a marketing [and] processor standpoint, if the consumer was just going to throw the tail away, or will not miss it if it was omitted, [suppliers] saw an opportunity to make additional money."

Indeed, the fact that Americans didn't have a taste for tail didn't prevent the poultry industry from moving on. Tails were being routed to Pacific Island consumers in the 1950s. Rich in protein and fat—a turkey tail is really a gland that produces oil used for grooming—suppliers were able to make use of the unwanted portion. And once consumers were exposed to it, they couldn't get enough.

“By 2007,” according to Carolan, “the average Samoan was consuming more than 44 pounds of turkey tails every year.” Perhaps not coincidentally, Samoans also have alarmingly high obesity rates of 75 percent. In an effort to stave off contributing factors, importing tails to the Islands was banned from 2007 until 2013, when it was argued that doing so violated World Trade Organization rules.

With tradition going hand-in-hand with commerce, poultry suppliers don’t really have a reason to try and change domestic consumer appetites for the tails. In preparing his research into the missing treat, Carolan says he had to search high and low before finally finding a source of tails at a Whole Foods that was about to discard them. "[You] can't expect the food to be accepted if people can't even find the piece!"

Unless the meat industry mounts a major campaign to shift American tastes, Thanksgiving will once again be filled with turkeys missing one of their juicier body parts.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios