A Deer Tooth Amulet From Germany

In 19th century Germany, jewelry set with stag’s teeth was incredibly popular. Called Hirschgrandln, the teeth were more often than not hunting trophies brought home and set into silver or sometimes jewels (or paste resembling jewels). Like most jewelry, Hirschgrandln ran the gamut from fine and expensive to more humble souvenirs.

This pendant, held by the Pitt Rivers Museum in Oxford, is an example of a type of deer’s teeth jewelry that would have likely hung on a charivari, a chain that would have been worn around the waist or on a hat. In addition to small hunting trophies like this silver-mounted pendant, the charivari, a decorative addition to traditional Bavarian dress, could have included other amulets like coins, animal bones, paws, or even images of the saints. According to the Pitt Rivers, the amulets could have had many functions, but deer’s teeth jewelry was believed to bring good luck in future hunts.

This humble example of Hirschgrandln was possibly made in Schwäbisch Gmünd, a small town in the south of Germany highly regarded for its jewelry production, in particular its silverworks. After the town began producing jewelry and small silver objects in the 14th century, its silversmiths became well-known for their popular and devotional jewelry, and sold their creations across Europe. A small ring, held by Victoria & Albert in London, is another example of the deer’s tooth jewelry produced in Schwäbisch Gmünd. The ring is an elegant contrast to the Pitt Rivers’ deer tooth pendant, and the two show the range of settings that this type of jewelry could take—from the rough look of the hunter’s charivari to the elegance of a ring where the deer’s teeth serve as the central focal point, flanked by paste.

Though jewelry set with Hirschgrandln is associated primarily with Bavaria, it was also a popular hunting souvenir through the Alpine region, particularly in the 19th century. The fad was imported to Britain by Queen Victoria’s husband, Prince Albert. Albert, who was born in Germany, gifted Victoria numerous pieces of tooth-set jewelry. Some of these featured the milk teeth of the couple’s numerous children, including a gold and enamel brooch shaped into a thistle. That brooch [PDF], part of the Royal Collection, features the milk tooth of Princess Victoria in place of a flower. 

In 1860, Albert gave Victoria an elaborate necklace made from 44 stag's teeth and gold enamel. The teeth were all taken from stags hunted by Albert himself on the grounds of the royal estate Balmoral in Scotland. On each of the teeth, the date on which the animal was killed is inscribed. The clasp of the necklace features a reminder of who did the killing: “all shot by Albert.” In addition to the toothy necklace, Victoria also owned another brooch and earrings also made from deer teeth.

Victoria seemed to appreciate her husband’s gifts, as well as the German style of tooth jewelry, but the trend never quite caught on in England outside of the royal household. Charivari are still worn in traditional settings, particularly in Bavaria, but the almost mass production of deer’s teeth jewelry seems to have died out at the end of the 19th century.

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P.G. Wodehouse's Exile from England
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You don’t get more British than Jeeves and Wooster. The P.G. Wodehouse characters are practically synonymous with elevenses and Pimm’s. But in 1947, their creator left England for the U.S. and never looked back.

Pelham Grenville Wodehouse, better known as P.G., was living in northern France and working on his latest Jeeves and Wooster novel, Joy in the Morning, when the Nazis came knocking. They occupied his estate for a period of time before shipping him off to an internment camp in Germany, which he later said he found pretty pleasant:

“Everybody seems to think a German internment camp must be a sort of torture chamber. It was really perfectly normal and ordinary. The camp had an extraordinarily nice commander, and we did all sorts of things, you know. We played cricket, that sort of thing. Of course, I was writing all the time.”

Wodehouse was there for 11 months before being suddenly released to a hotel in Berlin where a man from the German foreign office named Werner Plack was waiting to meet him. Wodehouse was somewhat acquainted with Plack from a stint in Hollywood, so finding him waiting didn't seem out of the ordinary. Plack advised Wodehouse to use his time in the internment camp to his advantage, and suggested writing a radio series about his experiences to be broadcast in America.

As Plack probably suspected, Wodehouse’s natural writing style meant that his broadcasts were light-hearted affairs about playing cricket and writing novels, This didn’t sit too well with the British, who believed Wodehouse was trying to downplay the horrors of the war. The writer was shocked when MI5 subjected him to questioning about the “propaganda” he wrote for the Germans. "I thought that people, hearing the talks, would admire me for having kept cheerful under difficult conditions," he told them in 1944. "I would like to conclude by saying that I never had any intention of assisting the enemy and that I have suffered a great deal of mental pain as the result of my action."

Wodehouse's contemporary George Orwell came to his aid, penning a 1945 an essay called “In Defense of P.G. Wodehouse." Sadly, it didn’t do much to sway public opinion. Though MI5 ultimately decided not to prosecute, it seemed that British citizens had already made up their minds, with some bookstores and libraries even removing all Wodehouse material from their shelves. Seeing the writing on the wall, the author and his wife packed up all of their belongings and moved to New York in 1947. They never went back to England.

But that’s not to say Wodehouse didn’t want to. In 1973, at the age of 91, he expressed interest in returning. “I’d certainly like to, but at my age it’s awfully difficult to get a move on. But I’d like to go back for a visit in the spring. They all seem to want me to go back. The trouble is that I’ve never flown. I suppose that would solve everything."

Unfortunately, he died of a heart attack before he could make the trip. But the author bore no ill will toward his native country. When The Paris Review interviewed Wodehouse in 1973, they asked if he resented the way he was treated by the English. “Oh, no, no, no. Nothing of that sort. The whole thing seems to have blown over now,” he said.  He was right—the Queen bestowed Wodehouse with a knighthood two months before his death, showing that all was forgiven.

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Mata Hari: Famous Spy or Creative Storyteller?
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Nearly everyone has heard of Mata Hari, one of the most cunning and seductive spies of all-time. Except that statement isn't entirely true. Cunning and seductive, yes. Spy? Probably not. 

Margaretha Geertruida Zelle was the eldest daughter of a hat store owner who was quite wealthy thanks to some savvy oil investments.  When her mother died, her father remarried and shuffled his children off to various relatives. To escape, an 18-year-old Margaretha answered an ad in the paper that might have read something like this: "Dutch Colonial Army Captain Seeks Wife. Compatibility not important. Must not mind blatant infidelity or occasional beatings."

She had two children with Captain Rudolf MacLeod, but they did nothing to improve the marriage. He brazenly kept a mistress and a concubine; she moved in with another officer. Again, probably looking to escape her miserable existence, Margaretha spent her time in Java (where the family had relocated for Captain MacLeod's job) becoming part of the culture, learning all about the dance and even earning a dance name bestowed upon her by the locals—"Mata Hari," which meant "eye of the day" or "sun."

Her son died after being poisoned by an angry servant (so the MacLeods believed).

Margaretha divorced her husband, lost custody of her daughter and moved to Paris to start a new life for herself in 1903. Calling upon the dance skills she had learned in Java, the newly restyled Mata Hari became a performer, starting with the circus and eventually working her way up to exotic dancer. 

To make herself seem more mysterious and interesting, Mata Hari told people her mother was a Javanese princess who taught her everything she knew about the sacred religious dances she performed. The dances were almost entirely in the nude.

Thanks to her mostly-nude dancing and tantalizing background story, she was a hot commodity all over Europe. During WWI, this caught the attention of British Intelligence, who brought her in and demanded to know why she was constantly traipsing across the continent. Under interrogation, she apparently told them she was a spy for France—that she used her job as an exotic dancer to coerce German officers to give her information, which she then supplied back to French spymaster Georges Ladoux. No one could verify these claims and Mata Hari was released.

Not too long afterward, French intelligence intercepted messages that mentioned H-21, a spy who was performing remarkably well. Something in the messages reminded the French officers of Mata Hari's tale and they arrested her at her hotel in Paris on February 13, 1917, under suspicion of being a double agent.

Mata Hari repeatedly denied all involvement in any spying for either side. Her captors didn't believe her story, and perhaps wanting to make an example of her, sentenced her to death by firing squad. She was shot to death 100 years ago today, on October 15, 1917.

In 1985, one of her biographers convinced the French government to open their files on Mata Hari. He says the files contained not one shred of evidence that she was spying for anyone, let alone the enemy. Whether the story she originally told British intelligence was made up by them or by her to further her sophisticated and exotic background is anyone's guess. 

Or maybe she really was the ultimate spy and simply left no evidence in her wake.


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